Boron Stress and Plant Carbon and Nitrogen Relations
Boron (B) is an essential plant micronutrient, but our understanding of the effects of B stress (deficiency and toxicity) remains incomplete. Here we summarize and analyze the current literature related to B stress and carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) relations. We conclude that photosynthesis is an early sensitive target for B stress, with many aspects of both light and CO2-fixation reactions negatively affected, and this decreases C skeletons and energy for other functions. B stress may also decrease normal aerobic respiration and increase fermentation and the pentose phosphate pathway. Levels of nonstructural carbohydrates are altered by B stress, likely via shifts in fluxes among metabolic pathways. B stress also impacts many aspects of N relations, including changing levels of N uptake proteins, decreasing N uptake rates, and affecting levels or activities of N assimilation enzymes, which then change amino-acid composition and %N. B stress also may impact the long-distance transport of C and N between shoots and roots. The negative effects of B stress on C and N relations are likely interrelated. Because effects of B deficiency and toxicity on C and N relations are often similar (especially for C), multifaceted, and associated with both soluble and membrane components, it is likely that B-stress effects are caused by imbalances in the interaction of B with multiple molecules (especially those with cis-hydroxyl groups).
KeywordsNitrate Reductase Glutamine Synthetase Nitrate Reductase Activity Glutamine Synthetase Activity Rubisco Activase
The authors thank the US Department of Agriculture for financial support.
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