Permian – Triassic Magmatic Activity in the Song Da Structure

  • Trong-Hoa Tran
  • Gleb V. Polyakov
  • Tuan-Anh Tran
  • Alexander S. Borisenko
  • Andrey E. Izokh
  • Pavel A. Balykin
  • Thi-Phuong Ngo
  • Thi-Dung Pham
Part of the Modern Approaches in Solid Earth Sciences book series (MASE, volume 11)


Late Permian mafic-ultramafic volcanic and sub-volcanic rocks in the Song Đa Rift include four different associations in terms of low-Ti and high-Ti types. Low-Ti, high-Mg volcanic and sub-volcanic rocks are composed of komatiite, komatiitic basalt and basalt and are divided into three groups according to their petrological and geochemical features. Chemical composition of rocks of the komatiite-basalt association is alkali-low (but rather Na-high), very Ti-low, varying from Al-high komatiite to Al-low basalt. They are characterized by high content of Mg, Al, Ni, Co, Cu and Cr, and low of Ti, Fe, Na, K, P, Rb, Ba, Sr, Nb, Ta, Nd, Hf, Zr and REE. In general, based on geochemical and isotopic characteristics the Song Đa mafic-ultramafic rocks of the komatiite-basalt association may be products of a melt derived from depleted mantle suffering the impact of mantle plume. Digital modeling showed that the initial melt composition was correspondent to komatiitic basalt. Eruption ages of the magmas are 257 ± 24 Ma (by Rb/Sr age dating), and 270 ± 21 Ma (by Re/Os age dating).

High-Ti basalts (and picrite) and gabbro-dolerites are widely distributed in marginal areas as well as in the center of the Song Đa Rift and belong to three associations: andesite-basalt, andesite-picrite-basalt and trachybasalt-trachyandesite-trachydacite. The chemical compositions of high-Ti basalts are characterized by having high Ti content, moderately low Al, medium to low Mg, relatively low alkalinity, but high K, high Rb, Sr, Zr and LREE, but Nb and Ta varies from low- to hight. The high-Ti basalts have relatively restricted ranges of (87Sr/86Sr)i (0.7048–0.7079) and ƐNd(t) values (−5.7 to +3.1) indicating weak lithospheric signature that may be related to their trace element-rich nature and this is consistent with abundant earlier studies suggesting that the high-Ti basalts at Song Da or elsewhere in the ELIP formed from low degrees of partial melting.


Mantle Source Mantle Plume Incompatible Element Primitive Mantle Olivine Basalt 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Ariskin AA, Frenkel MY, Barmina GS, Nielsen RL (1993) COMAGMAT: a Fortran program to model magma differentiation processer. Comput Geosci 19:1155–1170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arndt NT (1976) Melting relations of ultramafic lavas (komatiites) at 1 atm and high pressure. Carnegie Inst Wash Yearb 75:551–561Google Scholar
  3. Arndt NT, Christensen U (1992) The role of lithospheric mantle in continental flood volcanism; thermal and geochemical constraints. J Geophys Res 97(10):967–10981Google Scholar
  4. Arndt NT, Kerr AC, Tarney J (1997) Dynamic melting in plume heads; the formation of Gorgona komatiites and basalts. Earth Planet Sci Lett 146:289–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Asahara Y, Ohtani E (2001) Melting relations of the hydrous primitive mantle in the CMAS-H2O system at high pressures and temperatures, and implications for generation of komatiites. Phys Earth Planet Inter 125:31–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Balykin PA (2004) Composition and PT-conditions of melting of parental magmas for komatiite-basalt, picrite-basalt, and picrite-dolerite complexes. 32nd IGC, FlorenceGoogle Scholar
  7. Balykin PA, Petrova TE (2000) Petrological types and genesis of komatiite-basalt, picrite-basalt and picrite-dolerites complexes. Russ Geol Geophys 41:1098–1111Google Scholar
  8. Balykin PA, Polyakov GV, Petrova TE, Shelepaev PA, Tran Trong Hoa, Ngo Thi Phuong, Hoang Huu Thanh (2001) Composition of initial melts for Permo-Triassic and Triassic-Jurassic ultramafic-mafic complexes in North Vietnam. Rep RAS 378(2):225–229 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  9. Breddam K (2002) Kistufell: primitive melt from the Iceland mantle plume. J Petrol 43:345–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bùi Minh Tâm, Tô Văn Thụ (1995) New report on volcanic and dyke phased magmas in the Phong Tho (Lai Chau) area. Geology – mineral resources and oil and gas of Viet Nam I, pp 89–96 (in Vietnamese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  11. Carlson RW (1991) Physical and chemical evidence on the cause and source characteristics of flood basalt volcanism. Aust J Earth Sci 38:525–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chauvel C, Hémond C (2000) Melting of a complete section of recycled oceanic crust: trace element and Pb isotopic evidence from Iceland. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 1, 1999GC000002Google Scholar
  13. Chung SL, Jahn BM, Genyao W, Lo CH, Bolin C (1998) The Emeishan flood basalt in SW China: a mantle plume initiation model and its connection with continental breakup and mass extinction at the Permian-Triassic boundary. In: Flower MFJ, Chung SL, Lo CH, Lee TY (eds) Mantle dynamics and plate tectonics in East Asia, vol 27, AGU geodynamics series. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp 47–58Google Scholar
  14. Danyushevsky LV, Eggins SM, Falloon TJ, Christie DM (2000) H2O abundance in depleted to moderately enriched mid-ocean ridge magmas; part I: incompatible behaviour. Implications for mantle storage and origin of regional variations. J Petrol 41:1329–1364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Davies BTC, Schairer JF (1965) Melting relations in the join diopside-forsterite-pyrope at 40 kilobars and at one atmosphere. Carnegie Inst Wash Yearb 64:123–126Google Scholar
  16. De Paolo DJ (1981) Neodymium isotopes in the Colorado Front Range and crust – mantle evolution in the Proterozoic. Nature 291:684–687Google Scholar
  17. Dixon JE, Clague D (2001) Volatiles in basaltic glasses from Loihi Seamount, Hawaii: evidence for a relatively dry plume component. J Petrol 42:627–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Do Dinh Toat (1987) Petrology of Upper Permian and Upper Permian – Lower Triassic effusives in Cam Thuy – Ba Vi area. PhD dissertation, Hanoi University of Geology and MiningGoogle Scholar
  19. Dobresov NL (2005) The Asian’s large igneous provinces (250Ma): Siberian’s and Emeishan’s traps (plateau-basalts) and associated granitoids. Geol Geophys 46(9):870–890Google Scholar
  20. Fang Nianqiao, Nin Gaoling (2003) Late paleozoic ultramafic lavas in Yunnan, SW China. J Petrol 44(1):141–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fitton JG, Saunders AD, Norry MJ, Hardarson BS, Taylor RN (1997) Thermal and chemical structure of the Icelandic plume. Earth Planet Sci Lett 153:197–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gatinsky YG (1986) Geodymanics of Southeast Asia in relation to the evolution of ocean basins. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 55:127–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gatinsky YG, Thuc DD (1982) Geological structure and development of the Song Da peleorift zone in Vietnam. Bull Mineral Soc (Vietnam) 57:12–25Google Scholar
  24. Goldstein SL, O’nions RK, Halmington PJ (1984) A Sm-Nd isotopic study of atmospheric dusts and particulates from major rive systems. Earth Planet Sci Lett 70:221–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Grove TL, Parman SW, Dann JC (1999) Conditions of magma generation for Archean komatiites from the Barberton Mountainland, South Africa. In: Fei Y, Bertka CM, Mysen BO (eds) Mantle petrology: field observations and high pressure experimentation: a tribute to Francis R. (Joe) Boyd, vol 6, The geochemical society, special publication. Geochemical Society, Houston, pp 155–167Google Scholar
  26. Hanan BB, Blichert-Toft J, Kingsley R, Schilling JG (2000) Depleted Iceland mantle plume geochemical signature: artifact of multicomponent mixing? Geochem Geophy Geosyst 1, 1999GC000009Google Scholar
  27. Hanski E, Walker RJ, Hubma H, Polyakov GV, Balykin PA, Tran Trong Hoa, Ngo Thi Phuong (2004) Origin of the Permian-Triassic komatiites Northwestern Vietnam. Contrib Miner Petrol 147:453–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hart SR, Hauri EH, Oschmann LA, Whitehead JA (1992) Mantle plumes and entrainment; isotopic evidence. Science 256:517–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Herzberg C, O’Hara MJ (2002) Plume – associated ultramafic magmas of Phanerozoic age. J Petrol 43:1857–1883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Izokh AE, Polyakov GV, Tran Trong Hoa, Balykin PA, Ngo Thi Phuong (2005) Permian-Triassic ultramafic-mafic magmatism of Northern Vietnam and Southern China as expression of plume magmatism. Russ Geol Geophys 46(9):942–951Google Scholar
  31. Kempton PD, Fitton JG, Saunders AD, Nowell GM, Taylor RN, Hardarson BS, Pearson G (2000) The Iceland plume in space and time: a Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf study of the North Atlantic rifted margin. Earth Planet Sci Lett 177:255–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kerr AC, Saunders AD, Tarney J, Berry NH, Hards VL (1995) Depleted mantle-plume geochemical signatures: no paradox for plume theories. Geology 23:843–946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Khain VE, Balukhovsky AN (1993) Geotectonic. Mesozoi and Cenozoic. AVIAR, 451 pGoogle Scholar
  34. Lan CY, Chung S-L, Jason Jiun-San Shen, Lo CH, Wang PL, Tran Trong Hoa, Hoang Huu Thanh, Mertzman SA (2000) Geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic characteristics of granitic rocks from Northern Vietnam. J Asia Earth Sci 18:267–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lan CY, Chung SL, Lo cH, Lee TY, Wang PL, Li H, Dinh Van Toan (2001) First evidence for Archean continental crust in Northern Vietnam and its implications for crustal and tectonic evolution in Southeast Asia. Geology 29(3):219–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Metcalfe I (1996) Pre-Cretaceous evolution of SE Asian terranes. In: Hall R, Blundell D (eds) Tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia. Geological Society Special Publications 106, London, pp 97–122Google Scholar
  37. Michael P (1995) Regionally distinctive sources of depleted MORB: evidence from trace elements and H2O. Earth Planet Sci Lett 131:301–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ngo Thi Phuong (1994) Permo-Triassic high-Magnesium volcano-plutonic associations in the Song Da structure. PhD dissertation. Thesis, Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, SB RAS, Novosibirsk, 24 ppGoogle Scholar
  39. Ngo Thi Phuong, Tran Trong Hoa, Tran Tuan Anh (2001) Petro-minerallogical characteristics of the P2-T1 basalts-komatiite association in the Ta Khoa Anticline, Song Da Zone (NW Vietnam. J Geol Ser B, No 17–18, pp 10–19Google Scholar
  40. Nguyen Dac Lu (2004) The relationship between volcanic rocks of Da River and Viet Nam areas and copper-gold mineralization. North Vietnam Geol Mapp Div, Geol Miner of Vietnam 4:166–174 (in Vietnamese)Google Scholar
  41. Nguyen Hoang, Nguyen Đac Lu, Nguyen Van Can (2004) Paleozoic volcanics in the Song Da structure: Rb-Sr age of Doi Bu volcanics. J Geol A281:11–17 (in Vietnamese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  42. Nichols ARL, Carroll MR, Höskuldsson A (2002) Is the Iceland hot spot also wet? Evidence from the water contents of undegassed submarine and subglacial pillow basalts. Earth Planet Sci Lett 202:77–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ohtani E, Kawabe I, Moriyama J, Nagata Y (1989) Partitioning of elements between majorite garnet and melt and implication for petrogenesis of komatiite. Contrib Mineral Petrol 103:263–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Parman SW, Grove TL, Dann JC (2001) The production of Barberton komatiites in an Archean subduction zone. J Geophys Res Lett 28:2513–2516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Polyakov GV, Balykin PA, Glotov AI et al (1991) High-magnesian volcanites in Da river zone. In: Proceedings of the second conference on geology of Indochina, HN, 11–13 Nov 1991, vol 1, pp 247–261Google Scholar
  46. Polyakov GV, Nguyen Trong Yem, Balykin PA, Tran Trong Hoa, Hoang Huu Thanh, Tran Quoc Hung, Ngo Thi Phuong, Petrova TE, Van Van V (1996) Permian – Triassic mafic and ultramafic formations in northern Viet Nam. Science and Technology Publ, Hanoi, 172 p (in Vietnamese)Google Scholar
  47. Qiu YM, Gao S, McNaughton NJ, Groves DI, Ling W (2000) First evidence of >3.2 Ga continental crust in the Yangtze craton of South China and its implications for Archean crustal evolution and Phanerozoic tectonics. Geology 28:11–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Révillon S, Chauvel C, Arndt NT, Pik R, Martineau F, Fourcade S, Marty B (2002) Heterogeneity of the Caribbean plateau mantle source: Sr, O and He isotopic compositions of olivine and clinopyroxene from Gorgona Island. Earth Planet Sci Lett 205:91–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ryabchikov ID, Bogachikov OA (1984) Physico-chemical conditions of formation and differentiation of Karelsk’s komatiites. Geochemistry, No 5, pp 625–638 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  50. Saal AE, Hauri EH, Langmuir CH, Perfit MR (2002) Vapour undersaturation in primitive mid-ocean-ridge basalt and the volatile content of Earth’s upper mantle. Nature 419:451–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Saunders AD, Fitton JG, Kerr AC, Norry MJ, Kent RW (1997) The North Atlantic igneous province. In: Mahoney JJ, Coffin MF (eds) Large igneous provinces: continental, oceanic and planetary flood volcanism. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp 45–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Schilling J-G, Bergeron MB, Evans R (1980) Halogens in the mantle beneath the North Atlantic. Phil Trans Roy Soc Lond A297:147–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Shimizu K, Komiya T, Hirose K, Shimizu N, Maruyama S (2001) Cr-spinel, an excellent micro-container for retaining primitive melts – implications for a hydrous plume origin for komatiites. Earth Planet Sci Lett 189:177–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sobolev AV, Hofmann AW, Nikogosian IK (2000) Recycled oceanic crust observed in ‘ghost plagioclase’ within the source of Mauna Loa lavas. Nature 404:986–990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sun SF, McDonough WF (1989) Chemical and isotopic systematics of oceanic basalts: implication for mantle composition and processes. In: Saunders AD, Norry NJ (eds) Magmatism in ocean basins. Geol. Soc. Spec Pub 42, London, pp 313–345Google Scholar
  56. Sun SS, Tatsumoto M, Schilling JG (1975) Mantle plume mixing along the Reykjanes Ridge axis; lead isotopic evidence. Science 190:143–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Thompson RN, Gibson SA (2000) Transient high temperatures in mantle plume heads inferred from magnesian olivines in phanerozoic picrites. Nature 407:502–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Thompson RN, Morrison MA, Dickin AP, Hendry GL (1983) Continental flood basalts … arachnids rule OK? In: Hawkesworth CJ, Norry MJ (eds) Continental basalts and mantle xenoliths. Shiva, Nantwich, Cambridge, MA, pp 158–185Google Scholar
  59. Tong Dzuy Thanh, Vu Khuc (eds) (2005) Stratigraphic divisions of Vietnam. National University Publ, Hanoi, 504 p (in Vietnamese)Google Scholar
  60. Tran Ngoc Nam (2001) SHRIMP U-Pb isotopic age dating on zircons of the Ca Vinh and Xom Giau complexes. J Geol A262:1–11 (in Vietnamese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  61. Tran Trong Hoa (ed) (1995) Study of Mesozoic – Cenozoic magmatism and its mineralization potential. Final report for national project KT- 01–04 (1992–1995). Archives of the National Center for Science and Technology Information, Hanoi (in Vietnamese)Google Scholar
  62. Tran Trong Hoa (2002) Subdivision and correlation of Permian – Triassic basaltoid associations in the Song Da structure (NW Vietnam). Geol Ser B 19–20:22–30Google Scholar
  63. Tran Trong Hoa (ed) (2005) Intraplate magmatism in Viet Nam and related mineral resources. Final report for Viet Nam – Russian collaboration protocol (2002–2004). Archives of the National Center for Science and Technology Information, Hanoi, 333 p (in Vietnamese)Google Scholar
  64. Tran Trong Hoa (2007) Intraplate magmatism in North Vietnam and related metallogeny. Dissertation of Dr. of Science. Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch, RAS, Novosibirsk, 382 pGoogle Scholar
  65. Tran Trong Hoa, Hoang Huu Thanh, Tran Tuan Anh, Ngo Thi Phuong, Hoanh Viet Hang (1998a) High – Ti Permian-Triassic basaltoid of Song Da rift. Material composition and geodynamic forming conditions. J Geol Ser A 244:7–15Google Scholar
  66. Tran Trong Hoa, Hoang Huu Thanh, Tran Tuan Anh, Ngo Thi Phuong, Hoang Viet Hang (1998b) High-Ti basaltoidic formations in the Song Da rift zone: chemical compositions and geodynamic conditions of magma genesis. J Geol A244:7–15 (in Vietnamese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  67. Tran Trong Hoa, Tran Tuan Anh, Ngo Thi Phuong, Pham Thi Dung, Tran Viet Anh, Izokh AE, Borisenko AS, Lan CY, Chung SL, Lo CH (2008) Permo-Triassic intermediate-felsic magmatism of the Truong Son belt, eastern margin of Indochina. Compt Rendus Geosci 340:112–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Tran Trong Hoa, Tran Tuan Anh, Pham Thi Dung, Lan Ching-Ying, Usuki Tadashi, Polyakov GV, Izokh AE (2013) Permian plume-related magmatic associations in the Song Da – Tu Le rift system and Phan Si Pan uplift, Northwest Vietnam. Extend. Abstract volume of international symposium large igneous provinces of Asia: mantle plume and metallogeny, LIPs, Hanoi, 7 Nov 2013 pp 57–61Google Scholar
  69. Tran Van Tri TKT, Truong Cam Bao (eds) (1977) Geology of Vietnam, northern part. The explanation to geological map of North Vietnam, scale 1: 1.000.000. Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources (in Vietnamese)Google Scholar
  70. Tran Viet Anh, Pang KN, Chung SL, Lin HM, Tran Trong Hoa, Tran Tuan Anh, Yang HJ (2011) The Song Da magmatic suite revisited: a petrologic, geochemical and Sr–Nd isotopic study on picrites, flood basalts and silicic volcanic rocks. J Asian Earth Sci 42:1341–1355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Walker RJ, Nisbet E (2002) 187Os isotopic constraints on Archean mantle dynamics. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 66:3317–3325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Walker RJ, Stone W (2001) Os isotope constraints on the origin of the 2.7 Ga Boston Creek Flow, Ontario, Canada. Chem Geo 175:567–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Walker RJ, Prichard HM, Ishiwatari A, Pimentel M (2002) The osmium isotopic composition of convecting upper mantle deduced from ophiolite chromites. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 66:329–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wallace PJ (1998) Water and partial melting in mantle plumes: inferences from the dissolved H2O concentrations of Hawaiian basaltic magmas. J Geophys Res Lett 25:3639–3642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wang CY, Zhou MF, Qi L (2007) Permian flood basalts and mafic intrusions in the Jinping (SW China)–Song Da (Northern Vietnam) district: mantle sources, crustal contamination and sulfide segregation. Chem Geol 243:317–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Xu YG, Chung SL, Jhan BM, Wu GY (2001) Petrologic and geochemical constraints on the petrogenesis of Permian-Triassic Emeishan flood basalts in South Western China. Lithos 58:145–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Zhong H, Zhu WG, Chu ZH, He DF, Song XY (2007) Shrimp U-Pb geochronology, geochemistry, and Nd-Sr isotopic study of contrasting granites in the Emeishan large igneous province, SW China. Chem Geol 236:112–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Zhou MF, Malpas J, Song XY, Kenedy AK, Robinson PT, Sun M, Lesher CM, Keays RR (2002) A temporal link between Emeishan large igneous province (SW China) and the end-Guadalupian mass extinction. Earth Planet Sci Lett 196:113–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Trong-Hoa Tran
    • 1
  • Gleb V. Polyakov
    • 2
  • Tuan-Anh Tran
    • 1
  • Alexander S. Borisenko
    • 2
  • Andrey E. Izokh
    • 2
  • Pavel A. Balykin
  • Thi-Phuong Ngo
    • 1
  • Thi-Dung Pham
    • 1
  1. 1.Vietnam Academy of Science and TechnologyInstitute of Geological SciencesHanoiVietnam
  2. 2.Russian Academy of ScienceInstitute of Geology and MineralogyNovosibirskRussia

Personalised recommendations