Skip to main content

Exotic Annual Bromus Invasions: Comparisons Among Species and Ecoregions in the Western United States

Part of the Springer Series on Environmental Management book series (SSEM)

Abstract

Exotic annual Bromus species are widely recognized for their potential to invade, dominate, and alter the structure and function of ecosystems. In this chapter, we summarize the invasion potential, ecosystem threats, and management strategies for different Bromus species within each of five ecoregions of the western United States. We characterize invasion potential and threats in terms of ecosystem resistance to Bromus invasion and ecosystem resilience to disturbance with an emphasis on the importance of fire regimes. We also explain how soil temperature and moisture regimes can be linked to patterns of resistance and resilience and provide a conceptual framework that can be used to evaluate the relative potential for invasion and ecological impact of the dominant exotic annual Bromus species in the western United States.

Keywords

  • Fire
  • Resilience
  • Resistance
  • Management
  • Moisture regime
  • Temperature regime

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-24930-8_2
  • Chapter length: 50 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   129.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-319-24930-8
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 2.1
Fig. 2.2
Fig. 2.3
Fig. 2.4
Fig. 2.5
Fig. 2.6
Fig. 2.7
Fig. 2.8
Fig. 2.9
Fig. 2.10
Fig. 2.11
Fig. 2.12
Fig. 2.13
Fig. 2.14
Fig. 2.15
Fig. 2.16

References

  • Abella SR, Embrey TM, Schmid SM et al (2012) Biophysical correlates with the distribution of the invasive annual red brome (Bromus rubens) on a Mojave Desert landscape. Invasive Plant Sci Manag 5:47–56

    Google Scholar 

  • Adler PB, Lauenroth WK (2000) Livestock exclusion increases the spatial heterogeneity of vegetation in Colorado shortgrass steppe. Appl Veg Sci 3:213–222

    Google Scholar 

  • Allen E, Chambers JC, Nowak RS (2008) Immediate and longer-term effects of a spring prescribed-burn on the soil seed bank in an encroaching semi-arid woodland. West N Am Nat 68:265–277

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Allen EB, Padgett PE, Bytnerowicz A et al (1998) Nitrogen deposition effects on coastal sage vegetation of southern California. In: Proceedings of the international symposium on air pollution and climate change effects on forest ecosystems. Gen Tech Rep PSW-GTR-166. USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA, pp 131–140

    Google Scholar 

  • Allen EB, Rao LE, Steers RJ et al (2009) Impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on vegetation and soils in Joshua Tree National Park. The Mojave Desert: Ecosystem processes and sustainability. University of Nevada Press, Las Vegas, NV

    Google Scholar 

  • Atkinson SY, Brown CS (2015) Attributes that confer invasiveness and impacts across the large genus Bromus – lessons from the Bromus REEnet database. In: Germino MJ, Chambers JC, Brown CS (eds) Exotic brome-grasses in arid and semiarid ecosystems of the western USA: causes, consequences, and management implications. Springer, New York, NY (Chapter 6)

    Google Scholar 

  • Augustine DJ (2010) Spatial versus temporal variation in precipitation in a semiarid ecosystem. Landscape Ecol 25:913–925

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Augustine DJ, Brewer P, Blumenthal DM et al (2014) Prescribed fire, soil inorganic nitrogen dynamics, and plant responses in a semiarid grassland. J Arid Environ 104:59–66

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Augustine DJ, Derner JD, Milchunas DG (2010) Prescribed fire, grazing, and herbaceous plant production in shortgrass steppe. Rangel Ecol Manag 63:317–323

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Augustine DJ, Milchunas DG (2009) Vegetation responses to prescribed burning of grazed shortgrass steppe. Rangel Ecol Manag 62:89–97

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Balch JK, Bradley BA, D’Antonio CM et al (2013) Introduced annual grass increases regional fire activity across the arid western USA (1980–2009). Glob Change Biol 19:173–183

    Google Scholar 

  • Beyers JL (2004) Postfire seeding for erosion control: Effectiveness and impacts on native plant communities. Conserv Biol 18:947–956

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bidwell TG, Engle DM, Moseley ME et al (2009) Invasion of Oklahoma rangelands and forests by eastern redcedar and ashe juniper, vol E947. Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service, Stillwater, OK

    Google Scholar 

  • Bidwell TG, Masters RE, Tyrl RJ (2004) A checklist of prairie, shrubland, and forest understory plants of Oklahoma: characteristics and value to deer, auail, turkey, and cattle. Fact sheet NREM-2872. Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service, Stillwater, OK

    Google Scholar 

  • Booth MS, Caldwell MM, Stark JM (2003) Overlapping resource use in three Great Basin species: implications for community invasibility and vegetation dynamics. J Ecol 91:36–48

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bradford JB, Lauenroth WK (2006) Controls over invasion of Bromus tectorum: the importance of climate, soil, disturbance and seed availability. J Veg Sci 17:693–704

    Google Scholar 

  • Bradley BA (2009) Regional analysis of the impacts of climate change on cheatgrass invasion shows potential risk and opportunity. Glob Change Biol 15:196–208

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bradley BA, Blumenthal DM, Wilcove DS et al (2010) Predicting plant invasions in an era of global change. Trends Ecol Evol 25:310–318

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Brockway DG, Gatewood RG, Paris RB (2002) Restoring fire as an ecological process in shortgrass prairie ecosystems: initial effects of prescribed burning during the dormant and growing seasons. J Environ Manag 65:135–152

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Brooks ML (1999) Habitat invasibility and dominance by alien annual plants in the western Mojave Desert. Biol Inv 1:325–337

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Brooks ML (2000) Competition between alien annual grasses and native annual plants in the Mojave Desert. Am Midl Nat 144:92–108

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Brooks ML (2003) Effects of increased soil nitrogen on the dominance of alien annual plants in the Mojave Desert. J Appl Ecol 40:344–353

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Brooks ML (2008) Plant invasions and fire regimes. In: Zouhar K, Kapler-Smith J, Sutherland S et al (eds) Wildland fire in ecosystems: fire and nonnative invasive plants. Gen Tech Rep RMRS-GTR-42-volume 6. USDA, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Ogden, UT, pp 33–46

    Google Scholar 

  • Brooks ML (2009) Spatial and temporal distribution of non-native plants in upland areas of the Mojave Desert. In: Webb RH, Fenstermaker LF, Heaton JS et al (eds) The Mojave Desert: ecosystem processes and sustainability. University of Nevada Press, Reno, NV, pp 101–124

    Google Scholar 

  • Brooks ML (2012) Effects of high fire frequency in creosote bush scrub vegetation of the Mojave Desert. Int J Wildl Fire 21:61–68

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Brooks ML, Berry KH (2006) Dominance and environmental correlates of alien annual plants in the Mojave Desert. J Arid Environ 67:100–124

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Brooks M, Chambers J (2011) Invasive plants that alter fire regimes in the deserts of North America. Rangel Ecol Manag 64:431–438

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Brooks ML, Chambers JC, McKinley RA (2013) Fire history, effects, and management in southern Nevada. In: Chambers JC, Brooks ML, Pendleton BK et al (eds) The southern Nevada agency partnership science and research synthesis: science to support land management in southern Nevada. Gen Tech Rep RMRS-GTR-303. USDA, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO, pp 75–96

    Google Scholar 

  • Brooks ML, D’Antonio CM, Richardson DM et al (2004) Effects of invasive alien plants on fire regimes. Bioscience 54:677–688

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Brooks ML, Esque TC (2002) Alien annual plants and wildfire in desert tortoise habitat: status, ecological effects, and management. Chelonian Conserv Biol 4:330–340

    Google Scholar 

  • Brooks ML, Esque TC, Duck T (2007) Creosotebush, blackbrush, and interior chaparral shrublands. In: Hood S, Miller M (eds) Fire ecology and management of the major ecosystems of Southern Utah. Gen Tech Rep RMRS-GTR-202. USDA, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. Fort Collins, CO, pp 97–110

    Google Scholar 

  • Brooks ML, Matchett JR (2006) Spatial and temporal patterns of wildfires in the Mojave Desert. 1980–2004. J Arid Environ 67:148–164

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Brooks ML, Minnich RA (2006) Southeastern Deserts Bioregion. In: Sugihara NG, van Wagtendonk JW, Shaffer KE et al (eds) Fire in California’s Ecosystems. US Press, Berkeley, pp 391–414

    Google Scholar 

  • Brooks ML, Pyke D (2001) Invasive plants and fire in the deserts of North America. In: Galley K, Wilson T (eds) Proceedings of the invasive species workshop: the role of fire in the control and spread of invasive species. Fire conference 2000: the first national congress on fire ecology, prevention and management. Miscellaneous publications No. 11, Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FL, pp 1–14

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown CS, Rice KJ (2010) Effects of belowground resource use complementarity on invasion of constructed grassland plant communities. Biol Invasions 12:1319–1334

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bykova O, Sage RF (2012) Winter cold tolerance and the geographic range separation of Bromus tectorum and Bromus rubens, two severe invasive species in North America. Glob Change Biol 18(12):3654–3663

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Callaway RM, Davis FW (1993) Vegetation dynamics, fire, and the physical environment in coastal central California. Ecology 74:1567–1578

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Calo A, Brause S, Jones S (2012) Integrated treatment with a prescribed burn and post-emergent herbicide demonstrates initial success in managing cheatgrass in a northern Colorado natural area. Nat Area J 32:300–304

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chambers JC, Germino MJ, Belnap J et al (2015) Plant community resistance to invasion by Bromus species – the roles of community attributes, Bromus interactions with plant communities, and Bromus traits. In: Germino MJ, Chambers JC, Brown CS (eds) Exotic brome-grasses in arid and semiarid ecosystems of the Western USA: causes, consequences, and management implications. Springer, New York, NY (Chapter 10)

    Google Scholar 

  • Chambers JC, Bradley BA, Brown CS et al (2014a) Resilience to stress and disturbance, and resistance to Bromus tectorum L. invasion in cold desert shrublands of western North America. Ecosystems 17:360–375

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chambers JC, Miller RF, Board DI et al (2014b) Resilience and resistance of sagebrush ecosystems: implications for state and transition models and management treatments. Rangel Ecol Manag 67:440–454

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chambers JC, Pyke DA, Maestas JD et al (2014c) Using resistance and resilience concepts to reduce impacts of invasive annual grasses and altered fire regimes on the sagebrush ecosystem and greater sage-grouse: a strategic multi-scale approach. Gen Tech Rep RMRS-GTR-326. USDA, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO, p 73

    Google Scholar 

  • Chambers JC, Roundy BA, Blank RR et al (2007) What makes Great Basin sagebrush ecosystems invasible by Bromus tectorum? Ecol Monogr 77:117–145

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Clayton W, Vorontsova MS, Harman KT, Williamson H (2006) GrassBase – The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. Accessed 20 Mar 2014

  • Compagnoni A, Adler PB (2014) Warming, soil moisture, and loss of snow increase Bromus tectorum’s population growth. Elem Sci Anth 2:000020

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Condon L, Weisberg PJ, Chambers JC (2011) Abiotic and biotic influences on Bromus tectorum invasion and Artemisia tridentata recovery after fire. Int J Wildl Fire 20:597–604

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Corbin J, D’Antonio CM (2004) Competition between native perennial and exotic annual grasses: Implications for an historical invasion. Ecology 85:1273–1283

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Corbin JD, D’Antonio CM, Bainbridge SJ (2004) Tipping the balance in restoration of native plants. In: Gordon MS, Bartol SM (eds.) Experimental Approaches to conservation biology. UC Press, Berkeley, pp 154–179

    Google Scholar 

  • Coupland R (1992) Mixed prairie. In: Coupland R (ed) Ecosystems of the World. Elsevier, Netherlands, pp 151–182

    Google Scholar 

  • Covington WW, Sackett SS (1992) Soil mineral nitrogen changes following prescribed burning in ponderosa pine. Forest Ecol Manag 54:175–191

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Crawford JA, Wahren CHA, Kyle S et al (2001) Responses of exotic plant species to fires in Pinus ponderosa forests in northern Arizona. J Veg Sci 12:261–268

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cummings DC, Bidwell TG, Medlin CR et al (2007) Ecology and management of Sericea lespedeza. Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Oklahoma State University

    Google Scholar 

  • Cushman JH, Tierney TA, Hinds JM (2004) Variable effects of feral pig disturbances on native and exotic plants in a California grassland. Ecol Appl 14:1746–1756

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • D’Antonio CM, Thomsen M (2004) Ecological resistance in theory and practice. Weed Technol 18:1572–1577

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • D’Antonio CM, Vitousek PM (1992) Biol invasions by exotic grasses, the grass fire cycle, and global change. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 23:63–87

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Davies GM, Bakker JD, Dettweiler-Robinson E et al (2012) Trajectories of change in sagebrush steppe vegetation communities in relation to multiple wildfires. Ecol Appl 22:1562–1577

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Davis MA, Grime JP, Thompson K (2000) Fluctuating resources in plant communities: a general theory of invasibility. J Ecol 88:528–534

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • DeFalco LA, Bryla DR, Smith-Longozo V et al (2003) Are Mojave Desert annual species equal? Resource acquisition and allocation for the invasive grass Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens (Poaceae) and two native species. Am J Bot 90:1045–1053

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • DeFalco LA, Fernandez GCJ, Nowak RS (2007) Variation in the establishment of a non-native annual grass influences competitive interactions with Mojave Desert perennials. Biol Invasions 9:293–307

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • DeLuca TH, MacKenziea MD, Gundalea MJ et al (2006) Wildfire-produced charcoal directly influences nitrogen cycling in forest ecosystems. Soil Sci Soc Am J 70:448–453

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • DeSimone SA, Zedler PH (1999) Shrub seedling recruitment in unburned Californian coastal sage scrub and adjacent grassland. Ecology 80:2018–2032

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dettweiler-Robinson E, Bakker JD, Grace JB (2013) Controls of biological soil crust cover and composition shift with succession in sagebrush shrub-steppe. J Arid Environ 94:96–104

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • DiTomaso JM, Brooks ML, Allen EB et al (2006) Control of invasive weeds with prescribed burning. Weed Technol 20:535–548

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dudley TL (2009) Invasive plants in Mojave Desert riparian areas. In: Webb RH, Fenstermaker LF, Heaton JS et al (eds) The Mojave Desert: ecosystem processes and sustainability. University of Nevada Press, Reno, NV, pp 125–155

    Google Scholar 

  • Earnst SL, Holmes AL (2012) Bird-habitat relationships in interior Columbia Basin shrubsteppe. Condor 114:15–29

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Eiswerth ME, Shonkwiler JS (2006) Examining post-wildfire reseeding on arid rangeland: a multivariate tobit modelling approach. Ecol Model 192:286–298

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Eliason SA, Allen E (1997) Exotic grass competition in suppressing native shrubland re-establishment. Restor Ecol 5:245–255

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Eneboe EJ, Sowell BF, Heitschmidt RK et al (2002) Drought and grazing: IV. Blue grama and western wheatgrass. J Range Manag 55:197–203

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Folke C, Carpenter S, Walker B et al (2004) Regime shifts, resilience, and biodiversity in ecosystem management. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 35:557–581

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ford P, White CS (2007) Effects of dormant-season fire at three different fire frequencies in shortgrass steppe of the southern Great Plains. In: Masters R, Galley KEM (eds) 23rd Tall timbers fire ecology conference: fire in grassland and shrubland ecosystems. Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FL, p 71

    Google Scholar 

  • Ford PL, Johnson GV (2006) Effects of dormant vs. growing-season fire in shortgrass steppe: biological soil crust and perennial grass responses. J Arid Environ 67:1–14

    Google Scholar 

  • Fornwalt PJ, Kaufmann MR, Stohlgren TJ (2010) Impacts of mixed severity wildfire on exotic plants in a Colorado ponderosa pine–Douglas-fir forest. Biol Invasions 12:2683–2695

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Freudenberger DO, Fish BE, Keeley JE (1987) Distribution and stability of grasslands in the Los Angeles Basin. Bull South Calif Acad Sci 86:13–26

    Google Scholar 

  • Garfin G, Franco G, Blanco H et al (2014) Sounthwest. In: Melillo J, Richmond TC (eds) Climate change impacts in the United States: the third national climate assessment. US global change research program, pp 461–486

    Google Scholar 

  • Germino MJ, Belnap J, Stark JM et al (2015) Ecosystem impacts of exotic annual invaders in the genus Bromus. In: Germino MJ, Chambers JC, Brown CS (eds) Exotic brome-grasses in arid and semiarid ecosystems of the Western USA: causes, consequences, and management implications. Springer, New York, NY (Chapter 3)

    Google Scholar 

  • Gundale MJ, DeLuca TH (2006) Temperature and source material influence ecological attributes of ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir charcoal. Forest Ecol Manag 231:86–93

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gundale MJ, DeLuca TH (2007) Charcoal effects on soil solution chemistry and growth of Koeleria macrantha in the ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir ecosystem. Biol Fertil Soils 43:303–311

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gundale MJ, DeLuca TH, Fiedler CE et al (2005) Restoration management in a Montana ponderosa pine forest: effects on soil physical, chemical, and biological properties. Forest Ecol Manag 213:25–38

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gundale MJ, Sutherland S, DeLuca TH (2008) Fire, native species, and soil resource interactions influence the spatio-temporal invasion pattern of Bromus tectorum. Ecography 31:201–210

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Haferkamp M, Volesky J, Borman M et al (1993) Effects of mechanical treatments and climatic factors on the productivity of northern great-plains rangeland. J Range Manag 46:346–350

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Haferkamp MR, Grings EE, Heitschmidt RK et al (2001) Suppression of annual bromes impacts rangeland: animal responses. J Range Manag 54:663–668

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Haferkamp MR, Heitschmidt RK, Karl MG (1997) Influence of Japanese brome on western wheatgrass yield. J Range Manag 50:44–50

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Haferkamp MR, Heitschmidt RK, Karl MG (1998) Clipping and Japanese brome reduce western wheatgrass standing crop. J Range Manag 51:692–698

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Haidinger TL, Keeley JE (1993) Role of high fire frequency in destruction of mixed chaparral. Madroño 40:141–147

    Google Scholar 

  • Harmoney KR (2007) Grazing and burning Japanese brome (Bromus japonicus) on mixed grass rangelands. Rangel Ecol Manag 60:479–486

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hassan M, West N (1986) Dynamics of soil seed pools in burned and unburned sagebrush semi-deserts. Ecology 67:269–272

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Haubensak KA, D’Antonio CM, Saundra Embry S et al (2014) A comparison of Bromus tectorum growth and mycorrhizal colonization in salt desert vs. sagebrush habitats. Rangel Ecol Manag 67:275–284

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Haubensak K, D’Antonio C, Wixon D (2009) Effects of fire and environmental variables on plant structure and composition in grazed salt desert shrublands of the Great Basin (USA). J Arid Environ 73:643–650

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Heitschmidt R, Grings E, Haferkamp M et al (1995) Herbage dynamics on 2 Northern Great Plains range sites. J Range Manag 48:211–217

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Heitschmidt RK, Haferkamp MR, Karl MG et al (1999) Drought and grazing: I. Effects on quantity of forage produced. J Range Manag 52:440–446

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Heitschmidt RK, Klement KD, Haferkamp MR (2005) Interactive effects of drought and grazing on Northern Great Plains rangelands. Rangel Ecol Manag 58:11–19

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hernandez RR, Sandquist DR (2011) Disturbance of biological soil crust increases emergence of exotic vascular plants in California sage scrub. Plant Ecol 212:1709–1721

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hewlett D, Johnson J, Butterfield R et al (1981) Japanese brome response to atrazine in combination with nitrogen fertilizer in the mixed prairie. J Range Manag 34:22–25

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hobbs RJ, Mooney HA (1995) Spatial and temporal variability in California annual grassland: results from a long term study. J Veg Sci 6:43–56

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Holling CS (1973) Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 4:1–2

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Holmgren R (1960) Inspection tour of old blackbrush burns in BLM District N-5, southern Nevada. USDA, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Reno Research Center, Reno, NV

    Google Scholar 

  • Hooker TD, Stark JM, Norton U et al (2008) Distribution of ecosystem C and N within contrasting vegetation types in a semiarid rangeland in the Great Basin, USA. Biogeochemistry 90:291–308

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Huenneke LF, Hamburg SP, Koide R et al (1990) Effects of soil resources on plant invasion and community structure in Californian serpentine grassland. Ecology 71:478–491

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Humphrey LD, Schupp EW (2001) Seed banks of Bromus tectorum-dominated communities in the Great Basin. West N Am Nat 61:85–92

    Google Scholar 

  • Humphrey RR (1958) The desert grassland. Bot Rev 24:193–253

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hurteau MD, Bradford JB, Fulé PZ et al (2013) Climate change, fire management, and ecological services in the southwestern US. Forest Ecol Manag 327:280–289

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jackson RD, Bartolome JW (2002) A state-transition approach to understanding non-equilibrium plant community dynamics in California grasslands. Plant Ecol 162:49–65

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jackson RD, Bartolome JW (2007) Grazing ecology of California grasslands. In: Stromberg M, Corbin J, D’Antonio CM (eds) California grasslands: ecology and management. UC Press, Berkeley, CA, pp 197–206

    Google Scholar 

  • James JJ, Drenovsky RE, Monaco TA et al (2011) Managing soil nitrogen to restore annual grass-infested plant communities: effective strategy or incomplete framework? Ecol Appl 21:490–502

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Karl MG, Heitschmidt RK, Haferkamp MR (1999) Vegetation biomass dynamics and patterns of sexual reproduction in a northern mixed-grass prairie. Am Midl Nat 141:227–237

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Keeler-Wolf T, Evens JM, Solomeshsch AI et al (2007) Community classification and nomenclature. In: Stromberg M, Corbin J, D’Antonio CM (eds) California grasslands: ecology and management. UC Press, Berkeley, CA, pp 21–36

    Google Scholar 

  • Keeley JE (1990) The California valley grassland. In: Schoenherr AA (ed) Endangered plant communities of southern California. Southern California Botanists, Fullerton, CA, pp 2–23

    Google Scholar 

  • Keeley JE, Bond WJ, Bradstock RA et al (2012) Fire in Mediterranean ecosystems: ecology, evolution and management. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, p 528

    Google Scholar 

  • Keeley JE, Brennan TJ (2012) Fire-driven alien invasion in a fire-adapted ecosystem. Oecologia 169:1043–1052

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Keeley JE, Brennan T (2015) Research on the effects of wildland fire and fire management on federally listed species and their habitats on San Clemente Island, California. Unpublished report submitted to the US Navy

    Google Scholar 

  • Keeley JE, Brennan T, Pfaff AH (2008) Fire severity and ecosystem responses following crown fires in California shrublands. Ecol Appl 18:1530–1546

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Keeley JE, Franklin J, D’Antonio C (2011) Fire and invasive plants on California landscapes. In: McKenzie D, Miller C, Falk DA (eds) The landscape ecology of fire. Springer, Netherlands, pp 193–221

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Keeley JE, McGinnis TW (2007) Impact of prescribed fire and other factors on cheatgrass persistence in a Sierra Nevada ponderosa pine forest. Int J Wildl Fire 16:96–106

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kerns BK, Buonopane M, Thies WG et al (2011) Reintroducing fire into a ponderosa pine forest with and without cattle grazing. Ecosphere 2:art59

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Klinger R, Brooks ML, Frakes N et al (2011a) Establishment of aerial seeding treatments in Blackbrush and Pinyon-Juniper sites following the 2005 Southern Nevada Complex. In: Derasaray L, Frakes N, Gentilcore D et al (eds) Southern Nevada complex emergency stabilization and rehabilitation final report. USDI, Bureau of Land Management, Ely, NV, pp 92–117 (Chapter 5)

    Google Scholar 

  • Klinger R, Brooks ML, Frakes N et al (2011b) Vegetation trends following the 2005 Southern Nevada Complex Fire. In: Derasaray L, Frakes N, Gentilcore D et al (eds) Southern Nevada complex emergency stabilization and rehabilitation final report. USDI, Bureau of Land Management, Ely, NV, pp 118–194 (Chapter 6)

    Google Scholar 

  • Knick ST, Connelly JW (2011) Greater sage-grouse: ecology and conservation of a landscape species and its habitats, vol 38, Studies in Avian Biology. UC Press, Berkeley, CA

    Google Scholar 

  • Knick ST, Hanser SE, Miller RF et al (2011) Ecological pathways of land use in sagebrush. In: Knick ST, Connelly JW (eds) Greater sage-grouse: ecology and conservation of a landscape species and its habitats, vol 38, Studies in Avian Biology. UC Press, Berkeley, CA, pp 203–251 (Chapter 12)

    Google Scholar 

  • Knutson KC, Pyke DA, Wirth TA et al (2014) Long-term effects of seeding after wildfire on vegetation in Great Basin shrubland ecosystems. J Appl Ecol 51:1414–1424

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kotanen PM, Bergelson J, Hazlett DL (1998) Habitats of native and exotic plants in Colorado shortgrass steppe: a comparative approach. Can J Bot 76:664–672

    Google Scholar 

  • Kulmatiski A, Beard KH, Stark JM (2006) Exotic plant communities shift water-use timing in a shrub-steppe ecosystem. Plant Soil 288:271–284

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kulpa SM, Leger EA, Espeland EK et al (2012) Postfire seeding and plant community recovery in the Great Basin. Rangel Ecol Manag 65(2):171–181

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lauenroth WK (2008) Vegetation of the Shortgrass Steppe. In: Lauenroth WK, Burke IC (eds) Ecology of the shortgrass steppe: a longterm perspective. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, p 7083

    Google Scholar 

  • Lauenroth W, Milchunas DG (1992) Short-grass steppe. In: Coupland R (ed) Ecosystems of the world. Elsevier, Netherlands, pp 183–226

    Google Scholar 

  • Lauenroth W, Burke IC, Morgan JA (2008) The shortgrass steppe. In: Lauenroth W, Burke IC (eds) Ecology of the shortgrass steppe: a long-term perspective. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, pp 3–13

    Google Scholar 

  • Leger EA, Espeland EK, Merrill KR et al (2009) Genetic variation and local adaptation at a cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) invasion edge in western Nevada. Mol Ecol 18:4366–4379

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lovich JE, Bainbridge D (1999) Anthropogenic degradation of the southern California desert ecosystem and prospects for natural recovery and restoration. Environ Manag 24:309–326

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lovtang SCP, Riegel GM (2012) Predicting the occurrence of downy brome (Bromus tectorum) in central Oregon. Invasive Plant Sci Manag 5:83–91

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lulow ME (2006) Invasion by non-native annual grasses: the importance of species biomass, composition and time among California native grasses of the Central Valley. Restor Ecol 14:616–626

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mack RN, Pyke DA (1983) The demography of Bromus tectorum: variation in time and space. J Ecol 71:69–93

    Google Scholar 

  • Maron JL, Connors P (1996) A native nitrogen-fixing shrub facilitates weed invasion. Oecologia 105:302–312

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Maron JL, Jeffries RL (1999) Bush lupine mortality, altered resource availability and alternative vegetation states. Ecology 80:443–454

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Marty JT, Collinge SK, Rice KJ (2005) Responses of a remnant native bunchgrass population to grazing, burning and climatic variation. Plant Ecol 181:101–112

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Masters RA, Vogel KP, Mitchell RB (1992) Response of central plains tallgrass to fire, fertilizer, and atrazine. J Range Manag 45(3):291–295

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mazzola MB, Chambers JC, Blank RR et al (2011) Effects of resource availability and propagule supply on native species recruitment in sagebrush ecosystems invaded by Bromus tectorum. Biol Invasions 13:513–526

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McGinnis TW, Keeley JE, Stephens SL et al (2010) Fuel buildup and potential fire behavior after stand-replacing fires, logging fire-killed trees and herbicide shrub removal in Sierra Nevada forests. Forest Ecol Manag 260:22–35

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McGlone CM, Springer JD, Covington WW (2009) Cheatgrass encroachment on a ponderosa pine Ecol Restor project in northern Arizona. Ecol Restor 27:37–46

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McPherson GR (1995) The role of fire in the desert grasslands. In: McClaran MP, Van Devender TR, Thomas R (eds) The desert grassland. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ, pp 130–151

    Google Scholar 

  • McPherson GR, Weltzin JF (2000) The role and importance of disturbance and climate change in US/Mexico borderlands: a state-of-the-knowledge review. Gen Tech Rep RMRS-GTR-50. USDA, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO, p 24

    Google Scholar 

  • Meixner T, Wohlgemuth PM (2003) Climate variability, fire, vegetation recovery, and watershed hydrology. First interagency conference on research in the watersheds, Benson, AZ, 27–30 October 2003, pp 651–656

    Google Scholar 

  • Meng R, Dennison PE, D’Antonio CM et al (2014) Remote sensing analysis of vegetation recovery following short-interval fires in southern California shrublands. PLoS One 9, e110637

    Google Scholar 

  • Meyer SE, Garvin SC, Beckstead J (2001) Factors mediating cheatgrass invasion of intact salt desert shrubland. In: McArthur D, Fairbanks DJ (eds) Shrubland ecosystem genetics and biodiversity. Gen Tech Rep RMRS-P-21. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO, pp 224–232

    Google Scholar 

  • Meyer SE, Quinney D, Nelson DL et al (2007) Impact of the pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda on Bromus tectorum seedbank dynamics in North American cold deserts. Weed Res 47:54–62

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Milchunas DG, Lauenroth WK, Chapman PL (1992) Plant competition, abiotic, and long-term and short-term effects of large herbivores on demography of opportunistic species in a semiarid grassland. Oecologia 92:520–531

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Milchunas DG, Vandever MW, Ball LO et al (2011) Allelopathic cover crop prior to seeding is more important than subsequent grazing/mowing in grassland establishment. Rangel Ecol Manag 64:291–300

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Miller R, Chambers JC, Pyke DA, et al (2013) A review of fire effects on vegetation and soils in the Great Basin Region: response and ecological site characteristics. Gen Tech Rep RMRS-GTR-308. USDA, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO

    Google Scholar 

  • Miller RF, Knick ST, Pyke DA et al (2011) Characteristics of sagebrush habitats and limitations to long-term conservation. Stud Avian Biol 38:145–184

    Google Scholar 

  • Minnich R (2008) California’s fading wildflowers: lost legacy and biological invasions. UC Press, Berkeley, CA

    Google Scholar 

  • Molinari N (2014) Invasion, impact and persistence of an exotic annual grass. PhD dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara, p 181

    Google Scholar 

  • Molinari N, D’Antonio CM (2014) Structural, compositional and trait differences between native- and non-native-dominated grassland patches. Funct Ecol 28:745–754

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Monaco TA, Hardegree SP, Pellant M et al (2015) Assessing restoration and management needs for ecosystems invaded by exotic annual Bromus species. In: Germino MJ, Chambers JC, Brown CS (eds) Exotic brome-grasses in arid and semiarid ecosystems of the Western USA: causes, consequences, and management implications. Springer, New York, NY (Chapter 12)

    Google Scholar 

  • Monaco TA, Sheley R (2012) Invasive plant ecology and management: linking processes to practice. CABI Invasive Series. CABI

    Google Scholar 

  • Monleon VJ, Cromack K, Landsberg JD (1997) Short- and long-term effects of prescribed underburning on nitrogen availability in ponderosa pine stands in central Oregon. Can J Forest Res 27:369–378

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Monsen SB, Stevens R, Shaw NL (2004) Restoring western ranges and wildlands. Gen Tech Rep RMRS-GTR-1136-vol 1, 2, 3. USDA, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO, p 294

    Google Scholar 

  • Moran MS, Ponce-Campos GE, Huete A et al (2014) Functional response of US grasslands to the early 21st-century drought. Ecology 95:2121–2133

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Moser WK, Barnard EL, Billings RF, Crocker SJ et al (2009) Impacts of nonnative invasive species on US forests and recommendations for policy and management. J Forestry 107:320–327

    Google Scholar 

  • Munson SM, Lauenroth WK (2009) Plant population and community responses to removal of dominant species in the shortgrass steppe. J Veg Sci 20:224–232

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ogle SM, Ojima D, Reiners WA (2004) Modeling the impact of exotic annual brome grasses on soil organic carbon storage in a northern mixed-grass prairie. Biol Invasions 6:365–377

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ogle SM, Reiners WA (2002) A phytosociological study of exotic annual brome grasses in a mixed grass prairie/ponderosa pine forest ecotone. Am Midl Nat 147:25–31

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ogle SM, Reiners WA, Gerow KG (2003) Impacts of exotic annual brome grasses (Bromus spp.) on ecosystem properties of northern mixed grass prairie. Am Midl Nat 149:46–58

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Osborne CP, Visser V, Chapman S et al (2011) GrassPortal: an online ecological and evolutionary data facility. www.grassportal.org. Accessed 16 Feb 2015

  • Pauchard A, Kueffer C, Dietz H et al (2009) Ain’t no mountain high enough: plant invasions reaching new elevations. Front Ecol Environ 7:479–486

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pavlik LE (1995) Bromus L. of North America. Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, BC, p 160

    Google Scholar 

  • Pierson EA, Mack RN (1990) The population of biology of Bromus tectorum in forests: effect of disturbance, grazing, and litter on seedling establishment and reproduction. Oecologia 84:526–533

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pyke D (2011) Restoring and rehabilitating sagebrush habitats. In: Knick S, Connelly JW (eds) Greater sage-grouse: ecology and conservation of a landscape species and its habitats, vol 38. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, pp 531–548

    Google Scholar 

  • Pyke DA, Chambers JC, Beck JL et al (2015) Land uses, fire, and invasion – exotic annual Bromus and human dimensions. In: Germino MJ, Chambers JC, Brown CS (eds) Exotic brome-grasses in arid and semiarid ecosystems of the Western USA: causes, consequences, and management implications. Springer, New York, NY (Chapter 11)

    Google Scholar 

  • Pyke DA, Wirth TA, Beyers JL (2013) Does seeding after wildfires in rangelands reduce erosion or invasive species? Restor Ecol 21:415–421

    Google Scholar 

  • Ramakrishnan AP, Meyer SE, Fairbanks DJ et al (2006) Ecological significance of microsatellite variation in western North American populations of Bromus tectorum. Plant Species Biol 21:61–73

    Google Scholar 

  • Rao LE, Allen EB (2010) Combined effects of precipitation and nitrogen deposition on native and invasive winter annual production in California deserts. Oecologia 162(4):1035–1046

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rao LE, Allen EB, Meixner T (2010) Risk-based determination of critical nitrogen deposition loads for fire spread in southern California deserts. Ecol Appl 20:1320–1335

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rao LE, Matchett JR, Brooks ML et al (2015) Relationships between annual plant productivity, nitrogen deposition and fire size in low-elevation California desert scrub. Int J Wildl Fire 24:48–58

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Reisner MD, Grace JB, Pyke DA et al (2013) Conditions favouring Bromus tectorum dominance of endangered sagebrush steppe ecosystems. J Appl Ecol 50:1039–1049

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rice KJ, Mack RN (1991) Ecological genetics of Bromus tectorum. III. The demography of reciprocally sown populations. Oecologia 88:91–101

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rice KJ, Nagy ES (2000) Oak canopy effects on the distribution patterns of two annual grasses: the role of competition and soil nutrients. Am J Bot 87:1699–1706

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rimer RL, Evans RD (2006) Invasion of downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) causes rapid changes in the nitrogen cycle. Am Midl Nat 156:252–258

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rinella MJ, Haferkamp MR, Masters RA et al (2010a) Growth regulator herbicides prevent invasive annual grass seed production. Invasive Plant Sci Manag 3:12–16

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rinella MJ, Masters RA, Bellows SE (2010b) Growth regulator herbicides prevent invasive annual grass seed production under field conditions. Rangel Ecol Manag 63:487–490

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rinella MJ, Masters RA, Bellows SE (2013) Effects of growth regulator herbicide on Downy brome (Bromus tectorum) seed production. Invasive Plant Sci Manag 6:60–64

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rochester CJ, Brehme CS, Clark DR et al (2010) Reptile and amphibian responses to large-scale wildfires in southern California. J Herpetol 44:333–351

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Romps DM, Seeley JT, Vollaro D et al (2014) Projected increase in lightning strikes in the United States due to global warming. Science 346:851–854

    Google Scholar 

  • Roundy BA, Hardegree SP, Chambers JC et al (2007) Prediction of cheatgrass field germination potential using wet thermal accumulation. Rangel Ecol Manag 60:613–623

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Safford HD, Van de Water KM (2014) Using fire return interval departure (FRID) analysis to map spatial and temporal changes in fire frequency on national forest lands in California. Gen Tech Rep PSW-RP-266. USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, p 59

    Google Scholar 

  • Salo LF (2005) Red brome (Bromus rubens subsp madritensis) in North America: possible modes for early introductions, subsequent spread. Biol Invasions 7:165–180

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sankey JB, Germino MJ, Glenn NF (2009) Aeolian sediment transport following wildfire in sagebrush steppe. J Arid Environ 73:912–919

    Google Scholar 

  • Schaeffer SM, Ziegler SE, Belnap J et al (2012) Effects of Bromus tectorum invasion on microbial carbon and nitrogen cycling in two adjacent undisturbed arid grassland communities. Biogeochemistry 111:427–441

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Scheintaub MR, Derner JD, Kelly EF et al (2009) Response of the shortgrass steppe plant community to fire. J Arid Environ 73:1136–1143

    Google Scholar 

  • Seabloom EW, Harpole WS, Riechman OJ et al (2003) Invasion, competitive dominance and resource use by exotic and native California grassland species. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:13384–13389

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Shinneman DJ, Baker WL (2009) Environmental and climatic variables as potential drivers of post-fire cover of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) in seeded and unseeded semiarid ecosystems. Int J Wildl Fire 18:191–202

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sims P, Risser PG (2000) Grasslands. In: Barbour M, Billings WD (eds) North American terrestrial vegetation, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 323–356

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith SD, Strain BR, Sharkey TD (1987) Effects of CO2 enrichment on four Great Basin grasses. Funct Ecol 1:139–143

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sorensen CD, McGlone CM (2010) Ponderosa pine understory response to short-term grazing exclusion (Arizona). Ecol Restor 28:124–126

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Stahlheber K (2013) The influence of savanna oaks on California grassland composition. PhD dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara, p 275

    Google Scholar 

  • Stahlheber K, D’Antonio CM (2013) Using livestock to manage plant composition: a meta-analysis of grazing in California Mediterranean grassland. Biol Conserv 157:300–308

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Strand EK, Launchbaugh KL (2013) Livestock grazing effects on fuel loads for wildland fire in sagebrush dominated ecosystems. Great Basin fire science delivery report, p 21

    Google Scholar 

  • Stylinski CD, Allen EB (1999) Lack of native species recovery following severe exotic disturbance in southern Californian shrublands. J Appl Ecol 36:544–554

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Suttle B, Thomsen MA, Power ME (2007) Species interactions reverse grassland responses to changing climate. Science 315:640–642

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sweet SB, Kyser GB, DiTomaso JM (2008) Susceptibility of exotic annual grass seeds to fire. Invasive Plant Sci Manag 1:158–167

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Symstad A, Long AJ, Stamm JF et al (2014) Two approaches for incorporating climate change into natural resource management planning at Wind Cave National Park. Gen Tech Rep NPS/WICA/NRTR-2014.918. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO

    Google Scholar 

  • Syphard AD, Keeley JE (2015) Location, timing and extent of wildfire vary by cause of ignition. Int J Wildl Fire 24:37–47

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tagestad J, Brooks M, Cullinan V et al (in press) Precipitation regime classification for the Mojave Desert: implications for fire occurrence. J Arid Environ

    Google Scholar 

  • Talluto MV, Suding KN (2008) Historical change in coastal sage scrub in southern California, USA in relation to fire frequency and air pollution. Landscape Ecol 23:803–815

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Teague WR, Dowhower SL (2003) Patch dynamics under rotational and continuous grazing management in large, heterogeneous paddocks. J Arid Environ 53:211–229

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Teague WR, Dowhower SL, Baker SA et al (2010) Soil and herbaceous plant responses to summer patch burns under continuous and rotational grazing. Agr Ecosyst Environ 137:113–123

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Teague WR, Dowhower SL, Waggoner JA (2004) Drought and grazing patch dynamics under different grazing management. J Arid Environ 58:97–117

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Teague WR, Duke SE, Waggoner JA et al (2008) Rangeland vegetation and soil response to summer patch fires under continuous grazing. Arid Land Res Manag 22:228–241

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • USDA NRCS (2015) The PLANTS Database. http://plants.usda.gov. Accessed 26 Feb 2015

  • Van Dyne G (1975) An overview of the ecology of the Great Plains grasslands with special reference to climate and its impact. Grassland biome – ecosystem analysis studies. Gen Tech Rep 290. Natural resources ecology laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO

    Google Scholar 

  • Vermeire LT, Crowder JL, Wester DB (2011) Plant community and soil environment response to summer fire in the Northern Great Plains. Rangel Ecol Manag 64:37–46

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Vermeire LT, Crowder JL, Wester DB (2014) Semiarid rangeland is resilient to summer fire and postfire grazing utilization. Rangel Ecol Manag 67:52–60

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Vermeire LT, Heitschniidt RK, Haferkamp MR (2008) Vegetation response to seven grazing treatments in the Northern Great Plains. Agric Ecosyst Environ 125:111–119

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Walker BH, Holling CS, Carpenter SR et al (2004) Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social-ecological systems. Ecol Soc 9:5

    Google Scholar 

  • Walsh J, Wuebbles D, Hayhoe K et al (2014) Our changing climate. In: Melillo JM, Richmond TC, Yohe GW (eds) Climate change impacts in the United States: the third national climate assessment. US Global Change Research Program, pp 19–67

    Google Scholar 

  • West N (1983a) Great Basin-Colorado Plateau sagebrush semi-desert. Temperate Deserts and Semi-deserts. Elsevier, Amsterdam

    Google Scholar 

  • West N (1983b) Intermountain salt-desert shrubland. Temperate Deserts and Semi-deserts. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 375–378

    Google Scholar 

  • Westerling AL, Bryant BP (2008) Climate change and wildfire in California. Clim Change 87:S231–S249

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Westerling AL, Hidalgo HG, Cayan DR et al (2006) Warming and earlier spring increase western U.S. forest wildfire activity. Science 313:940–943

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Westman WE (1979) Oxidant effects on Californian coastal sage scrub. Science 205:1001–1003

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Whisenant SG (1990) Changing fire frequencies on Idaho’s Snake River Plains: ecological and management implications. In: McArthur ED, Romney EM, Smith SD et al (eds) Symposium on cheatgrass invasion, shrub die-off and other aspects of shrub biology and management, 5–7 April 1989, Las Vegas, NV. Gen Tech Rep INT-276. USDA, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Ogden, UT, pp 4–10

    Google Scholar 

  • Whisenant S, Ueckert D, Scifres C (1984) Effects of fire on Texas wintergrass communities. J Range Manag 37:387–391

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Whisenant SG, Uresk DW (1990) Spring burning Japanese brome in a western wheatgrass community. J Range Manag 43:205–208

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • White CS, Loftin SR (2000) Response of two semiarid grasslands to cool-season prescribed fire. J Range Manag 53:52–61

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wilcox BP, Turnbull L, Young MH et al (2012) Invasion of shrublands by exotic grasses: ecohydrological consequences in cold versus warm deserts. Ecohydrology 5:160–173

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wiken E, Nava FJ, Griffith G (2011) North American Terrestrial Ecoregions—Level III. Commission for Environmental Cooperation, Montreal, Canada

    Google Scholar 

  • Wolkovich EM, Bolger DT, Holway DA et al (2009a) Invasive grass litter facilitates native shrubs through abiotic effects. J Veg Sci 20:1121–1132

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wolkovich EM, Bolger DT, Holway DA (2009b) Complex responses to invasive grass litter by ground arthropods in a Mediterranean scrub ecosystem. Oecologia 262:697–708

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wright HE, Bailey AW (1982) Fire ecology: United States and Canada. Wiley, New York, NY

    Google Scholar 

  • Yensen E, Quinney DL, Johnson K et al (1992) Fire, vegetation changes, and population fluctuations of Townsend ground-squirrels. Am Midl Nat 128:299–312

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Zedler PH, Gautier CR, McMaster GS (1983) Vegetation change in response to extreme events: the effect of a short interval between fires in California chaparral and coastal scrub. Ecology 64:809–818

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Matthew L. Brooks .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Appendix

Appendix

See Table 2.2.

Table 2.2 GrassPortal (www.grassportal.org, accessed 16 Feb 2015, Osborne et al. 2011) site localities used to construct Fig. 2.2

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Brooks, M.L., Brown, C.S., Chambers, J.C., D’Antonio, C.M., Keeley, J.E., Belnap, J. (2016). Exotic Annual Bromus Invasions: Comparisons Among Species and Ecoregions in the Western United States. In: Germino, M., Chambers, J., Brown, C. (eds) Exotic Brome-Grasses in Arid and Semiarid Ecosystems of the Western US. Springer Series on Environmental Management. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-24930-8_2

Download citation