Avalanche Defence Schemes
Snow avalanches are hazardous. They flow rapidly down mountain gulleys, destroying homes, built infrastructure and leading to fatalities. One way of mitigating against the hazards they pose is to build large structures in their flow tracks to deflect, retard and arrest the motion. This article describes some of the research that underpins modern guidelines of how to design these structures. It reports mathematical models that capture the transformation in the state of the flowing avalanche as it interacts with large-scale obstacles and the predictions that can be used to optimise engineering designs.
KeywordsFroude Number Deflector Angle Dense Core Flow Depth Shallow Water Equation
AJH and TJ acknowledge funding support from University of Bristol, Icelandic Avalanche Fund and SATSIE research project (EU Contract EVG1-CT2002-00059).
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