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Coping with High and Variable Salinity: Molecular Aspects of Compatible Solute Accumulation

  • Martin Hagemann
Chapter
Part of the Developments in Applied Phycology book series (DAPH, volume 6)

Abstract

Microalgae comprising cyanobacteria and small members of diverse lineages of eukaryotic algae are found in habitats of varying salinities. Therefore, the amount of external salt or the availability of water represents one of the main environmental factors for the distribution of these organisms on Earth. Microalgae use the so-called salt-out strategy when they are exposed to high or varying salinities. This acclimation strategy includes two main features: (i) keeping rather low and unchanged internal concentrations of inorganic ions via active transport mechanisms to avoid toxic effects on metabolic activities, and (ii) accumulating low molecular hydrophilic organic compounds (compatible solutes) in high intracellular amounts to make the cytoplasm hyperosmotic toward the external medium ensuring water uptake and positive turgor. Molecular mechanisms for high salt acclimation among microalgae are presented and discussed. Compared to cyanobacteria, the knowledge on these processes is rather limited among eukaryotic algae. However, the increasing amount of genome information will improve this situation soon, since it will allow directly searching and analysing candidate proteins known to act in the high salt acclimation of model organisms such as cyanobacteria, yeast or plants. Moreover, the current efforts to use mass culture of microalgae will boost the basic research on salt acclimation, because these cultures will be made in waters of high salinity due to the limitation of global freshwater resources.

Keywords

Osmoregulation Compatible solutes Salt acclimation Halophilic Ionic regulation Iso-floridoside Proline Mannitol Glycerol Molecular mechanisms 

Notes

Acknowledgement

I would like to thank my former and present coworkers at Rostock University on this interesting project. The generous and long-term financial support of my work on cyanobacterial salt acclimation at Rostock University by grants of the DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) is greatly acknowledged.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Biosciences, Plant PhysiologyUniversity RostockRostockGermany

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