Advertisement

An Introduction to Freshwater Wetlands and Their Invertebrates

  • Darold BatzerEmail author
  • Dani Boix
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter provides a primer on some basic aspects of freshwater wetland habitats and foundational information about the invertebrate fauna that exploits freshwater wetlands. We provide some definitions of wetland habitats and how they are categorized hydrologically. We describe the kinds of invertebrates that inhabit wetlands (macroinvertebrates and microinvertebrates, aquatic and terrestrial forms) and how these organisms are ecologically controlled (by hydrology, oxygen supplies, plants, predators). In conclusion, we review some of the major contributions of wetland invertebrates to society, as focal points of food webs, indicators of wetland ecological health, and vectors of some important human diseases.

Keywords

Bioassessment Ecology Food webs Hydrology Invertebrates Predation Wetlands 

References

  1. Adis J (1986) An “aquatic” millipede from a Central Amazonian inundation forest. Oecologia 68:247–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahrens ME, Ross KG, Shoemaker DD (2005) Phylogeographic structure of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta in its native South American range: roles of natural barriers and habitat connectivity. Evolution 59:1733–1743CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson DH, Darring S, Benke AC (1998) Growth of crustacean meiofauna in a forested floodplain swamp: implications for biomass turnover. J N Am Benthol Soc 17:21–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson CR, Peckarsky BL, Wissinger SA (1999) Tinajas of Southeastern Utah: invertebrate reproductive strategies and the habitat templet. In: Batzer DP, Rader RD, Wissinger SA (eds) Invertebrates in freshwater wetlands of North America: ecology and management. Wiley, New York, pp 791–810Google Scholar
  5. Angeler DG, Chow-Fraser P et al (2003) Biomanipulation: a useful tool for freshwater wetland mitigation? Freshw Biol 48:2203–2221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Batzer DP (1998) Trophic interactions among detritus, benthic midges, and predatory fish in a freshwater marsh. Ecology 79:1688–1698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Batzer DP (2013) The seemingly intractable ecological responses of invertebrates in North American wetlands: a review. Wetlands 33:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Batzer DP, Resh VH (1991) Trophic interactions among a beetle predator, a chironomid grazer, and periphyton in a seasonal wetland. Oikos 60:251–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Batzer DP, Ruhí A (2013) Is there a core set of organisms that structure macroinvertebrate assemblages in freshwater wetlands? Freshw Biol 58:1647–1659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Batzer DP, Wissinger SA (1996) Ecology of insect communities in nontidal wetlands. Annu Rev Entomol 41:75–100CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Batzer DP, Pusateri CR, Vetter R (2000) Impacts of fish predation on marsh invertebrates: direct and indirect effects. Wetlands 20:307–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Batzer DP, Cooper R, Wissinger SA (2014) Wetland animal ecology. In: Batzer DP, Sharitz RR (eds) Ecology of freshwater and estuarine wetlands, 2nd edn. Univ Calif Press, Berkeley, pp 151–183Google Scholar
  13. Blaustein L, Kotler BP, Ward D (1995) Direct and indirect effects of a predatory backswimmer (Notonecta maculata) on community structure of desert temporary pools. Ecol Entomol 20:311–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bohonak AJ, Whiteman HH (1999) Dispersal of the fairy shrimp Branchinecta coloradensis (Anostraca): effects of hydroperiod and salamanders. Limnol Oceanog 44:487–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Boix D, Gascón S et al (2005) A new index of water quality assessment in Mediterranean wetlands based on crustacean and insect assemblages: the case of Catalunya (NE Iberian Peninsula). Aquat Conserv Mar Freshw Ecosys 15:635–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Boix D, Sala J, Gascón S, Brucet S (2006) Predation in a temporary pond with special attention to the trophic role of Triops cancriformis (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Notostraca). Hydrobiologia 571:341–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Boix D, Magnusson AK et al (2011) Environmental influence on flight activity and arrival patterns of aerial colonizers of temporary ponds. Wetlands 31:1227–1240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Boscaini A, Franceschini A, Maiolini B (2000) River ecotones; carabid beetles as a tool for quality assessment. Hydrobiologia 422(423):173–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Braccia A, Batzer DP (2001) Invertebrates associated with woody debris in a southeastern U.S. forested floodplain wetland. Wetlands 21:18–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brendonck L, Michels E, De Meester L, Riddoch B (2002) Temporary pools are not “enemy-free”. Hydrobiologia 486:147–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bright EG, Batzer DP, Garnett JA (2010) Variation in invertebrate and fish communities across floodplain ecotones of the Altamaha and Savannah Rivers. Wetlands 30:1117–1128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cowardin LM, Carter V, Golet FC, LaRoe ET (1979) Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States, FWS/OBS-79/31. US Fish Widl Serv, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  23. Denno RF, Gratton C et al (2002) Bottom-up forces mediate natural-enemy impact in a phytophagous insect community. Ecology 83:1443–1458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Díaz-Villanueva V, Trochine C (2005) The role of microorganisms in the diet of Verger cf. limnophilus (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae) larvae in a Patagonian Andean temporary pond. Wetlands 25:473–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Euliss NH, LaBaugh JW et al (2004) The wetland continuum: a conceptual framework for interpreting biological studies. Wetlands 24:448–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Galatowitsch ML, Batzer DP (2011) Benefits and costs of Leptophlebia (Ephemeroptera) mayfly movements between river channels and floodplain wetlands. Can J Zool 89:714–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gascón S, Boix D, Sala S, Quintana XD (2008) Relation between macroinvertebrate life strategies and habitat traits in Mediterranean salt marsh ponds (Emporda wetlands, NE Iberian Peninsula). Hydrobiologia 597:71–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Greenwood MT, Bickerton MA et al (1991) The use of Coleoptera (Arthropoda: Insecta) for floodplain characterization on the River Trent. Regul Rivers: Res Manage 6:321–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hairston NG, Smith FE, Slobodkin LB (1960) Community structure, population control and competition. Am Nat 44:421–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hakenkamp CC, Morin A, Strayer DL (2002) The functional importance of freshwater meiofauna. In: Rundle SD, Robertson AL, Schmid-Araya JM (eds) Freshwater meiofauna: biology and ecology. Backhyus, Leiden, pp 321–335Google Scholar
  31. Holmes PR, Boyce DC, Reed DK (1993) The ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) fauna of Welsh peatland biotopes: factors influencing the distribution of ground beetles and conservation implications. Biol Conserv 63:153–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jackson CR, Thompson JA, Kolka RK (2014) Wetland soils, hydrology, and geomorphology. In: Batzer DP, Sharitz RR (eds) Ecology of freshwater and estuarine wetlands, 2nd edn. Univ Calif Press, Berkeley, pp 23–60Google Scholar
  33. Jordan F, Jelks HL, Kitchens WM (1994) Habitat use by the fishing spider Dolomedes triton in a northern Everglades wetland. Wetlands 14:239–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Klemmer AJ, Wissinger SA, Grieg HS, Ostrofsky ML (2012) Nonlinear effects of consumer density on multiple ecosystem processes. J Anim Ecol 81:770–780CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Leeper DA, Taylor BE (1998) Insect emergence from a South Carolina (USA) temporary wetlands pond, with emphasis on the Chironomidae (Diptera). J N Am Benthol Soc 17:54–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Magnusson AK, Williams DD (2009) Top-down control by insect predators in an intermittent pond—a field experiment. Ann Limnol Int J Limnol 45:131–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Margalef R (1983) Limnología. Omega, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  38. Mendelssohn IA, Batzer DP, Holt CR, Graham SA (2014) Abiotic constraints for wetland plants and animals. In: Batzer DP, Sharitz RR (eds) Ecology of freshwater and estuarine wetlands, 2nd edn. Univ Calif Press, Berkeley, pp 61–86Google Scholar
  39. Mullen GR, Durden LA (eds) (2009) Medical and veterinary entomology, 2nd edn. New York, ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  40. Oertli B, Biggs J et al (2005) Conservation and monitoring of pond biodiversity: introduction. Aquat Conserv Mar Freshw Ecosys 15:535–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pedersen O, Colmer TD (2012) Physical gills prevent drowning of many wetland insects, spiders and plants. J Exp Biol 215:705–709CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Petrusek A, Tollrian R et al (2009) A “crown of thorns” is an inducible defense that protects Daphnia against an ancient predator. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:2248–2252PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Rader RB (1999) The Florida Everglades: natural variability, invertebrate diversity, and foodweb stability. In: Batzer DP, Rader RD, Wissinger SA (eds) Invertebrates in freshwater wetlands of North America: ecology and management. Wiley, New York, pp 25–54Google Scholar
  44. Rasmussen JB, Downing JA (1988) The spatial response of chironomid larvae to the predatory leech Nephelopsis obscura. Am Nat 131:14–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Resh VH, Buchwalter DB, Lamberti GA, Eriksen CH (2008) Aquatic insect respiration. In: Merritt RW, Cummins KW, Berg MB (eds) An introduction to the aquatic insects of North America. Kendall/Hunt, Dubuque IA, pp 39–54Google Scholar
  46. Rosenberg DM, Resh VH, King RS (2008) Use of aquatic insects in biomonitoring. In: Merritt RW, Cummins KW, Berg MB (eds) An introduction to the aquatic insects of North America. Kendall/Hunt, Dubuque IA, pp 123–138Google Scholar
  47. Rothenbücher J, Schaefer M (2006) Submersion tolerance in floodplain arthropod communities. Basic Appl Ecol 7:398–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ruhí A, Batzer DP (2014) Assessing congruence and surrogacy among wetland macroinvertebrate taxa towards efficiently measuring biodiversity. Wetlands 34:106–1071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ruhí A, Boix D et al (2013) Functional and phylogenetic relatedness in temporary wetland invertebrates: current macroecological patterns and implications for future climatic change scenarios. PLoS One 8(11), e81739PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Rundle SD, Robertson AL, Schmid-Araya JM (2002) Freshwater meiofauna: biology and ecology. Backhyus, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  51. Scheffer M, Hosper SH et al (1993) Alternative equilibria in shallow lakes. Trends Ecol Evol 8:275–279CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Schneider DW, Frost TM (1996) Habitat duration and community structure in temporary ponds. J N Am Benthol Soc 15:64–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Schneider RL, Sharitz RR (1988) Hydrochory and regeneration in a bald cypress-water tupelo swamp forest. Ecology 69:1055–1063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sharitz RR, Batzer DP, Pennings SC (2014) Ecology of freshwater and estuarine wetlands: an introduction. In: Batzer DP, Sharitz RR (eds) Ecology of freshwater and estuarine wetlands, 2nd edn. Univ Calif Press, Berkeley, pp 1–22Google Scholar
  55. Sim LL, Davis JA et al (2013) The influence of changing hydroregime on the invertebrate communities of temporary seasonal wetlands. Freshw Sci 32:327–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Toyohara H, Park Y, Tsuchiya K, Liu W (2012) Cellulase activity in meiobenthos in wetlands. Fish Sci 78:133–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Traunspurger W (2002) Nematoda. In: Rundle SD, Robertson AL, Schmid-Araya JM (eds) Freshwater meiofauna: biology and ecology. Backhyus, Leiden, pp 63–104Google Scholar
  58. van der Valk AG (1981) Succession in wetlands: a Gleasonian approach. Ecology 62:688–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wellborn GA, Skelly DK, Werner EE (1996) Mechanisms creating community structure across a freshwater habitat gradient. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 27:337–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wetzel RG (2001) Limnology: lake and river ecosystems. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  61. WFD CIS (2003) The role of wetlands in the Water Framework Directive. Guidance Document, 12. Directorate General Environment of the European Commission, Brussels, ISSN: 1725-1087. ISBN 92-894-6967-6Google Scholar
  62. Wiggins GB, Mackay RJ, Smith IM (1980) Evolutionary and ecological strategies of animals in annual temporary pools. Arch Hydrobiol Suppl 58:97–206Google Scholar
  63. Wilcox C (2001) Habitat size and isolation affect colonization of seasonal wetlands by predatory aquatic insects. Isr J Zool 47:459–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Williams WD (1985) Biotic adaptations in temporary lentic waters, with special reference to those in semi-arid and arid regions. Hydrobiologia 125:85–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wissinger SA (1997) Cyclic colonization and predictable disturbance: a template for biological control in ephemeral crop systems. Biol Contr 10:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wissinger SA (1999) Ecology of wetland invertebrates: synthesis and applications for conservation and management. In: Batzer DP, Rader RD, Wissinger SA (eds) Invertebrates in freshwater wetlands of North America: ecology and management. Wiley, New York, pp 1043–1086Google Scholar
  67. Wissinger SA, Bohonak AJ, Whiteman HH, Brown WS (1999) Subalpine wetlands in Colorado: habitat permanence, salamander predation, and invertebrate communities. In: Batzer DP, Rader RD, Wissinger SA (eds) Invertebrates in freshwater wetlands of North America: ecology and management. Wiley, New York, pp 757–790Google Scholar
  68. Wrubleski DA, Rosenberg DM (1990) The chironomidae of bone pile pond, Delta Marsh, Manitoba, Canada. Wetlands 10:243–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wu HT, Lu XG et al (2013) Ant mounds alter spatial and temporal patterns of CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from a marsh soil. Soil Biol Biochem 57:884–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EntomologyUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  2. 2.GRECO, Institute of Aquatic Ecology, University of GironaGironaSpain

Personalised recommendations