Advertisement

French Urbanism in North America

  • Ambe J. Njoh
Chapter

Abstract

France was among the first European powers to send explorers to the Americas in the 1500s. What began as exploratory missions designed to seek an optimal route to Asia, soon turned into a mission to colonize and create permanent settlements in the region. This chapter retraces the history of French presence in North America, particularly the region that came to be known as New France. In doing so, it shows how colonialism served as a conduit for transmitting French urbanism to this vast region. It also suggests that French colonialism was not the only conduit for transmitting French urbanism in early North America. The fact that parts of the region which never experienced French colonialism also boast elements of French urbanism is employed to bolster this position.

Keywords

Built space Colonial Canada Colonial Quebec French urbanism Montreal New Orleans Quebec City Spatial structure St. Lawrence River US hinterland Washington, DC 

References

  1. Ashcroft, B., Griffin, G., & Tiffin, H. (Eds.). (2003). Post-colonial studies: The key concepts. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  2. Brunschwig, H. (1966). French colonialism, 1871–1914: Myths and realities. London: Pall Mall Press.Google Scholar
  3. Campanella, R. (2002). Time and place in New Orleans: Past geographies in the present day. Gretna: Pelican Publishing.Google Scholar
  4. Canadian Encyclopaedia. (Online). Architectural history: The French colonial regime. Located at: www.thecanadianencyclopaedia.com/articles/architectural-history-the-colonial-regime. Accessed 5 Oct 2013
  5. Choquette, L. (1995). Frenchmen into peasants: Modernity and tradition in the peopling of French North America. Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, 104, 27–48.Google Scholar
  6. Cooper, J. I. (1969). Montreal: A brief history. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.Google Scholar
  7. De Lancey, L. (1940). The French influence in New Orleans. The French Review, 13(6), 483–487.Google Scholar
  8. Ferley, P. (1999). The urban maps and plans of Joseph Bouchette, surveyor general of Lower Canada 1804–1841. Urban History Review, 27(2), 3–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gale Encyclopedia. (Online). French Colonies: North America. http://www.answers.com/topic/north-america-7#ixzz2djBjK63X. Gale Encyclopedia of the Early Modern world. Accessed 2 Sept 2013.
  10. Gibbon, J. M. (1947). Our Old Montreal. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart.Google Scholar
  11. Grant III, U.S. (1948/1950). Planning the nation’s capital. Records of the Columbia Historical Society, 50, 43–58.Google Scholar
  12. Hinshelwood, N. M. (1903). Montreal and vicinity: Being a history of the old town. Montreal: Desbarats. Available online via openlibrary.com. Accessed 6 Oct 2013 at: http://openlibrary.org/books/OL7137552M/Montreal_and_vicinity
  13. Jacob, A., Macdonald, E., & Rofe, Y. (2002). The boulevard book: History, evolution, design of multiway boulevards. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  14. Johnson, C. (1974). Missouri-French houses: Some relict features of early settlement. Pioneer America, 6(2), 1–11.Google Scholar
  15. Kovitz, J. (2003). Grandeur in French city planning under Louis XIV: Rochefort and Marseille. Journal of Urban History, 2(1), 3–42.Google Scholar
  16. Laragy, E. (Online). “Settler Colony.” Key concepts in postcolonial studies. http://www.qub.ac.uk/imperial/key-concepts/Settler-Colony.htm . Accessed 2 Sept 2013.
  17. Lawrence, H. W. (1988). Origins of the tree-lined boulevards. Geographical Review, 78(4), 355–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Louder, R. D., Morissonneau, C. & Waddell, E. (1983). Introduction. In R. D. Louder, & E. Waddell (Eds.), French America: Mobility, identity and minority experience across the continent (F. Philip, Trans. pp. 1–14). Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Nader, G. (1975/1976). Cities of Canada. Volume Two. Profiles of Fifteen Metropolitan Centres. Toronto: Maclean-Hunter/Macmillan.Google Scholar
  20. Njoh, A. J. (2007). Planning power: Town planning and social control in colonial Africa. London/New York: University College London Press.Google Scholar
  21. Njoh, A. J. (2009). The role and interests of the French state in the housing policy field in Guadeloupe and Martinique. Habitat International, 33, 26–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Njoh, A. J. (2010). Toponymic inscription, physical addressing and the challenge of urban management in an era of globalization in Cameroon. Habitat International, 34(4), 427–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. O’Neil, E. (1998). The French regency and the colonial engineers: Street names of early New Orleans. The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association, 39(2), 207–214.Google Scholar
  24. Reps, J. W. (1969). The making of urban America: A history of city planning in the United States. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Rose-Redwood, R., Alderman, D., & Azaryahu, M. (2010). Geographies of toponymic inscription in critical place-name studies. Progress in Human Geography, 34(4), 453–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Stelter, G. A. (1993). Military considerations and colonial town planning: France and new France in the seventeenth century. In R. Bennett (Ed.), Settlements in the Americas: Cross-cultural perspectives (pp. 210–237). Newark/Toronto: University of Delaware Press/Associated University Presses.Google Scholar
  27. Stelter, G. A., & Artibase, A. F. J. (Eds.). (1986). Power and place: Canadian urban development in the North American context. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.Google Scholar
  28. Wirth, L. (1938). Urbanism as a way of life. The American Journal of Sociology, 44(1), 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Yeoh, B. S. A. (1996). Street-naming and nation-building: Toponymic inscriptions of nationhood in Singapore. Area, 28(3), 298–307.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ambe J. Njoh
    • 1
  1. 1.School of GeosciencesUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA

Personalised recommendations