The Cell Cycle of Microalgae

  • Vilém Zachleder
  • Kateřina Bišová
  • Milada Vítová
Chapter
Part of the Developments in Applied Phycology book series (DAPH, volume 6)

Abstract

Growth and division of microalgae are indispensable for their survival and spread throughout the environment. Microalgae divide by two mechanisms: binary and multiple fission. Binary fission is the division into two daughter cells, as seen in the majority of eukaryotic organisms; it also represents a transition to multiple fission. Multiple fission, typical for some green algae, leads to division into more than two daughter cells (from 4 to 1024), in principle, 2n. Here, we describe the different organizational types of multiple fission cell cycles, with distinct timing of DNA replication, nuclear, and cellular divisions, and discuss how they are regulated at physiological and molecular levels. We show in detail how different growth conditions, particularly changes in light and temperature, will affect not only growth and the accumulation of macromolecules (RNA, protein, starch) but also, through unknown coordination mechanisms, how the cells perform multiple fission cell cycles to generate the number of daughter cells. Finally, we discuss the relationship between two major algal compartments: the nucleocytoplasmic and chloroplastic compartments. Growth and division of the two are intricately intertwined and possibly co-regulated by mechanisms that are not fully understood.

Keywords

Cell cycles Microalgae Multiple fission Commitment to cell division DNA replication Nuclear division Light intensity Temperature Chloroplast division cycle Nucleocytoplasmic and chloroplast relationships 

Abbreviations

CDK

cyclin-dependent kinase

chl-RNA

chloroplast ribosomal RNA

cyt-RNA

cytosolic ribosomal RNA

CKI

inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase

CP

commitment point

DP

dimerization partner

E2F

transcription factor

FdUrd

5-fluorodeoxyuridin, inhibitor of thymidylate synthase

NAL

nalidixic acid, an inhibitor of DNA gyrase, (1-ethy1-1,4-dihydro-7-methy1-4-oxo-1,8-naphtyridine-3-carboxylic acid)

nuc-DNA

nuclear DNA

pt-DNA

chloroplast (plastid) DNA

Rb

retinoblastoma protein

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the National Programme of Sustainability I, ID: LO1416 and by the Czech Academy of Sciences (grant number RVO 61388971). V.Z. and K.B. were supported by grant of Grant Agency of the Czech Republic no. 15-09231S.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vilém Zachleder
    • 1
  • Kateřina Bišová
    • 1
  • Milada Vítová
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Cell Cycles of Algae, Centre Algatech, Institute of MicrobiologyCzech Academy of Sciences (CAS)TřeboňCzech Republic

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