Skip to main content

When Should Environmental Awareness Be a Policy Goal?

Assessing the Conditions Under Which Raising Awareness Increases Environmental Sustainability and Societal Resilience

Part of the Understanding Complex Systems book series (UCS)

Abstract

Since the 1970s, governments have increasingly sought to achieve greater environmental awareness among their citizens using “soft” policy instruments like education and pro-social campaigns. The assumption has been that greater awareness among populations would result in changes in individuals’ behaviors, and reduce aggregate effects of environmental degradation in ways that could not easily be addressed through “hard” regulatory or economic instruments. Decades later, governments still invest in environmental campaigns and education, but the evidence for their effects on material improvements to the environment and societal benefits is not always clear. This chapter addresses why this is the case and categorizes the conditions under which governments may be most likely to find environmental awareness to be a rational target in pursuit of improvements in environmental conditions, and society may be most able to meet these challenges.

Keywords

  • Risk Perception
  • Public Participation
  • Environmental Awareness
  • Environmental Attitude
  • Civic Participation

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-25658-0_15
  • Chapter length: 32 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   99.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-319-25658-0
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   129.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   129.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 15.1
Fig. 15.2
Fig. 15.3
Fig. 15.4
Fig. 15.5
Fig. 15.6
Fig. 15.7

Notes

  1. 1.

    Subsequent United Nations conventions on climate change and biodiversity further codified this commitment to educational and public awareness programs within international environmental governance (Convention on Biodiversity 1992; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 1992).

  2. 2.

    Changes in the amount of time that children spend with electronic media, as opposed to playing outdoors, has sparked particular concern (Louv 2008). Pergams and Zaradic caution that the United States may be experiencing a decline in appreciation of nature, or biophilia, as a direct result of “videophilia” (2006).

  3. 3.

    A Pearson’s correlation (r) is a numerical measure of the strength of a relationship between two variables with a range of 0 (no association) to 1 (an extremely strong). Cohen’s rule of thumb is that a correlation of 0.10 as a small effect, 0.30 as a medium effect, and 0.50 as a large effect (Cohen 1992).

References

  • Abrahamse, W., Steg, L., Vlek, C., Rothengatter, T.: A review of intervention studies aimed at household energy conservation. J. Environ. Psychol. 25, 273–291 (2005). doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2005.08.002

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Advertising Standards Authority.: ASA Ruling on Department of Energy and Climate Change, complaint ref: 106458 [WWW Document]. ASA. http://www.asa.org.uk/Rulings/Adjudications/2010/3/Department-of-Energy-and-Climate-Change/TF_ADJ_48225.aspx#.VGf3TLHzPX0 (2010, March 17). Accessed 16 Nov 2014

  • Ahn, S.J. (Grace), Bailenson, J.N., Park, D.: Short- and long-term effects of embodied experiences in immersive virtual environments on environmental locus of control and behavior. Comput. Hum. Behav. 39, 235–245 (2014). doi:10.1016/j.chb.2014.07.025

  • Ajzen.: Attitudes, Personality and Behaviour. McGraw-Hill International, New York (2005)

    Google Scholar 

  • Ajzen, I.: The theory of planned behavior. Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process. 50, 179–211 (1991). doi:10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ajzen, I., Fishbein, M.: Attitude-behavior relations: a theoretical analysis and review of empirical research. Psychol. Bull. 84, 888–918 (1977). doi:10.1037/0033-2909.84.5.888

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ajzen, I., Joyce, N., Sheikh, S., Cote, N.G.: Knowledge and the prediction of behavior: the role of information accuracy in the theory of planned behavior. Basic Appl. Soc. Psychol. 33, 101–117 (2011). doi:10.1080/01973533.2011.568834

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ajzen, I., Madden, T.J.: Prediction of goal-directed behavior: attitudes, intentions, and perceived behavioral control. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 22, 453–474 (1986). doi:10.1016/0022-1031(86)90045-4

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Akerlof, K., Kennedy, C.: Nudging toward a healthy environment: How behavioral change research can inform conservation. White paper for the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. George Mason University, Fairfax, VA (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  • Akerlof, K.L., Batten, B., Rajasekar, M., Cutshall, C.: Community Adaptation to Sea-Level Rise and Inundation: Final Project Report. George Mason University, Fairfax, VA (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  • Akerlof, K., Maibach, E.W.: “Sermons” as a climate change policy tool: do they work? Evidence from the international community. Glob. Stud. Rev. 4, 4–6 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  • Andrews, R.N.L.: Managing the Environment, Managing Ourselves: A History of American Environmental Policy, 2nd edn. Yale University Press, New Haven (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  • Armitage, C.J., Conner, M.: Efficacy of the theory of planned behaviour: a meta-analytic review. Br. J. Soc. Psychol. 40, 471–499 (2001). doi:10.1348/014466601164939

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Arnstein, S.R.: A ladder of citizen participation. J. Am. Inst. Plann. 35, 216–224 (1969). doi:10.1080/01944366908977225

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Atkin, C.K., Rice, R.E.: Advances in public communication campaigns. In: Valdivia, A.N. (ed.) The International Encyclopedia of Media Studies. Blackwell, Oxford (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  • Bamberg, S., Möser, G.: Twenty years after Hines, Hungerford, and Tomera: a new meta-analysis of psycho-social determinants of pro-environmental behaviour. J. Environ. Psychol. 27, 14–25 (2007)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Barabas, J.: How deliberation affects policy opinions. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 98(04), 687–701 (2004)

    Google Scholar 

  • Beierle, T.C., Cayford, J.: Democracy in Practice: Public Participation in Environmental Decisions. Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (2002)

    Google Scholar 

  • Bem, D.J.: Beliefs, Attitudes, and Human Affairs. Brooks/Cole, Oxford, England (1970)

    Google Scholar 

  • Bemelmans-Videc, M.-L.: Introduction: policy instrument choice and evaluation. In: Bemelmans-Videc, M.-L., Rist, R.C., Vedung, E.O. (eds.) Carrots, Sticks, and Sermons: Policy Instruments and Their Evaluation. Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick/London (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  • Birkland, T.A.: Lessons of Disaster: Policy Change After Catastrophic Events. Georgetown University Press, Washington DC (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  • Birkland, T.A.: After Disaster: Agenda Setting, Public Policy, and Focusing Events. Georgetown University Press, Washington DC (1997)

    Google Scholar 

  • Breckler, S.J.: Empirical validation of affect, behavior, and cognition as distinct components of attitude. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 47, 1191–1205 (1984). doi:10.1037/0022-3514.47.6.1191

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Breckler, S.J., Wiggins, E.C.: On defining attitude and attitude theory. In: Pratkanis, A.R., Breckler, S.J., Greenwald, A.G. (eds.) Attitude, Structure and Function, pp. 42–61. Lawrence Erlbaum, New Jersey (1989)

    Google Scholar 

  • Brimblecombe, P.: The Big Smoke: A History of Air Pollution in London Since Medieval Times. Routledge, London (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  • Brulle, R.J.: From environmental campaigns to advancing the public dialog: environmental communication for civic engagement. Environ. Commun. J. Nat. Cult. 4, 82–98 (2010). doi:10.1080/17524030903522397

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Campbell, D.F.: People Who Litter. ENCAMS, Wigan, UK (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  • Carpini, M.X.D., Cook, F.L., Jacobs, L.R.: Public deliberation, discursive participation, and citizen engagement: a review of the empirical literature. Annu. Rev. Polit. Sci. 7, 315–344 (2004). doi:10.1146/annurev.polisci.7.121003.091630

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Carvalho, L., Meier, S., Wang, S.W.: Poverty and economic decision making: evidence from changes in financial resources at payday. Center for economic and social research working paper (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  • Chawla, L.: Significant life experiences revisited: a review of research on sources of environmental sensitivity. J. Environ. Educ. 29, 11–21 (1998). doi:10.1080/00958969809599114

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Clayton, S., Myers, G.: Conservation Psychology: Understanding and Promoting Human Care for Nature. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  • “Climate Victory” campaign turns back the clock on clean energy battles [WWW Document]. Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/05/27/climate-victory-campaign-posters_n_5399072.html (2014). Accessed 22 Nov 2014

  • Cohen, J.: A power primer. Psychol. Bull. 112, 155–159 (1992). doi:10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.155

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Convention on Biological Diversity, opened for signature Jun 5, 1992, 1760 U.N.T.S. 79, 31 I.L.M. 818. https://www.cbd.int/convention/text/default.shtml

  • Corner, A., Randall, A.: Selling climate change? The limitations of social marketing as a strategy for climate change public engagement. Glob. Environ. Chang. 21, 1005–1014 (2011)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dahlbom, B., Greer, H., Egmond, C., Jonkers, R.: Changing Energy Behaviour. Guidelines for Behavioural Change Programmes. The BEHAVE Project, Intelligent Energy Europe Programme. http://www.idae.es/uploads/documentos/documentos_10457_BEHAVE_changing_energy_behaviour_09_c5724555.pdf (2009)

  • De Boer, J., Schösler, H., Boersema, J.J.: Climate change and meat eating: an inconvenient couple? J. Environ. Psychol. 33, 1–8 (2013). doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2012.09.001

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • De Groot, J.I.M., Steg, L.: Morality and prosocial behavior: the role of awareness, responsibility, and norms in the norm activation model. J. Soc. Psychol. 149, 425–449 (2009). doi:10.3200/SOCP.149.4.425-449

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Deutscher, I.: Words and deeds: social science and social policy. Soc. Probl. 13, 235 (1965)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Diamond, J.M.: Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. Viking, New York (2005)

    Google Scholar 

  • Dietz, T., Gardner, G.T., Gilligan, J., Stern, P.C., Vandenbergh, M.P.: Household actions can provide a behavioral wedge to rapidly reduce US carbon emissions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106, 18452–18456 (2009)

    ADS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dolan, P., Hallsworth, M., Halpern, D., King, D., Metcalfe, R., Vlaev, I.: Influencing behaviour: the mindspace way. J. Econ. Psychol. 33, 264–277 (2012)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dolan, P., Hallsworth, M., Halpern, D., King, D., Vlaev, I.: MINDSPACE: Influencing Behaviour Through Public Policy. Institute for Government, London (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  • Dunlap, R.E.: The new environmental paradigm scale: from marginality to worldwide use. J. Environ. Educ. 40, 3–18 (2008). doi:10.3200/JOEE.40.1.3-18

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Eagly, A.H., Chaiken, S.: The Psychology of Attitudes. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers, Orlando, FL, US (1993)

    Google Scholar 

  • Epstein, S.: Integration of the cognitive and the psychodynamic unconscious. Am. Psychol. 49, 709–724 (1994)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Festinger, L.: A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA (1962)

    Google Scholar 

  • Fishkin, J.S.: When the people speak: Deliberative democracy and public consultation. Oxford University Press, New York/Oxford (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  • Fishkin, J.S., Luskin, R.C.: Experimenting with a democratic ideal: deliberative polling and public opinion. Acta Politica 40, 284–298 (2005)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Frank, D.J., Hironaka, A., Schofer, E.: The nation-state and the natural environment over the twentieth century. Am. Sociol. Rev. 65, 96–116 (2000). doi:10.2307/2657291

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Franzen, A.: Environmental attitudes in international comparison: an analysis of the ISSP surveys 1993 and 2000. Soc. Sci. Q. 84, 297–308 (2003)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Funtowicz, S.O., Ravetz, J.R.: Science for the post-normal age. Futures 25, 739–755 (1993). doi:10.1016/0016-3287(93)90022-L

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gardner, G.T., Stern, P.C.: Environmental Problems and Human Behavior. Allyn & Bacon, Boston (1996)

    Google Scholar 

  • Gastil, J.: Political Communication and Deliberation. Sage Publications, Los Angeles (2008)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Geller, H., Harrington, P., Rosenfeld, A.H., Tanishima, S., Unander, F.: Polices for increasing energy efficiency: Thirty years of experience in OECD countries. Energy Policy, Hong Kong Editorial Board meeting presentations Hong Kong Editorial Board meeting presentations, vol. 34, pp. 556–573 (2006). doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2005.11.010

  • Gifford, R. (ed.): Environmental Psychology: Principles and Practice. Optimal Books, Colville, WA (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  • Gifford, R., Kormos, C., McIntyre, A.: Behavioral dimensions of climate change: drivers, responses, barriers, and interventions. Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Clim. Chang. 2, 801–827 (2011). doi:10.1002/wcc.143

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gifford, R., Sussman, R.: Environmental attitudes. In: Clayton, S.D. (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Environmental and Conservation Psychology, p. 65. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  • Gillespie, E.: Climate change adverts help take debate among public back several years [WWW Document]. The Guardian (Environment Blog). http://www.theguardian.com/environment/blog/2010/mar/17/climate-change-advertising-standards-authority (2010). Accessed 16 Nov 2014

  • Glasman, L.R., Albarracín, D.: Forming attitudes that predict future behavior: a meta-analysis of the attitude-behavior relation. Psychol. Bull. 132, 778–822 (2006). doi:10.1037/0033-2909.132.5.778

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Global Biodiversity Outlook 3. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montréal (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  • Goebbert, K., Jenkins-Smith, H.C., Klockow, K., Nowlin, M.C., Silva, C.L.: Weather, climate, and worldviews: the sources and consequences of public perceptions of changes in local weather patterns. Weather Clim. Soc. 4, 132–144 (2012). doi:10.1175/WCAS-D-11-00044.1

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Grob, A.: A structural model of environmental attitudes and behaviour. J. Environ. Psychol. Green Psychol 15, 209–220 (1995). doi:10.1016/0272-4944(95)90004-7

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gynther, L., Mikkonen, I., Smits, A.: Evaluation of European energy behavioural change programmes. Energy Effic. 5, 67–82 (2012)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hardeman, W., Johnston, M., Johnston, D.W., Bonetti, D., Wareham, N.J., Kinmonth, A.L.: Application of the theory of planned behaviour in behaviour change interventions: a systematic review. Psychol. Health 17, 123 (2002)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hardin, G.: The tragedy of the commons. Science 162, 1243–1248 (1968). doi:10.1126/science.162.3859.1243

    ADS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hards, S., Wentworth, J.: Postnote: Climate Change: Engagement and Behavior (No. 347). Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology, London (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  • Heberlein, T.A.: Navigating Environmental Attitudes. Oxford University Press, New York (2012)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hines, J.M., Hungerford, H.R., Tomera, A.N.: Analysis and synthesis of research on responsible environmental behavior: a meta-analysis. J. Environ. Educ. 18, 1–8 (1987). doi:10.1080/00958964.1987.9943482

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Huffman, K.T., Grossnickle, W.F., Cope, J.G., Huffman, K.P.: Litter reduction a review and integration of the literature. Environ. Behav. 27, 153–183 (1995). doi:10.1177/0013916595272003

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hungerford, H.R., Volk, T.L.: Changing learner behavior through environmental education. J. Environ. Educ. 21, 8–21 (1990)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • IPCC: Climate change 2014 synthesis report. Intergovernmental panel on climate change, Geneva, Switzerland (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  • Irvin, R.A., Stansbury, J.: Citizen participation in decision making: is it worth the effort? Public Adm. Rev. 64, 55–65 (2004). doi:10.1111/j.1540-6210.2004.00346.x

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jackson, T.: Motivating Sustainable Consumption: A Review of Evidence on Consumer Behaviour and Behavioural Change. Sustainable Development Research Network, London (2005)

    Google Scholar 

  • Jakovcevic, A., Steg, L., Mazzeo, N., Caballero, R., Franco, P., Putrino, N., Favara, J.: Charges for plastic bags: motivational and behavioral effects. J. Environ. Psychol. 40, 372–380 (2014). doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2014.09.004

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jasanoff, S.: Learning from Disaster: Risk Management After Bhopal. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia (1994)

    Google Scholar 

  • Kahan, D.: Cultural cognition as a conception of the cultural theory of risk. In: Hillerbrand, R., Sandin, P., Roeser, S., Peterson, M. (eds.) Handbook of Risk Theory: Epistemology, Decision Theory, Ethics and Social Implications of Risk, pp. 725–760. Springer, London (2012)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kahan, D.M., Peters, E., Wittlin, M., Slovic, P., Ouellette, L.L., Braman, D., Mandel, G.: The polarizing impact of science literacy and numeracy on perceived climate change risks. Nat. Clim. Chang. 2, 732–735 (2012). doi:10.1038/nclimate1547

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kahneman, D.: Maps of bounded rationality: psychology for behavioral economics. Am. Econ. Rev. 93, 1449–1475 (2003)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kollmuss, A., Agyeman, J.: Mind the gap: why do people act environmentally and what are the barriers to pro-environmental behavior? Environ. Educ. Res. 8, 239–260 (2002). doi:10.1080/13504620220145401

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kormos, C., Gifford, R.: The validity of self-report measures of proenvironmental behavior: a meta-analytic review. J. Environ. Psychol. 40, 359–371 (2014). doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2014.09.003

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kraus, S.J.: Attitudes and the prediction of behavior: a meta-analysis of the empirical literature. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 21, 58–75 (1995). doi:10.1177/0146167295211007

    ADS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Leiserowitz, A., Smith, N.: Knowledge of Climate Change Across Global Warming’s six Americas, Yale University. Yale Project on Climate Change Communication, New Haven, CT (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  • Leopold, A.: Game Management. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison (1987)

    Google Scholar 

  • Louv, R.: Last Child in the Woods: Saving Our Children from Nature-Deficit Disorder. Algonquin Books, Chapel Hill, NC (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  • Maibach, E.W., Abroms, L., Marosits, M.: Communication and marketing as tools to cultivate the public’s health: a proposed “people and places” framework. BMC Public Health 7, 88 (2007). doi:10.1186/1471-2458-7-88

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mani, A., Mullainathan, S., Shafir, E., Zhao, J.: Poverty impedes cognitive function. Science 341, 976–980 (2013). doi:10.1126/science.1238041

    ADS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Marquart-Pyatt, S.T., McCright, A.M., Dietz, T., Dunlap, R.E.: Politics eclipses climate extremes for climate change perceptions. Glob. Environ. Chang. 29, 246–257 (2014). doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.10.004

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Marsden, W.E.: Environmental education: historical roots, comparative perspectives, and current issues in Britain and the United States. J. Curric. Superv. 13, 6–29 (1997)

    Google Scholar 

  • McKenzie-Mohr, D., Lee, N.R., Schultz, P.W., Kotler, P.: Social Marketing to Protect the Environment: What Works. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  • McKenzie-Mohr, D., Smith, W.: Fostering sustainable behavior: an introduction to community-based social marketing, 1st edn. New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island, British Columbia (1999)

    Google Scholar 

  • Michael, M.: Ignoring science: discourses of ignorance in the public understanding of science. In: Irwin, A., Wynne, B. (eds.) Misunderstanding Science? The Public Reconstruction of Science and Technology, pp. 107--125. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1996)

    Google Scholar 

  • Monroe, M.C.: Two avenues for encouraging conservation behaviors. Hum. Ecol. Rev. 10, 113–125 (2003)

    Google Scholar 

  • Montgomery, D.R.: Dirt: The Erosion of Civilizations. University of California Press, Berkeley (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  • Montgomery, D.R.: Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 104, 13268–13272 (2007). doi:10.1073/pnas.0611508104

    ADS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Myers, T.A., Maibach, E.W., Roser-Renouf, C., Akerlof, K., Leiserowitz, A.A.: The relationship between personal experience and belief in the reality of global warming. Nat. Clim. Chang. 3, 343–347 (2013). doi:10.1038/nclimate1754

    ADS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • National Research Council: Public Participation in Environmental Assessment and Decision Making. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  • Nisbet, M.: Framing science: a new paradigm in public engagement. In: Kahlor, L., Stout, P. (eds.) Understanding and Communicating Science: New Agendas in Communication. Routledge, London (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  • Nohrstedt, D.: The politics of crisis policymaking: Chernobyl and Swedish nuclear energy policy. Policy Stud. J. 36, 257–278 (2008)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nordlund, A.M., Garvill, J.: Effects of values, problem awareness, and personal norm on willingness to reduce personal car use. J. Environ. Psychol. 23, 339–347 (2003)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ofcom.: Ofcome broadcast bulletin (No. 167). Ofcom, London (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  • Osmańczyk, E.J.: Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreements: A to F. Taylor & Francis, London (2003)

    Google Scholar 

  • Ostrom, E., Burger, J., Field, C.B., Norgaard, R.B., Policansky, D.: Revisiting the commons: local lessons, global challenges. Science 284, 278–282 (1999). doi:10.1126/science.284.5412.278

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pergams, O.R.W., Zaradic, P.A.: Evidence for a fundamental and pervasive shift away from nature-based recreation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 105, 2295–2300 (2008). doi:10.1073/pnas.0709893105

    ADS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pergams, O.R.W., Zaradic, P.A.: Is love of nature in the US becoming love of electronic media? 16-year downtrend in national park visits explained by watching movies, playing video games, internet use, and oil prices. J. Environ. Manage. 80, 387–393 (2006). doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2006.02.001

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Redman, C.L.: Human Impact on Ancient Environments. University of Arizona Press, Tucson (1999)

    Google Scholar 

  • Renn, O.: Risk Governance: Coping with Uncertainty in a Complex World, Earthscan Risk in Society Series. Earthscan, London, Sterling, VA (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  • Restuccia, A.: Energy department pushes efficient light bulbs in new ad campaign [WWW Document]. The Hill. http://thehill.com/policy/energy-environment/172281-energy-department-touts-efficient-light-bulbs-in-new-ad-campaign (2011, July 19). Accessed 22 Nov 2014

  • Rome, A.: The Genius of Earth Day: How a 1970 Teach-in Unexpectedly Made the First Green Generation. Hill and Wang, New York (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  • Ruddell, D., Harlan, S., Grossman-Clarke, S., Chowell, G.: Scales of perception: public awareness of regional and neighborhood climates. Clim. Change 111, 581–607 (2012). doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0165-y

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Saghai, Y.: Salvaging the concept of nudge. J. Med. Ethics 39, 487–493 (2013). doi:10.1136/medethics-2012-100727

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Schultz, P.W., Shriver, C., Tabanico, J.J., Khazian, A.M.: Implicit connections with nature. J. Environ. Psychol. 24, 31–42 (2004). doi:10.1016/S0272-4944(03)00022-7

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Schwartz, S.H.: Are there universal aspects in the structure and contents of human values? J. Soc. Issues 50, 19–45 (1994)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Science and Technology Select Committee.: Behavior change, 2nd report of session 2010 – 12. House of Lords, London (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  • Simon, H.: Invariants of human behavior. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 41, 1–19 (1990)

    Google Scholar 

  • Skocpol, T.: Naming the problem: what it will take to counter extremism and engage Americans in the fight against global warming. Prepared for the symposium on the politics of America’s fight against global warming, Harvard University, Cambridge (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  • Sloman, S.A.: The empirical case for two systems of reasoning. Psychol. Bull. 119, 3–22 (1996). doi:10.1037/0033-2909.119.1.3

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Stanovich, K.E., West, R.F.: Individual differences in reasoning: implications for the rationality debate? Behav. Brain Sci. 23, 645–665 (2000)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Steg, L., Dreijerink, L., Abrahamse, W.: Factors influencing the acceptability of energy policies: a test of VBN theory. J. Environ. Psychol. 25, 415–425 (2005). doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2005.08.003

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Stern, P.C.: Toward a coherent theory of environmentally significant behavior. J. Soc. Issues 56, 407–424 (2000). doi:10.1111/0022-4537.00175

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sunstein, C.R.: The Ethics of Nudging (SSRN Scholarly Paper No. ID 2526341). Science Research Network, Rochester, NY (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  • Sweney, M.: More than 200 complaints at government’s climate change TV ad [WWW Document]. The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/media/2009/oct/16/complaints-government-climate-change-ad (2009, Oct 16). Accessed 16 Nov 2014

  • Syme, G.J., Nancarrow, B.E., Seligman, C.: The evaluation of information campaigns to promote voluntary household water conservation. Eval. Rev. 24, 539–578 (2000). doi:10.1177/0193841X0002400601

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tanner, T.: Significant life experiences: a new research area in environmental education. J. Environ. Educ. 11, 20–24 (1980). doi:10.1080/00958964.1980.9941386

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Thaler, R.H., Sunstein, C.R.: Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  • Thaler, R.H., Sunstein, C.R.: Libertarian paternalism. Am. Econ. Rev. 93, 175–179 (2003)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Thaler, R., Sunstein, C., Balz, J.: Choice Architecture (SSRN Scholarly Paper No. ID 1583509). Social Science Research Network, Rochester, NY (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  • The history of Earth Day. [WWW Document]. Earth Day Network. http://www.earthday.org/about/the-history-of-earth-day/ (n.d.). Accessed 9 March 2016

  • Todd, P.M., Gigerenzer, G. (eds.): Ecological Rationality: Intelligence in the World, Evolution and Cognition. Oxford University Press, New York (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  • Tyler, T.: The psychology of cooperation: implications for public policy. In: Shafir, E. (ed.) The Behavioral Foundations of Public Policy, pp. 77–90. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  • Tyler, T., Rankin, L.: The mystique of instrumentalism. In: Hanson, J. (ed.) Ideology, Psychology, and Law, pp. 537–573. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2012)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • UNESCO, UNEP.: Intergovernmental conference on environmental education. USSR, Tblisi, Georgia (1978)

    Google Scholar 

  • Ungar, S.: Knowledge, ignorance and the popular culture: climate change versus the ozone hole. Public Underst. Sci. 9, 297–312 (2000). doi:10.1088/0963-6625/9/3/306

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, May 9, 1992, S. Treaty Doc No. 102-38, 1771 U.N.T.S. 107.

    Google Scholar 

  • Uzunboylu, H., Cavus, N., Ercag, E.: Using mobile learning to increase environmental awareness. Comput. Educ. 52, 381–389 (2009). doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2008.09.008

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Vandenbergh, M.P., Barkenbus, J., Gilligan, J.M.: Individual carbon emissions: the low-hanging fruit. UCLA Law Rev. 55, 08–36 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  • Van Liere, K.D., Dunlap, R.E.: Environmental concern: does it make a difference how it’s measured? Environ. Behav. 13, 651–676 (1981). doi:10.1177/0013916581136001

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Vedung, E.O.: Policy instruments: typologies and theories. In: Bemelmans-Videc, M.-L., Rist, R.C., Vedung, E.O. (eds.) Carrots, Sticks, and Sermons: Policy Instruments and Their Evaluation. Transaction Publishers, London (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  • Visser, P., Holbrook, A.L.: Metacognitive determinants of attitude strength. In: Briñol, P., DeMarree, K.G. (eds.) Social Metacognition, pp. 21–41. Psychology Press, New York, London (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  • Vohs, K.D., Baumeister, R.F., Schmeichel, B.J., Twenge, J.M., Nelson, N.M., Tice, D.M.: Making choices impairs subsequent self-control: a limited-resource account of decision making, self-regulation, and active initiative. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 94, 883–898 (2008). doi:10.1037/0022-3514.94.5.883

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wals, A.E.J.: Learning our way out of unsustainability: the role of environmental education. In: Clayton, S.D. (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Environmental and Conservation Psychology. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  • Wals, A.E.J.: Learning our way to sustainability. J. Educ. Sustain. Dev. 5, 177–186 (2011). doi:10.1177/097340821100500208

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wansink, B., Sobal, J.: Mindless eating: the 200 daily food decisions we overlook. Environ. Behav. 39, 106–123 (2007). doi:10.1177/0013916506295573

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wicker, A.W.: Attitudes versus actions: the relationship of verbal and overt behavioral responses to attitude objects. J. Soc. Issues 25, 41–78 (1969). doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1969.tb00619.x

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wu, C., Shaffer, D.R.: Susceptibility to persuasive appeals as a function of source credibility and prior experience with the attitude object. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 52, 677–688 (1987). doi:10.1037/0022-3514.52.4.677

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wynne, B.: Knowledges in context. Sci. Technol. Hum. Values 16, 111–121 (1991)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ziman, J.: Public understanding of science. Sci. Technol. Hum. Values 16, 99–105 (1991). doi:10.1177/016224399101600106

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

Thank you to Robert Gifford and Danna Walker for reviewing this chapter.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Karen Akerlof .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2017 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Akerlof, K. (2017). When Should Environmental Awareness Be a Policy Goal?. In: , et al. Participatory Sensing, Opinions and Collective Awareness. Understanding Complex Systems. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-25658-0_15

Download citation