Exotic Annual Bromus Invasions: Comparisons Among Species and Ecoregions in the Western United States

  • Matthew L. BrooksEmail author
  • Cynthia S. Brown
  • Jeanne C. Chambers
  • Carla M. D’Antonio
  • Jon E. Keeley
  • Jayne Belnap
Part of the Springer Series on Environmental Management book series (SSEM)


Exotic annual Bromus species are widely recognized for their potential to invade, dominate, and alter the structure and function of ecosystems. In this chapter, we summarize the invasion potential, ecosystem threats, and management strategies for different Bromus species within each of five ecoregions of the western United States. We characterize invasion potential and threats in terms of ecosystem resistance to Bromus invasion and ecosystem resilience to disturbance with an emphasis on the importance of fire regimes. We also explain how soil temperature and moisture regimes can be linked to patterns of resistance and resilience and provide a conceptual framework that can be used to evaluate the relative potential for invasion and ecological impact of the dominant exotic annual Bromus species in the western United States.


Fire Resilience Resistance Management Moisture regime Temperature regime 


  1. Abella SR, Embrey TM, Schmid SM et al (2012) Biophysical correlates with the distribution of the invasive annual red brome (Bromus rubens) on a Mojave Desert landscape. Invasive Plant Sci Manag 5:47–56Google Scholar
  2. Adler PB, Lauenroth WK (2000) Livestock exclusion increases the spatial heterogeneity of vegetation in Colorado shortgrass steppe. Appl Veg Sci 3:213–222Google Scholar
  3. Allen E, Chambers JC, Nowak RS (2008) Immediate and longer-term effects of a spring prescribed-burn on the soil seed bank in an encroaching semi-arid woodland. West N Am Nat 68:265–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allen EB, Padgett PE, Bytnerowicz A et al (1998) Nitrogen deposition effects on coastal sage vegetation of southern California. In: Proceedings of the international symposium on air pollution and climate change effects on forest ecosystems. Gen Tech Rep PSW-GTR-166. USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA, pp 131–140Google Scholar
  5. Allen EB, Rao LE, Steers RJ et al (2009) Impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on vegetation and soils in Joshua Tree National Park. The Mojave Desert: Ecosystem processes and sustainability. University of Nevada Press, Las Vegas, NVGoogle Scholar
  6. Atkinson SY, Brown CS (2015) Attributes that confer invasiveness and impacts across the large genus Bromus – lessons from the Bromus REEnet database. In: Germino MJ, Chambers JC, Brown CS (eds) Exotic brome-grasses in arid and semiarid ecosystems of the western USA: causes, consequences, and management implications. Springer, New York, NY (Chapter 6)Google Scholar
  7. Augustine DJ (2010) Spatial versus temporal variation in precipitation in a semiarid ecosystem. Landscape Ecol 25:913–925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Augustine DJ, Brewer P, Blumenthal DM et al (2014) Prescribed fire, soil inorganic nitrogen dynamics, and plant responses in a semiarid grassland. J Arid Environ 104:59–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Augustine DJ, Derner JD, Milchunas DG (2010) Prescribed fire, grazing, and herbaceous plant production in shortgrass steppe. Rangel Ecol Manag 63:317–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Augustine DJ, Milchunas DG (2009) Vegetation responses to prescribed burning of grazed shortgrass steppe. Rangel Ecol Manag 62:89–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Balch JK, Bradley BA, D’Antonio CM et al (2013) Introduced annual grass increases regional fire activity across the arid western USA (1980–2009). Glob Change Biol 19:173–183Google Scholar
  12. Beyers JL (2004) Postfire seeding for erosion control: Effectiveness and impacts on native plant communities. Conserv Biol 18:947–956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bidwell TG, Engle DM, Moseley ME et al (2009) Invasion of Oklahoma rangelands and forests by eastern redcedar and ashe juniper, vol E947. Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service, Stillwater, OKGoogle Scholar
  14. Bidwell TG, Masters RE, Tyrl RJ (2004) A checklist of prairie, shrubland, and forest understory plants of Oklahoma: characteristics and value to deer, auail, turkey, and cattle. Fact sheet NREM-2872. Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service, Stillwater, OKGoogle Scholar
  15. Booth MS, Caldwell MM, Stark JM (2003) Overlapping resource use in three Great Basin species: implications for community invasibility and vegetation dynamics. J Ecol 91:36–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bradford JB, Lauenroth WK (2006) Controls over invasion of Bromus tectorum: the importance of climate, soil, disturbance and seed availability. J Veg Sci 17:693–704Google Scholar
  17. Bradley BA (2009) Regional analysis of the impacts of climate change on cheatgrass invasion shows potential risk and opportunity. Glob Change Biol 15:196–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bradley BA, Blumenthal DM, Wilcove DS et al (2010) Predicting plant invasions in an era of global change. Trends Ecol Evol 25:310–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brockway DG, Gatewood RG, Paris RB (2002) Restoring fire as an ecological process in shortgrass prairie ecosystems: initial effects of prescribed burning during the dormant and growing seasons. J Environ Manag 65:135–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brooks ML (1999) Habitat invasibility and dominance by alien annual plants in the western Mojave Desert. Biol Inv 1:325–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brooks ML (2000) Competition between alien annual grasses and native annual plants in the Mojave Desert. Am Midl Nat 144:92–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brooks ML (2003) Effects of increased soil nitrogen on the dominance of alien annual plants in the Mojave Desert. J Appl Ecol 40:344–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Brooks ML (2008) Plant invasions and fire regimes. In: Zouhar K, Kapler-Smith J, Sutherland S et al (eds) Wildland fire in ecosystems: fire and nonnative invasive plants. Gen Tech Rep RMRS-GTR-42-volume 6. USDA, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Ogden, UT, pp 33–46Google Scholar
  24. Brooks ML (2009) Spatial and temporal distribution of non-native plants in upland areas of the Mojave Desert. In: Webb RH, Fenstermaker LF, Heaton JS et al (eds) The Mojave Desert: ecosystem processes and sustainability. University of Nevada Press, Reno, NV, pp 101–124Google Scholar
  25. Brooks ML (2012) Effects of high fire frequency in creosote bush scrub vegetation of the Mojave Desert. Int J Wildl Fire 21:61–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Brooks ML, Berry KH (2006) Dominance and environmental correlates of alien annual plants in the Mojave Desert. J Arid Environ 67:100–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Brooks M, Chambers J (2011) Invasive plants that alter fire regimes in the deserts of North America. Rangel Ecol Manag 64:431–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Brooks ML, Chambers JC, McKinley RA (2013) Fire history, effects, and management in southern Nevada. In: Chambers JC, Brooks ML, Pendleton BK et al (eds) The southern Nevada agency partnership science and research synthesis: science to support land management in southern Nevada. Gen Tech Rep RMRS-GTR-303. USDA, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO, pp 75–96Google Scholar
  29. Brooks ML, D’Antonio CM, Richardson DM et al (2004) Effects of invasive alien plants on fire regimes. Bioscience 54:677–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Brooks ML, Esque TC (2002) Alien annual plants and wildfire in desert tortoise habitat: status, ecological effects, and management. Chelonian Conserv Biol 4:330–340Google Scholar
  31. Brooks ML, Esque TC, Duck T (2007) Creosotebush, blackbrush, and interior chaparral shrublands. In: Hood S, Miller M (eds) Fire ecology and management of the major ecosystems of Southern Utah. Gen Tech Rep RMRS-GTR-202. USDA, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. Fort Collins, CO, pp 97–110Google Scholar
  32. Brooks ML, Matchett JR (2006) Spatial and temporal patterns of wildfires in the Mojave Desert. 1980–2004. J Arid Environ 67:148–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Brooks ML, Minnich RA (2006) Southeastern Deserts Bioregion. In: Sugihara NG, van Wagtendonk JW, Shaffer KE et al (eds) Fire in California’s Ecosystems. US Press, Berkeley, pp 391–414Google Scholar
  34. Brooks ML, Pyke D (2001) Invasive plants and fire in the deserts of North America. In: Galley K, Wilson T (eds) Proceedings of the invasive species workshop: the role of fire in the control and spread of invasive species. Fire conference 2000: the first national congress on fire ecology, prevention and management. Miscellaneous publications No. 11, Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FL, pp 1–14Google Scholar
  35. Brown CS, Rice KJ (2010) Effects of belowground resource use complementarity on invasion of constructed grassland plant communities. Biol Invasions 12:1319–1334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Bykova O, Sage RF (2012) Winter cold tolerance and the geographic range separation of Bromus tectorum and Bromus rubens, two severe invasive species in North America. Glob Change Biol 18(12):3654–3663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Callaway RM, Davis FW (1993) Vegetation dynamics, fire, and the physical environment in coastal central California. Ecology 74:1567–1578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Calo A, Brause S, Jones S (2012) Integrated treatment with a prescribed burn and post-emergent herbicide demonstrates initial success in managing cheatgrass in a northern Colorado natural area. Nat Area J 32:300–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Chambers JC, Germino MJ, Belnap J et al (2015) Plant community resistance to invasion by Bromus species – the roles of community attributes, Bromus interactions with plant communities, and Bromus traits. In: Germino MJ, Chambers JC, Brown CS (eds) Exotic brome-grasses in arid and semiarid ecosystems of the Western USA: causes, consequences, and management implications. Springer, New York, NY (Chapter 10)Google Scholar
  40. Chambers JC, Bradley BA, Brown CS et al (2014a) Resilience to stress and disturbance, and resistance to Bromus tectorum L. invasion in cold desert shrublands of western North America. Ecosystems 17:360–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Chambers JC, Miller RF, Board DI et al (2014b) Resilience and resistance of sagebrush ecosystems: implications for state and transition models and management treatments. Rangel Ecol Manag 67:440–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Chambers JC, Pyke DA, Maestas JD et al (2014c) Using resistance and resilience concepts to reduce impacts of invasive annual grasses and altered fire regimes on the sagebrush ecosystem and greater sage-grouse: a strategic multi-scale approach. Gen Tech Rep RMRS-GTR-326. USDA, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO, p 73Google Scholar
  43. Chambers JC, Roundy BA, Blank RR et al (2007) What makes Great Basin sagebrush ecosystems invasible by Bromus tectorum? Ecol Monogr 77:117–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Clayton W, Vorontsova MS, Harman KT, Williamson H (2006) GrassBase – The Online World Grass Flora. Accessed 20 Mar 2014
  45. Compagnoni A, Adler PB (2014) Warming, soil moisture, and loss of snow increase Bromus tectorum’s population growth. Elem Sci Anth 2:000020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Condon L, Weisberg PJ, Chambers JC (2011) Abiotic and biotic influences on Bromus tectorum invasion and Artemisia tridentata recovery after fire. Int J Wildl Fire 20:597–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Corbin J, D’Antonio CM (2004) Competition between native perennial and exotic annual grasses: Implications for an historical invasion. Ecology 85:1273–1283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Corbin JD, D’Antonio CM, Bainbridge SJ (2004) Tipping the balance in restoration of native plants. In: Gordon MS, Bartol SM (eds.) Experimental Approaches to conservation biology. UC Press, Berkeley, pp 154–179Google Scholar
  49. Coupland R (1992) Mixed prairie. In: Coupland R (ed) Ecosystems of the World. Elsevier, Netherlands, pp 151–182Google Scholar
  50. Covington WW, Sackett SS (1992) Soil mineral nitrogen changes following prescribed burning in ponderosa pine. Forest Ecol Manag 54:175–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Crawford JA, Wahren CHA, Kyle S et al (2001) Responses of exotic plant species to fires in Pinus ponderosa forests in northern Arizona. J Veg Sci 12:261–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Cummings DC, Bidwell TG, Medlin CR et al (2007) Ecology and management of Sericea lespedeza. Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Oklahoma State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  53. Cushman JH, Tierney TA, Hinds JM (2004) Variable effects of feral pig disturbances on native and exotic plants in a California grassland. Ecol Appl 14:1746–1756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. D’Antonio CM, Thomsen M (2004) Ecological resistance in theory and practice. Weed Technol 18:1572–1577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. D’Antonio CM, Vitousek PM (1992) Biol invasions by exotic grasses, the grass fire cycle, and global change. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 23:63–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Davies GM, Bakker JD, Dettweiler-Robinson E et al (2012) Trajectories of change in sagebrush steppe vegetation communities in relation to multiple wildfires. Ecol Appl 22:1562–1577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Davis MA, Grime JP, Thompson K (2000) Fluctuating resources in plant communities: a general theory of invasibility. J Ecol 88:528–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. DeFalco LA, Bryla DR, Smith-Longozo V et al (2003) Are Mojave Desert annual species equal? Resource acquisition and allocation for the invasive grass Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens (Poaceae) and two native species. Am J Bot 90:1045–1053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. DeFalco LA, Fernandez GCJ, Nowak RS (2007) Variation in the establishment of a non-native annual grass influences competitive interactions with Mojave Desert perennials. Biol Invasions 9:293–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. DeLuca TH, MacKenziea MD, Gundalea MJ et al (2006) Wildfire-produced charcoal directly influences nitrogen cycling in forest ecosystems. Soil Sci Soc Am J 70:448–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. DeSimone SA, Zedler PH (1999) Shrub seedling recruitment in unburned Californian coastal sage scrub and adjacent grassland. Ecology 80:2018–2032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Dettweiler-Robinson E, Bakker JD, Grace JB (2013) Controls of biological soil crust cover and composition shift with succession in sagebrush shrub-steppe. J Arid Environ 94:96–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. DiTomaso JM, Brooks ML, Allen EB et al (2006) Control of invasive weeds with prescribed burning. Weed Technol 20:535–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Dudley TL (2009) Invasive plants in Mojave Desert riparian areas. In: Webb RH, Fenstermaker LF, Heaton JS et al (eds) The Mojave Desert: ecosystem processes and sustainability. University of Nevada Press, Reno, NV, pp 125–155Google Scholar
  65. Earnst SL, Holmes AL (2012) Bird-habitat relationships in interior Columbia Basin shrubsteppe. Condor 114:15–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Eiswerth ME, Shonkwiler JS (2006) Examining post-wildfire reseeding on arid rangeland: a multivariate tobit modelling approach. Ecol Model 192:286–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Eliason SA, Allen E (1997) Exotic grass competition in suppressing native shrubland re-establishment. Restor Ecol 5:245–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Eneboe EJ, Sowell BF, Heitschmidt RK et al (2002) Drought and grazing: IV. Blue grama and western wheatgrass. J Range Manag 55:197–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Folke C, Carpenter S, Walker B et al (2004) Regime shifts, resilience, and biodiversity in ecosystem management. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 35:557–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ford P, White CS (2007) Effects of dormant-season fire at three different fire frequencies in shortgrass steppe of the southern Great Plains. In: Masters R, Galley KEM (eds) 23rd Tall timbers fire ecology conference: fire in grassland and shrubland ecosystems. Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FL, p 71Google Scholar
  71. Ford PL, Johnson GV (2006) Effects of dormant vs. growing-season fire in shortgrass steppe: biological soil crust and perennial grass responses. J Arid Environ 67:1–14Google Scholar
  72. Fornwalt PJ, Kaufmann MR, Stohlgren TJ (2010) Impacts of mixed severity wildfire on exotic plants in a Colorado ponderosa pine–Douglas-fir forest. Biol Invasions 12:2683–2695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Freudenberger DO, Fish BE, Keeley JE (1987) Distribution and stability of grasslands in the Los Angeles Basin. Bull South Calif Acad Sci 86:13–26Google Scholar
  74. Garfin G, Franco G, Blanco H et al (2014) Sounthwest. In: Melillo J, Richmond TC (eds) Climate change impacts in the United States: the third national climate assessment. US global change research program, pp 461–486Google Scholar
  75. Germino MJ, Belnap J, Stark JM et al (2015) Ecosystem impacts of exotic annual invaders in the genus Bromus. In: Germino MJ, Chambers JC, Brown CS (eds) Exotic brome-grasses in arid and semiarid ecosystems of the Western USA: causes, consequences, and management implications. Springer, New York, NY (Chapter 3)Google Scholar
  76. Gundale MJ, DeLuca TH (2006) Temperature and source material influence ecological attributes of ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir charcoal. Forest Ecol Manag 231:86–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Gundale MJ, DeLuca TH (2007) Charcoal effects on soil solution chemistry and growth of Koeleria macrantha in the ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir ecosystem. Biol Fertil Soils 43:303–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Gundale MJ, DeLuca TH, Fiedler CE et al (2005) Restoration management in a Montana ponderosa pine forest: effects on soil physical, chemical, and biological properties. Forest Ecol Manag 213:25–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Gundale MJ, Sutherland S, DeLuca TH (2008) Fire, native species, and soil resource interactions influence the spatio-temporal invasion pattern of Bromus tectorum. Ecography 31:201–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Haferkamp M, Volesky J, Borman M et al (1993) Effects of mechanical treatments and climatic factors on the productivity of northern great-plains rangeland. J Range Manag 46:346–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Haferkamp MR, Grings EE, Heitschmidt RK et al (2001) Suppression of annual bromes impacts rangeland: animal responses. J Range Manag 54:663–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Haferkamp MR, Heitschmidt RK, Karl MG (1997) Influence of Japanese brome on western wheatgrass yield. J Range Manag 50:44–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Haferkamp MR, Heitschmidt RK, Karl MG (1998) Clipping and Japanese brome reduce western wheatgrass standing crop. J Range Manag 51:692–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Haidinger TL, Keeley JE (1993) Role of high fire frequency in destruction of mixed chaparral. Madroño 40:141–147Google Scholar
  85. Harmoney KR (2007) Grazing and burning Japanese brome (Bromus japonicus) on mixed grass rangelands. Rangel Ecol Manag 60:479–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Hassan M, West N (1986) Dynamics of soil seed pools in burned and unburned sagebrush semi-deserts. Ecology 67:269–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Haubensak KA, D’Antonio CM, Saundra Embry S et al (2014) A comparison of Bromus tectorum growth and mycorrhizal colonization in salt desert vs. sagebrush habitats. Rangel Ecol Manag 67:275–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Haubensak K, D’Antonio C, Wixon D (2009) Effects of fire and environmental variables on plant structure and composition in grazed salt desert shrublands of the Great Basin (USA). J Arid Environ 73:643–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Heitschmidt R, Grings E, Haferkamp M et al (1995) Herbage dynamics on 2 Northern Great Plains range sites. J Range Manag 48:211–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Heitschmidt RK, Haferkamp MR, Karl MG et al (1999) Drought and grazing: I. Effects on quantity of forage produced. J Range Manag 52:440–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Heitschmidt RK, Klement KD, Haferkamp MR (2005) Interactive effects of drought and grazing on Northern Great Plains rangelands. Rangel Ecol Manag 58:11–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Hernandez RR, Sandquist DR (2011) Disturbance of biological soil crust increases emergence of exotic vascular plants in California sage scrub. Plant Ecol 212:1709–1721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Hewlett D, Johnson J, Butterfield R et al (1981) Japanese brome response to atrazine in combination with nitrogen fertilizer in the mixed prairie. J Range Manag 34:22–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Hobbs RJ, Mooney HA (1995) Spatial and temporal variability in California annual grassland: results from a long term study. J Veg Sci 6:43–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Holling CS (1973) Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 4:1–2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Holmgren R (1960) Inspection tour of old blackbrush burns in BLM District N-5, southern Nevada. USDA, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Reno Research Center, Reno, NVGoogle Scholar
  97. Hooker TD, Stark JM, Norton U et al (2008) Distribution of ecosystem C and N within contrasting vegetation types in a semiarid rangeland in the Great Basin, USA. Biogeochemistry 90:291–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Huenneke LF, Hamburg SP, Koide R et al (1990) Effects of soil resources on plant invasion and community structure in Californian serpentine grassland. Ecology 71:478–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Humphrey LD, Schupp EW (2001) Seed banks of Bromus tectorum-dominated communities in the Great Basin. West N Am Nat 61:85–92Google Scholar
  100. Humphrey RR (1958) The desert grassland. Bot Rev 24:193–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Hurteau MD, Bradford JB, Fulé PZ et al (2013) Climate change, fire management, and ecological services in the southwestern US. Forest Ecol Manag 327:280–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Jackson RD, Bartolome JW (2002) A state-transition approach to understanding non-equilibrium plant community dynamics in California grasslands. Plant Ecol 162:49–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Jackson RD, Bartolome JW (2007) Grazing ecology of California grasslands. In: Stromberg M, Corbin J, D’Antonio CM (eds) California grasslands: ecology and management. UC Press, Berkeley, CA, pp 197–206Google Scholar
  104. James JJ, Drenovsky RE, Monaco TA et al (2011) Managing soil nitrogen to restore annual grass-infested plant communities: effective strategy or incomplete framework? Ecol Appl 21:490–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Karl MG, Heitschmidt RK, Haferkamp MR (1999) Vegetation biomass dynamics and patterns of sexual reproduction in a northern mixed-grass prairie. Am Midl Nat 141:227–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Keeler-Wolf T, Evens JM, Solomeshsch AI et al (2007) Community classification and nomenclature. In: Stromberg M, Corbin J, D’Antonio CM (eds) California grasslands: ecology and management. UC Press, Berkeley, CA, pp 21–36Google Scholar
  107. Keeley JE (1990) The California valley grassland. In: Schoenherr AA (ed) Endangered plant communities of southern California. Southern California Botanists, Fullerton, CA, pp 2–23Google Scholar
  108. Keeley JE, Bond WJ, Bradstock RA et al (2012) Fire in Mediterranean ecosystems: ecology, evolution and management. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, p 528Google Scholar
  109. Keeley JE, Brennan TJ (2012) Fire-driven alien invasion in a fire-adapted ecosystem. Oecologia 169:1043–1052CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Keeley JE, Brennan T (2015) Research on the effects of wildland fire and fire management on federally listed species and their habitats on San Clemente Island, California. Unpublished report submitted to the US NavyGoogle Scholar
  111. Keeley JE, Brennan T, Pfaff AH (2008) Fire severity and ecosystem responses following crown fires in California shrublands. Ecol Appl 18:1530–1546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Keeley JE, Franklin J, D’Antonio C (2011) Fire and invasive plants on California landscapes. In: McKenzie D, Miller C, Falk DA (eds) The landscape ecology of fire. Springer, Netherlands, pp 193–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Keeley JE, McGinnis TW (2007) Impact of prescribed fire and other factors on cheatgrass persistence in a Sierra Nevada ponderosa pine forest. Int J Wildl Fire 16:96–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Kerns BK, Buonopane M, Thies WG et al (2011) Reintroducing fire into a ponderosa pine forest with and without cattle grazing. Ecosphere 2:art59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Klinger R, Brooks ML, Frakes N et al (2011a) Establishment of aerial seeding treatments in Blackbrush and Pinyon-Juniper sites following the 2005 Southern Nevada Complex. In: Derasaray L, Frakes N, Gentilcore D et al (eds) Southern Nevada complex emergency stabilization and rehabilitation final report. USDI, Bureau of Land Management, Ely, NV, pp 92–117 (Chapter 5)Google Scholar
  116. Klinger R, Brooks ML, Frakes N et al (2011b) Vegetation trends following the 2005 Southern Nevada Complex Fire. In: Derasaray L, Frakes N, Gentilcore D et al (eds) Southern Nevada complex emergency stabilization and rehabilitation final report. USDI, Bureau of Land Management, Ely, NV, pp 118–194 (Chapter 6)Google Scholar
  117. Knick ST, Connelly JW (2011) Greater sage-grouse: ecology and conservation of a landscape species and its habitats, vol 38, Studies in Avian Biology. UC Press, Berkeley, CAGoogle Scholar
  118. Knick ST, Hanser SE, Miller RF et al (2011) Ecological pathways of land use in sagebrush. In: Knick ST, Connelly JW (eds) Greater sage-grouse: ecology and conservation of a landscape species and its habitats, vol 38, Studies in Avian Biology. UC Press, Berkeley, CA, pp 203–251 (Chapter 12)Google Scholar
  119. Knutson KC, Pyke DA, Wirth TA et al (2014) Long-term effects of seeding after wildfire on vegetation in Great Basin shrubland ecosystems. J Appl Ecol 51:1414–1424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Kotanen PM, Bergelson J, Hazlett DL (1998) Habitats of native and exotic plants in Colorado shortgrass steppe: a comparative approach. Can J Bot 76:664–672Google Scholar
  121. Kulmatiski A, Beard KH, Stark JM (2006) Exotic plant communities shift water-use timing in a shrub-steppe ecosystem. Plant Soil 288:271–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Kulpa SM, Leger EA, Espeland EK et al (2012) Postfire seeding and plant community recovery in the Great Basin. Rangel Ecol Manag 65(2):171–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Lauenroth WK (2008) Vegetation of the Shortgrass Steppe. In: Lauenroth WK, Burke IC (eds) Ecology of the shortgrass steppe: a longterm perspective. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, p 7083Google Scholar
  124. Lauenroth W, Milchunas DG (1992) Short-grass steppe. In: Coupland R (ed) Ecosystems of the world. Elsevier, Netherlands, pp 183–226Google Scholar
  125. Lauenroth W, Burke IC, Morgan JA (2008) The shortgrass steppe. In: Lauenroth W, Burke IC (eds) Ecology of the shortgrass steppe: a long-term perspective. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, pp 3–13Google Scholar
  126. Leger EA, Espeland EK, Merrill KR et al (2009) Genetic variation and local adaptation at a cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) invasion edge in western Nevada. Mol Ecol 18:4366–4379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Lovich JE, Bainbridge D (1999) Anthropogenic degradation of the southern California desert ecosystem and prospects for natural recovery and restoration. Environ Manag 24:309–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Lovtang SCP, Riegel GM (2012) Predicting the occurrence of downy brome (Bromus tectorum) in central Oregon. Invasive Plant Sci Manag 5:83–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Lulow ME (2006) Invasion by non-native annual grasses: the importance of species biomass, composition and time among California native grasses of the Central Valley. Restor Ecol 14:616–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Mack RN, Pyke DA (1983) The demography of Bromus tectorum: variation in time and space. J Ecol 71:69–93Google Scholar
  131. Maron JL, Connors P (1996) A native nitrogen-fixing shrub facilitates weed invasion. Oecologia 105:302–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Maron JL, Jeffries RL (1999) Bush lupine mortality, altered resource availability and alternative vegetation states. Ecology 80:443–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Marty JT, Collinge SK, Rice KJ (2005) Responses of a remnant native bunchgrass population to grazing, burning and climatic variation. Plant Ecol 181:101–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Masters RA, Vogel KP, Mitchell RB (1992) Response of central plains tallgrass to fire, fertilizer, and atrazine. J Range Manag 45(3):291–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Mazzola MB, Chambers JC, Blank RR et al (2011) Effects of resource availability and propagule supply on native species recruitment in sagebrush ecosystems invaded by Bromus tectorum. Biol Invasions 13:513–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. McGinnis TW, Keeley JE, Stephens SL et al (2010) Fuel buildup and potential fire behavior after stand-replacing fires, logging fire-killed trees and herbicide shrub removal in Sierra Nevada forests. Forest Ecol Manag 260:22–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. McGlone CM, Springer JD, Covington WW (2009) Cheatgrass encroachment on a ponderosa pine Ecol Restor project in northern Arizona. Ecol Restor 27:37–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. McPherson GR (1995) The role of fire in the desert grasslands. In: McClaran MP, Van Devender TR, Thomas R (eds) The desert grassland. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ, pp 130–151Google Scholar
  139. McPherson GR, Weltzin JF (2000) The role and importance of disturbance and climate change in US/Mexico borderlands: a state-of-the-knowledge review. Gen Tech Rep RMRS-GTR-50. USDA, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO, p 24Google Scholar
  140. Meixner T, Wohlgemuth PM (2003) Climate variability, fire, vegetation recovery, and watershed hydrology. First interagency conference on research in the watersheds, Benson, AZ, 27–30 October 2003, pp 651–656Google Scholar
  141. Meng R, Dennison PE, D’Antonio CM et al (2014) Remote sensing analysis of vegetation recovery following short-interval fires in southern California shrublands. PLoS One 9, e110637Google Scholar
  142. Meyer SE, Garvin SC, Beckstead J (2001) Factors mediating cheatgrass invasion of intact salt desert shrubland. In: McArthur D, Fairbanks DJ (eds) Shrubland ecosystem genetics and biodiversity. Gen Tech Rep RMRS-P-21. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO, pp 224–232Google Scholar
  143. Meyer SE, Quinney D, Nelson DL et al (2007) Impact of the pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda on Bromus tectorum seedbank dynamics in North American cold deserts. Weed Res 47:54–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Milchunas DG, Lauenroth WK, Chapman PL (1992) Plant competition, abiotic, and long-term and short-term effects of large herbivores on demography of opportunistic species in a semiarid grassland. Oecologia 92:520–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Milchunas DG, Vandever MW, Ball LO et al (2011) Allelopathic cover crop prior to seeding is more important than subsequent grazing/mowing in grassland establishment. Rangel Ecol Manag 64:291–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Miller R, Chambers JC, Pyke DA, et al (2013) A review of fire effects on vegetation and soils in the Great Basin Region: response and ecological site characteristics. Gen Tech Rep RMRS-GTR-308. USDA, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, COGoogle Scholar
  147. Miller RF, Knick ST, Pyke DA et al (2011) Characteristics of sagebrush habitats and limitations to long-term conservation. Stud Avian Biol 38:145–184Google Scholar
  148. Minnich R (2008) California’s fading wildflowers: lost legacy and biological invasions. UC Press, Berkeley, CAGoogle Scholar
  149. Molinari N (2014) Invasion, impact and persistence of an exotic annual grass. PhD dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara, p 181Google Scholar
  150. Molinari N, D’Antonio CM (2014) Structural, compositional and trait differences between native- and non-native-dominated grassland patches. Funct Ecol 28:745–754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Monaco TA, Hardegree SP, Pellant M et al (2015) Assessing restoration and management needs for ecosystems invaded by exotic annual Bromus species. In: Germino MJ, Chambers JC, Brown CS (eds) Exotic brome-grasses in arid and semiarid ecosystems of the Western USA: causes, consequences, and management implications. Springer, New York, NY (Chapter 12)Google Scholar
  152. Monaco TA, Sheley R (2012) Invasive plant ecology and management: linking processes to practice. CABI Invasive Series. CABIGoogle Scholar
  153. Monleon VJ, Cromack K, Landsberg JD (1997) Short- and long-term effects of prescribed underburning on nitrogen availability in ponderosa pine stands in central Oregon. Can J Forest Res 27:369–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Monsen SB, Stevens R, Shaw NL (2004) Restoring western ranges and wildlands. Gen Tech Rep RMRS-GTR-1136-vol 1, 2, 3. USDA, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO, p 294Google Scholar
  155. Moran MS, Ponce-Campos GE, Huete A et al (2014) Functional response of US grasslands to the early 21st-century drought. Ecology 95:2121–2133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Moser WK, Barnard EL, Billings RF, Crocker SJ et al (2009) Impacts of nonnative invasive species on US forests and recommendations for policy and management. J Forestry 107:320–327Google Scholar
  157. Munson SM, Lauenroth WK (2009) Plant population and community responses to removal of dominant species in the shortgrass steppe. J Veg Sci 20:224–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Ogle SM, Ojima D, Reiners WA (2004) Modeling the impact of exotic annual brome grasses on soil organic carbon storage in a northern mixed-grass prairie. Biol Invasions 6:365–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Ogle SM, Reiners WA (2002) A phytosociological study of exotic annual brome grasses in a mixed grass prairie/ponderosa pine forest ecotone. Am Midl Nat 147:25–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Ogle SM, Reiners WA, Gerow KG (2003) Impacts of exotic annual brome grasses (Bromus spp.) on ecosystem properties of northern mixed grass prairie. Am Midl Nat 149:46–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Osborne CP, Visser V, Chapman S et al (2011) GrassPortal: an online ecological and evolutionary data facility. Accessed 16 Feb 2015
  162. Pauchard A, Kueffer C, Dietz H et al (2009) Ain’t no mountain high enough: plant invasions reaching new elevations. Front Ecol Environ 7:479–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Pavlik LE (1995) Bromus L. of North America. Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, BC, p 160Google Scholar
  164. Pierson EA, Mack RN (1990) The population of biology of Bromus tectorum in forests: effect of disturbance, grazing, and litter on seedling establishment and reproduction. Oecologia 84:526–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Pyke D (2011) Restoring and rehabilitating sagebrush habitats. In: Knick S, Connelly JW (eds) Greater sage-grouse: ecology and conservation of a landscape species and its habitats, vol 38. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, pp 531–548Google Scholar
  166. Pyke DA, Chambers JC, Beck JL et al (2015) Land uses, fire, and invasion – exotic annual Bromus and human dimensions. In: Germino MJ, Chambers JC, Brown CS (eds) Exotic brome-grasses in arid and semiarid ecosystems of the Western USA: causes, consequences, and management implications. Springer, New York, NY (Chapter 11)Google Scholar
  167. Pyke DA, Wirth TA, Beyers JL (2013) Does seeding after wildfires in rangelands reduce erosion or invasive species? Restor Ecol 21:415–421Google Scholar
  168. Ramakrishnan AP, Meyer SE, Fairbanks DJ et al (2006) Ecological significance of microsatellite variation in western North American populations of Bromus tectorum. Plant Species Biol 21:61–73Google Scholar
  169. Rao LE, Allen EB (2010) Combined effects of precipitation and nitrogen deposition on native and invasive winter annual production in California deserts. Oecologia 162(4):1035–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Rao LE, Allen EB, Meixner T (2010) Risk-based determination of critical nitrogen deposition loads for fire spread in southern California deserts. Ecol Appl 20:1320–1335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Rao LE, Matchett JR, Brooks ML et al (2015) Relationships between annual plant productivity, nitrogen deposition and fire size in low-elevation California desert scrub. Int J Wildl Fire 24:48–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Reisner MD, Grace JB, Pyke DA et al (2013) Conditions favouring Bromus tectorum dominance of endangered sagebrush steppe ecosystems. J Appl Ecol 50:1039–1049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Rice KJ, Mack RN (1991) Ecological genetics of Bromus tectorum. III. The demography of reciprocally sown populations. Oecologia 88:91–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Rice KJ, Nagy ES (2000) Oak canopy effects on the distribution patterns of two annual grasses: the role of competition and soil nutrients. Am J Bot 87:1699–1706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Rimer RL, Evans RD (2006) Invasion of downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) causes rapid changes in the nitrogen cycle. Am Midl Nat 156:252–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Rinella MJ, Haferkamp MR, Masters RA et al (2010a) Growth regulator herbicides prevent invasive annual grass seed production. Invasive Plant Sci Manag 3:12–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Rinella MJ, Masters RA, Bellows SE (2010b) Growth regulator herbicides prevent invasive annual grass seed production under field conditions. Rangel Ecol Manag 63:487–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Rinella MJ, Masters RA, Bellows SE (2013) Effects of growth regulator herbicide on Downy brome (Bromus tectorum) seed production. Invasive Plant Sci Manag 6:60–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Rochester CJ, Brehme CS, Clark DR et al (2010) Reptile and amphibian responses to large-scale wildfires in southern California. J Herpetol 44:333–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Romps DM, Seeley JT, Vollaro D et al (2014) Projected increase in lightning strikes in the United States due to global warming. Science 346:851–854Google Scholar
  181. Roundy BA, Hardegree SP, Chambers JC et al (2007) Prediction of cheatgrass field germination potential using wet thermal accumulation. Rangel Ecol Manag 60:613–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Safford HD, Van de Water KM (2014) Using fire return interval departure (FRID) analysis to map spatial and temporal changes in fire frequency on national forest lands in California. Gen Tech Rep PSW-RP-266. USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, p 59Google Scholar
  183. Salo LF (2005) Red brome (Bromus rubens subsp madritensis) in North America: possible modes for early introductions, subsequent spread. Biol Invasions 7:165–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Sankey JB, Germino MJ, Glenn NF (2009) Aeolian sediment transport following wildfire in sagebrush steppe. J Arid Environ 73:912–919Google Scholar
  185. Schaeffer SM, Ziegler SE, Belnap J et al (2012) Effects of Bromus tectorum invasion on microbial carbon and nitrogen cycling in two adjacent undisturbed arid grassland communities. Biogeochemistry 111:427–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Scheintaub MR, Derner JD, Kelly EF et al (2009) Response of the shortgrass steppe plant community to fire. J Arid Environ 73:1136–1143Google Scholar
  187. Seabloom EW, Harpole WS, Riechman OJ et al (2003) Invasion, competitive dominance and resource use by exotic and native California grassland species. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:13384–13389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Shinneman DJ, Baker WL (2009) Environmental and climatic variables as potential drivers of post-fire cover of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) in seeded and unseeded semiarid ecosystems. Int J Wildl Fire 18:191–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Sims P, Risser PG (2000) Grasslands. In: Barbour M, Billings WD (eds) North American terrestrial vegetation, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 323–356Google Scholar
  190. Smith SD, Strain BR, Sharkey TD (1987) Effects of CO2 enrichment on four Great Basin grasses. Funct Ecol 1:139–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Sorensen CD, McGlone CM (2010) Ponderosa pine understory response to short-term grazing exclusion (Arizona). Ecol Restor 28:124–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Stahlheber K (2013) The influence of savanna oaks on California grassland composition. PhD dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara, p 275Google Scholar
  193. Stahlheber K, D’Antonio CM (2013) Using livestock to manage plant composition: a meta-analysis of grazing in California Mediterranean grassland. Biol Conserv 157:300–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Strand EK, Launchbaugh KL (2013) Livestock grazing effects on fuel loads for wildland fire in sagebrush dominated ecosystems. Great Basin fire science delivery report, p 21Google Scholar
  195. Stylinski CD, Allen EB (1999) Lack of native species recovery following severe exotic disturbance in southern Californian shrublands. J Appl Ecol 36:544–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Suttle B, Thomsen MA, Power ME (2007) Species interactions reverse grassland responses to changing climate. Science 315:640–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Sweet SB, Kyser GB, DiTomaso JM (2008) Susceptibility of exotic annual grass seeds to fire. Invasive Plant Sci Manag 1:158–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Symstad A, Long AJ, Stamm JF et al (2014) Two approaches for incorporating climate change into natural resource management planning at Wind Cave National Park. Gen Tech Rep NPS/WICA/NRTR-2014.918. National Park Service, Fort Collins, COGoogle Scholar
  199. Syphard AD, Keeley JE (2015) Location, timing and extent of wildfire vary by cause of ignition. Int J Wildl Fire 24:37–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Tagestad J, Brooks M, Cullinan V et al (in press) Precipitation regime classification for the Mojave Desert: implications for fire occurrence. J Arid EnvironGoogle Scholar
  201. Talluto MV, Suding KN (2008) Historical change in coastal sage scrub in southern California, USA in relation to fire frequency and air pollution. Landscape Ecol 23:803–815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Teague WR, Dowhower SL (2003) Patch dynamics under rotational and continuous grazing management in large, heterogeneous paddocks. J Arid Environ 53:211–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Teague WR, Dowhower SL, Baker SA et al (2010) Soil and herbaceous plant responses to summer patch burns under continuous and rotational grazing. Agr Ecosyst Environ 137:113–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Teague WR, Dowhower SL, Waggoner JA (2004) Drought and grazing patch dynamics under different grazing management. J Arid Environ 58:97–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Teague WR, Duke SE, Waggoner JA et al (2008) Rangeland vegetation and soil response to summer patch fires under continuous grazing. Arid Land Res Manag 22:228–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. USDA NRCS (2015) The PLANTS Database. Accessed 26 Feb 2015
  207. Van Dyne G (1975) An overview of the ecology of the Great Plains grasslands with special reference to climate and its impact. Grassland biome – ecosystem analysis studies. Gen Tech Rep 290. Natural resources ecology laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, COGoogle Scholar
  208. Vermeire LT, Crowder JL, Wester DB (2011) Plant community and soil environment response to summer fire in the Northern Great Plains. Rangel Ecol Manag 64:37–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Vermeire LT, Crowder JL, Wester DB (2014) Semiarid rangeland is resilient to summer fire and postfire grazing utilization. Rangel Ecol Manag 67:52–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Vermeire LT, Heitschniidt RK, Haferkamp MR (2008) Vegetation response to seven grazing treatments in the Northern Great Plains. Agric Ecosyst Environ 125:111–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Walker BH, Holling CS, Carpenter SR et al (2004) Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social-ecological systems. Ecol Soc 9:5Google Scholar
  212. Walsh J, Wuebbles D, Hayhoe K et al (2014) Our changing climate. In: Melillo JM, Richmond TC, Yohe GW (eds) Climate change impacts in the United States: the third national climate assessment. US Global Change Research Program, pp 19–67Google Scholar
  213. West N (1983a) Great Basin-Colorado Plateau sagebrush semi-desert. Temperate Deserts and Semi-deserts. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  214. West N (1983b) Intermountain salt-desert shrubland. Temperate Deserts and Semi-deserts. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 375–378Google Scholar
  215. Westerling AL, Bryant BP (2008) Climate change and wildfire in California. Clim Change 87:S231–S249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Westerling AL, Hidalgo HG, Cayan DR et al (2006) Warming and earlier spring increase western U.S. forest wildfire activity. Science 313:940–943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Westman WE (1979) Oxidant effects on Californian coastal sage scrub. Science 205:1001–1003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Whisenant SG (1990) Changing fire frequencies on Idaho’s Snake River Plains: ecological and management implications. In: McArthur ED, Romney EM, Smith SD et al (eds) Symposium on cheatgrass invasion, shrub die-off and other aspects of shrub biology and management, 5–7 April 1989, Las Vegas, NV. Gen Tech Rep INT-276. USDA, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Ogden, UT, pp 4–10Google Scholar
  219. Whisenant S, Ueckert D, Scifres C (1984) Effects of fire on Texas wintergrass communities. J Range Manag 37:387–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Whisenant SG, Uresk DW (1990) Spring burning Japanese brome in a western wheatgrass community. J Range Manag 43:205–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. White CS, Loftin SR (2000) Response of two semiarid grasslands to cool-season prescribed fire. J Range Manag 53:52–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Wilcox BP, Turnbull L, Young MH et al (2012) Invasion of shrublands by exotic grasses: ecohydrological consequences in cold versus warm deserts. Ecohydrology 5:160–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Wiken E, Nava FJ, Griffith G (2011) North American Terrestrial Ecoregions—Level III. Commission for Environmental Cooperation, Montreal, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  224. Wolkovich EM, Bolger DT, Holway DA et al (2009a) Invasive grass litter facilitates native shrubs through abiotic effects. J Veg Sci 20:1121–1132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Wolkovich EM, Bolger DT, Holway DA (2009b) Complex responses to invasive grass litter by ground arthropods in a Mediterranean scrub ecosystem. Oecologia 262:697–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Wright HE, Bailey AW (1982) Fire ecology: United States and Canada. Wiley, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  227. Yensen E, Quinney DL, Johnson K et al (1992) Fire, vegetation changes, and population fluctuations of Townsend ground-squirrels. Am Midl Nat 128:299–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Zedler PH, Gautier CR, McMaster GS (1983) Vegetation change in response to extreme events: the effect of a short interval between fires in California chaparral and coastal scrub. Ecology 64:809–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthew L. Brooks
    • 1
    Email author
  • Cynthia S. Brown
    • 2
  • Jeanne C. Chambers
    • 3
  • Carla M. D’Antonio
    • 4
  • Jon E. Keeley
    • 5
  • Jayne Belnap
    • 6
  1. 1.US Geological SurveyWestern Ecological Research CenterOakhurstUSA
  2. 2.Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest ManagementColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA
  3. 3.USDA Forest ServiceRocky Mountain Research StationRenoUSA
  4. 4.Environmental Studies ProgramUniversity of California, Santa BarbaraSanta BarbaraUSA
  5. 5.US Geological SurveyWestern Ecological Research CenterThree RiversUSA
  6. 6.US Geological SurveySouthwest Biological Science CenterMoabUSA

Personalised recommendations