Boron Stress and Plant Carbon and Nitrogen Relations

  • Sasmita Mishra
  • Scott HeckathornEmail author
Part of the Progress in Botany book series (BOTANY, volume 77)


Boron (B) is an essential plant micronutrient, but our understanding of the effects of B stress (deficiency and toxicity) remains incomplete. Here we summarize and analyze the current literature related to B stress and carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) relations. We conclude that photosynthesis is an early sensitive target for B stress, with many aspects of both light and CO2-fixation reactions negatively affected, and this decreases C skeletons and energy for other functions. B stress may also decrease normal aerobic respiration and increase fermentation and the pentose phosphate pathway. Levels of nonstructural carbohydrates are altered by B stress, likely via shifts in fluxes among metabolic pathways. B stress also impacts many aspects of N relations, including changing levels of N uptake proteins, decreasing N uptake rates, and affecting levels or activities of N assimilation enzymes, which then change amino-acid composition and %N. B stress also may impact the long-distance transport of C and N between shoots and roots. The negative effects of B stress on C and N relations are likely interrelated. Because effects of B deficiency and toxicity on C and N relations are often similar (especially for C), multifaceted, and associated with both soluble and membrane components, it is likely that B-stress effects are caused by imbalances in the interaction of B with multiple molecules (especially those with cis-hydroxyl groups).


Nitrate Reductase Glutamine Synthetase Nitrate Reductase Activity Glutamine Synthetase Activity Rubisco Activase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors thank the US Department of Agriculture for financial support.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental SciencesUniversity of ToledoToledoUSA

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