Advertisement

Mechanical Processing Equipment

  • George Saravacos
  • Athanasios E. Kostaropoulos
Chapter
Part of the Food Engineering Series book series (FSES)

Abstract

Size reduction or enlargement of solid foods can be attained by mechanical methods, without use of heat. Size reduction refers to the production of large or small pieces and several particle sizes. Enlargement includes agglomeration or coating of small food pieces or particles, which may be facilitated by adding small quantities of liquids or steam. In the case of liquids, size reduction of particles is achieved in the homogenization. The following sections, Sects. 4.2 and 4.3 deal with solid foods, while Sect. 4.4 deals with size reduction of liquids. Finally, mixing refers to liquid and solid foods and formation in operations dealing with extrusion and other processes giving the final shape/form of foods.

Keywords

Size reduction Cutting Crushing Size enlargement Homogenization Mixing Forming Extrusion 

References

  1. Allen T (1990) Particle size measurement, 4th edn. Chapman and Hall, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bernotat S, Schoenert K (1988) Ullmann’s encyclopedia of industrial chemistry, 5th edn, vol. B2, chap 5. Wiley, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  3. Berszan G (1986) Maschinen der Fleischindustrie. Fachbuchverlag, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhatia M, Cheremisinoff P (1979) Solids separation and mixing. Technomic, WestportGoogle Scholar
  5. Bollin H (1991) Muellerei Technologie. In: Ostenroth D (ed) Taschenbuch fuer Lebensmittel-chemiker und Technologen, vol 2. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  6. Brennan JG, Butters JR, Cowell ND, Lilley AE (1990) Food engineering operations, 3rd edn. Elsevier Applied Science, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. Chang YK, Wang SS (eds) (1999) Advances in extrusion technology. Technomic, LancastersGoogle Scholar
  8. Cleland DJ, Valentas KJ (1997) Prediction of freezing time and design of food freezers. In: Valentas KJ, Rotstein E, Singh RP (eds) Handbook of freeze engineering practice. CRC, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Dialer K et al (1986) Grundzuege der Verfahrenstechnik und der Reaktionstechnik. C. Hanser, MunichGoogle Scholar
  10. Dietsche W (1998) Mix or match: choose the best mixers every time. Chem Eng 94(8):70–75Google Scholar
  11. Fellows PJ (1990) Food processing technology. Ellis Horwood, LondonGoogle Scholar
  12. Finne G (1982) Modified and controlled atmosphere storage of muscle foods. Food Technol 36:128–133Google Scholar
  13. Frame ND (ed) (1999) The extrusion cooking. Aspen, GaithersburgGoogle Scholar
  14. Guy R (2001) Extrusion technology and applications. CRC, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Harper JM (1980) Extrusion of foods. CRC, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  16. Heinze G (2000) Handbuch der Agglomerationstechnik. Wiley-VCH, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  17. Heiss R (Editore) (1991) Lebensmitteltechnologie. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  18. Heldman DR, Hartel RW (1997) Principles of food processing. Chapman and Hall, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. Heldman DR, Lund DB (1992) Handbook of food engineering. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Hemming W (1991) Verfahrenstechnik, 6th edn. Vogel Verlag, WuerzburgGoogle Scholar
  21. Henze J (1972) Bau und Einrichtung von Lagerraeumen fuer Obst und Gemuese. Frankfurt: Kuratorium fuer Technik und Bauwesen in der Landwirtschaft e.V. Schrift 154Google Scholar
  22. Holland FA, Brugg R (1995) Fluid flow for chemical engineers, 2nd edn. Edward Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  23. Johanson JR (2000) Smooth out solids blending problems. Chem Eng Prog 96(4):21–27Google Scholar
  24. Kent NL (1984) Technology of cereals. Pergamon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  25. Kessler HG (1981) Food engineering and dairy technology. A. Kessler, FreisingGoogle Scholar
  26. Kieffer P (1977) The influence of shearing stress on the size reduction of the inner phase of oil-in-water emulsion during high- pressure homogenization. Ph.D thesis in Germany, University of KarlsruheGoogle Scholar
  27. Kokini JL, Ho CT, Karwe MV (eds) (1992) Food extrusion science and technology. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. Kurzhals HA (1977) Untersuchungen ueber die physikalisch-technischen Vorgaenge beim Homogenisieren von Milch. In: Hochdruck-Homogenisiermaschinen. Dissertation, Technische Universitaet, HanoverGoogle Scholar
  29. Lawrison GC (1974) Crushing and grinding. The size reduction of solid materials. Butterwoths, LondonGoogle Scholar
  30. Leninger HA, Beverloo WA (1975) Food process engineering. D. Reidel, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Levine L (1992) Extrusion processes. In: Handbook of food engineering. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Levine L, Behmer E (1997) Dough processing systems. In: Valentas KJ, Rotstein E, Singh RP (eds) Handbook of food engineering practice. CRC, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. Loncin M (1969) Die Grundlagen der Verfahrenstechnik in der Lebensmittelindustrie. Verlag Sauerlaender, AarauGoogle Scholar
  34. Loncin M, Merson RL (1979) Food engineering. Principles and selected applications. Academic, New YokGoogle Scholar
  35. Macrae R, Robinson RK, Sadler MJ (1993) Encyclopedia of food science and nutrition, vol 5. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  36. Matz SA (1989) Equipment for bakers. Elsevier Science, LondonGoogle Scholar
  37. McCabe WL, Smith JC, Harriot P (1985) Unit operations of chemical engineering, 4th edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. Meffert HFT (1965) Scrubbers. Annual report. I.B.V.T, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  39. Mercier C (ed) (1989) Extrusion cooking. American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. PaulGoogle Scholar
  40. Mueller WD (1991) Fleischverarbeitung. In: Ostenroth D (ed) Taschenbuch fuer Lebensmittel-chemiker und Technologen, vol 2. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  41. Mulder H, Walstra P (1974) The milk fat globule. University Press, BelfastGoogle Scholar
  42. Myers KJ, Reeder MF, Ryan D, Daly G (1999) Get a fix on high-shear mixing. Chem Eng Prog 95(11):33–42Google Scholar
  43. Pahl MH (1989) Lagern, Foerdern und Dosieren v. Schuettgutern. Verlag TUEV, RheinlandGoogle Scholar
  44. Paulus KO, Cheftel CJ (1989) Progress in extrusion cooking. Bund für Lebensmittelrecht und Lebensmittelkunde e.V., BonnGoogle Scholar
  45. Perry RH, Green D (1984) Perry’s chemical engineers’ handbook, 6th edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  46. Perry RH, Green D (1997) Perry’s chemical engineer’s handbook, 7th edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  47. Pietsch W (1967) Das Agglomerationverhalten feiner Teilchen. Staub-Reinhalt. Luft 27. Jahrgang 1:20–33Google Scholar
  48. Prakash S, Kokini JL (1999) Determination of mixing efficiency in a model food mixer. Adv Polym Technol 18(3):209–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rao MA (1992) Transport and storage of food products. In: Heldman DR, Lund DB (eds) Handbook of food engineering. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  50. Riaz MN (ed) (2000) Extruders in food applications. Technomic, LancasterGoogle Scholar
  51. Rumpf H (1965) Die Einzellkornzerkleinerung als Grundlage einer technischen Zerkleinerungswissenschaft. Chemie IngenieurTechnik 37(3):187–202Google Scholar
  52. Rumpf H (1975) Mechanisch Verfahrenstechnik. C.Hanser, MunichGoogle Scholar
  53. Saravacos GD, Maroulis ZB (2001) Transport properties of foods. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  54. Schubert H (1974) Haftung zwischen Feststoffteilchen aufgrund von Fluessigkeitsbruecken. Chemie Ingenieur Technik 46(8):333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Schubert H (1987a) Food particle technology. I. Properties of particles and particulate food systems. J Food Eng 6:1–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Schubert H (1987b) Food particle technology II. Some specific cases. J Food Eng 6:83–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Schubert HA, Karlstein H (1994) Mechanical emulsification. In: Yano T, Matsuno R, Nakamura K (eds) Developments in food engineering. Part 1. Blackie Academic, London, pp 9–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Shaw JH (1992) Succeed in solids suspension. Chem Eng Prog 83(5):34–41Google Scholar
  59. Stiess M (1992) Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik, vol 1. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Stiess M (1994) Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik, vol 2. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  61. Treiber A (1978) Emulsionstechnologie. In: Hochschulkurs, Ausgewaehlte Themen der modernen Lebensmittel-verfahrenstechnik/Professor M. Loncin. Institut fuer Lebensmittel-verfahrenstechnik, Universitaet, KarlsruheGoogle Scholar
  62. Tscheuschner HD (ed) (1986) Lebensmitteltechnik. Steikopff, DarmstadtGoogle Scholar
  63. Uhl Y, Gray JB (1966) Mixing theory and practice. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  64. Valentas KJ, Levine L, Clark JP (1991) Food processing operations and scale-up. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  65. Walas SM (1988) Chemical process equipment. Butterworths-Heinemann, LondonGoogle Scholar
  66. Weipert H, Tscheusner HD, Windhab E (1993) Rheologie der Lebensmittel. Behr’s Verlag, HamburgGoogle Scholar
  67. Wiedmann W (1992) Improving product quality through twin-screw extrusion and closed-loop quality control. In: Kokini JL, Ho CT, Karwe MV (eds) Food extrusion science and technology. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 539–570Google Scholar
  68. Wollny M, Schubert H (2000) Gestalten der Eigenschaften von Instantprodukten mit dem Verfahren der Strahlagglomeration. Chemie Ing. Technik December 2000Google Scholar
  69. Yacu WE (1992) Scale-up of food extruders. In: Kokini JL, Ho CT, Karwe MV (eds) Food extrusion science and technology. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 465–472Google Scholar
  70. Zogg M (1987) Einfuehrung in die mechanische Verfahrenstechnik, 2nd edn. Verlag BG Teubner, StuttgartGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • George Saravacos
    • 1
  • Athanasios E. Kostaropoulos
    • 2
  1. 1.NauplionGreece
  2. 2.AthensGreece

Personalised recommendations