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Poroelasticity pp 703-773 | Cite as

Porochemoelasticity

  • Alexander H.-D. Cheng
Chapter
Part of the Theory and Applications of Transport in Porous Media book series (TATP, volume 27)

Abstract

The poroelasticity theory presented in Chaps.  2 through 10 models the force and energy interaction of mechanical origin between two material phases, a solid and a fluid. The thermal energy and force field are introduced in Chap.  11 In the physical world, there exist other types of energy and forces, such as those of electrical, magnetic, and chemical origins, and their coupling, such as the electromechanical (piezoelectric), electromagnetic, electrochemical, and magnetohydrodynamic forces. The simultaneous presence of these multiple physical phenomena, particularly their interactions, is known as multiphysics.Depending on the engineering applications on hand and practical considerations, not all forces are present or significant, and need to be modeled. In geoscience, geophysical, and geomechanical applications, it is generally recognized that four processes, thermal (T), hydraulic (H), mechanical (M), and chemical (C), known as THMC processes (Taron J, Elsworth D, Thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes in the evolution of engineered geothermal reservoirs. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 46(5):855–864, 2009; Taron J, Elsworth D, Min K-B (2009) Numerical simulation of thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes in deformable, fractured porous media. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 46(5):842–854; Tsang C-F (2009) Introductory editorial to the special issue on the DECOVALEX-THMC project. Environ Geol 57(6):1217–1219), are more important. The poroelasticity theory considers the hydraulic and mechanical coupling (HM). The porothermoelasticity theory introduces the additional thermal coupling, and is a THM theory. In this chapter, we shall examine the THMC processes by including the chemical energy and force field and introduce the porothermochemoelasticity theory; though, for simplicity, we shall refer to it as the porochemoelasticity theory in this book.Many geotechnical, biological, and synthetic porous media are chemically active, and exhibit swelling or shrinking behaviors when brought in contact with aqueous solutions. This phenomenon, observed in clays (Bennethum et al., Transp Porous Media 39(2):187–225, 2000; Low, Langmuir 3(1):18–25, 1987; Sposito et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci 96(7):3358–3364, 1999; van Olphen, An introduction to clay colloid chemistry, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York, 318pp, 1977), shales (Ghassemi, Diek, J Pet Sci Eng 38(3–4):199–212, 2003; Nguyen, Abousleiman, Anais Da Academia Brasileira De Ciencias 82(1):195–222, 2010; Sherwood, Proc R Soc A–Math Phys Eng Sci 440(1909):365–377, 1993; Sherwood, Langmuir 10(7):2480–2486, 1994), cartilage (Gu et al., J Biomech Eng ASME 120(2):169–180, 1998; Lai et al. J Biomech Eng ASME 113(3):245–258, 1991; Wilson et al., J Biomech Eng 127(1):158–165, 2005) and gels (Hong et al., Int J Solids Struct 46(17):3282–3289, 2009; Marcombe et al., Soft Matter 6(4):784–793, 2010), is caused by electric charges fixed to the solid, counteracted by corresponding charges in the fluid. These charges result in a variety of features, including swelling, chemico-osmosis, electro-osmosis, streaming potentials, streaming currents, and electrophoresis (Mitchell, Soga, Fundamentals of soil behavior, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, 592pp, 2005; Sachs, Grodzinsky, Physicochem Hydrodyn 11(4):585–614, 1989).In biological and medical applications, swelling behavior is observed in cartilage, glycogalyx, cell, and skin (van Meerveld et al., Transp Porous Media 50(1–2):111–126, 2003). Swelling of shales is of major problem for petroleum engineering. According to Steiger and Leung (SPE Drill Eng 7(3):181–185, 1992), shales make up more than 75 % of drilled formations and cause at least 90 % of wellbore-stability problems. If shale surrounding the wellbore swells, the wellbore diameter will be reduced, and the drill string and drill bit can become trapped, costing both time and money. Alternatively, if swollen shale disintegrates, motion of the drill string will be hindered by the soft, roughened walls of the well (Mody, Hale, J Pet Technol 45(11):1093–1101, 1993; Sherwood, Bailey, Proc R Soc Lond Ser A–Math Phys Eng Sci 444(1920):161–184, 1994). Although the use of oil based drilling mud can reduce the chemical effect, its use is much restricted due to the environmental concern of its disposal (van Oort et al., SPE Drill Complet 11(3):137–146, 1996). Clay is used as liner and buffer for containment of landfill leachate and underground burial of nuclear or hazardous wastes in environmental geotechnology. The integrity of the barrier can be much affected by the swelling or shrinkage of the material.Shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks consisting of clay, silt, and mud. Clay minerals are basically crystalline and their properties are determined by the atomic structure of their crystals. When these minerals are exposed to a fluid with different physic-chemical properties, the microscopic changes take place, which manifest in macroscopic scale as swelling (or shrinkage) and an apparent pressure as osmotic pressure. Swelling mostly occurs in smectites and particularly montmorillonite, due to its expanding lattice and finely laminated structure, subject to cation exchange and water content.In the following, we shall examine the modeling of the chemical effects through the concept of a chemical potential. The constitutive relations and transport laws are constructed to form governing equations that allow the mathematical solution of the various applications.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander H.-D. Cheng
    • 1
  1. 1.University of MississippiOxfordUSA

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