A Modified Isomap Approach to Manifold Learning in Word Spotting

  • Sebastian Sudholt
  • Gernot A. Fink
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9358)


Word spotting is an effective paradigm for indexing document images with minimal human effort. Here, the use of the Bag-of-Features principle has been shown to achieve competitive results on different benchmarks. Recently, a spatial pyramid approach was used as a word image representation to improve the retrieval results even further. The high dimensionality of the spatial pyramids was attempted to be countered by applying Latent Semantic Analysis. However, this leads to increasingly worse results when reducing to lower dimensions. In this paper, we propose a new approach to reducing the dimensionality of word image descriptors which is based on a modified version of the Isomap Manifold Learning algorithm. This approach is able to not only outperform Latent Semantic Analysis but also to reduce a word image descriptor to up to \(0.12\,\%\) of its original size without losing retrieval precision. We evaluate our approach on two different datasets.


Word spotting Manifold learning Isomap Multidimensional scaling Bray Curtis distance Document image analysis 


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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Open Access This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License, which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Technische Universität DortmundDortmundGermany

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