Advertisement

Plant Community Resistance to Invasion by Bromus Species: The Roles of Community Attributes, Bromus Interactions with Plant Communities, and Bromus Traits

  • Jeanne C. ChambersEmail author
  • Matthew J. Germino
  • Jayne Belnap
  • Cynthia S. Brown
  • Eugene W. Schupp
  • Samuel B. St. Clair
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series on Environmental Management book series (SSEM)

Abstract

The factors that determine plant community resistance to exotic annual Bromus species (Bromus hereafter) are diverse and context specific. They are influenced by the environmental characteristics and attributes of the community, the traits of Bromus species, and the direct and indirect interactions of Bromus with the plant community. Environmental factors, in particular ambient and soil temperatures, have significant effects on the ability of Bromus to establish and spread. Seasonality of precipitation relative to temperature influences plant community resistance to Bromus through effects on soil water storage, timing of water and nutrient availability, and dominant plant life forms. Differences among plant communities in how well soil resource use by the plant community matches resource supply rates can influence the magnitude of resource fluctuations due to either climate or disturbance and thus the opportunities for invasion. The spatial and temporal patterns of resource availability and acquisition of growth resources by Bromus versus native species strongly influence resistance to invasion. Traits of Bromus that confer a “priority advantage” for resource use in many communities include early-season germination and high growth and reproductive rates. Resistance to Bromus can be overwhelmed by high propagule supply, low innate seed dormancy, and large, if short-lived, seed banks. Biological crusts can inhibit germination and establishment of invasive annual plants, including several annual Bromus species, but are effective only in the absence of disturbance. Herbivores can have negative direct effects on Bromus, but positive indirect effects through decreases in competitors. Management strategies can be improved through increased understanding of community resistance to exotic annual Bromus species.

Keywords

Ecosystem resilience Plant traits Resource dynamics Species interactions Herbivory 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Jayne Belnap was supported by the USGS Ecosystem Invasives Program. Any use of trade names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the US Government.

References

  1. Abella SR, Craig DJ, Chiquoine LP et al (2011) Relationships of native desert plants with red brome (Bromus rubens): toward identifying invasion-reducing species. Invasive Plant Sci Manag 4:115–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abella SR, Craig DJ, Smith SD et al (2012) Identifying native vegetation for reducing exotic species during the restoration of desert ecosystems. Restor Ecol 20:781–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abraham JK, Corbin JD, D’Antonio CM (2009) California native and exotic perennial grasses differ in their response to soil nitrogen, exotic annual grass density, and order of emergence. Plant Ecol 201:445–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allen EA, Chambers JC, Nowak RS (2008) Effects of a spring prescribed burn on the soil seed bank in sagebrush steppe exhibiting pinyon-juniper expansion. West N Am Nat 68:265–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andersson L, Milberg P, Schütz W et al (2002) Germination characteristics and emergence time of annual Bromus species of differing weediness in Sweden. Weed Res 42:135–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aguirre L, Johnson DA (1991) Influence of temperature and cheatgrass competition on seedling development of two bunchgrasses. J Range Manag 4:347–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arredondo J, Johnson DA (2009) Root responses to short-lived pulses of soil nutrients and shoot defoliation in seedlings of three rangeland grasses. Rangel Ecol Manag 62:470–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Austin DD, Stevens R, Jorgensen KR et al (1994) Preferences of mule deer for 16 grasses found on Intermountain winter ranges. J Range Manag 47:308–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bagchi S, Briske DD, Bestelmeyer BT et al (2013) Assessing resilience and state‐transition models with historical records of cheatgrass Bromus tectorum invasion in North American sagebrush‐steppe. J Appl Ecol 50:1131–1141Google Scholar
  10. Bansal S, Sheley RL, Blank B et al (2014) Plant litter effects on soil nutrient availability and vegetation dynamics: changes that occur when annual grasses invade shrub-steppe communities. Plant Ecol 215:367–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beattie AJ (1989) The effects of ants on grasslands. In: Huenneke LF, Mooney HA (eds) Grassland structure and function: California annual grassland. Springer, Netherlands, pp 105–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beckstead J, Augspurger CK (2004) An experimental test of resistance to cheatgrass invasion: limiting resources at different life stages. Biol Invasions 6:417–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Beckstead J, Meyer SE, Allen PS (1996) Bromus tectorum seed germination: between-population and between-year variation. Can J Bot 74:875–882Google Scholar
  14. Beckstead J, Meyer SE, Augsperger CK (2008) The indirect effects of cheatgrass invasion: grasshopper herbivory on native grasses determined by neighboring cheatgrass. In: Kitchen S, Pendleton R, Monaco T et al (eds) Shrublands under fire: disturbance and recovery in a changing world, 6–8 June 2006. Gen Tech Rep RMRS-P-52. USDA, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Cedar City, UT, pp 41–48Google Scholar
  15. Belnap J (2003) Biological soil crusts and wind erosion. In: Belnap J, Lange OL (eds) Biological soil crusts: structure, function, and management. Springer, Berlin, pp 339–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Belnap J, Phillips SL (2001) Soil biota in an ungrazed grassland: response to annual grass (Bromus tectorum) invasion. Ecol Appl 11:1261–1275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Belnap J, Stark JM, Rau BJ (2015) Soil moisture and biogeochemical factors influence the distribution of annual Bromus species. In: Germino MJ, Chambers JC, Brown CS (eds) Exotic brome-grasses in arid and semiarid ecosystems of the Western USA: causes, consequences, and management implications. Springer, New York, NY (Chapter 8)Blank RR, Morgan T (2012) Suppression of Bromus tectorumL. by established perennial grasses: potential mechanisms-part one. Appl Environ Soil Science. Article ID 632172Google Scholar
  18. Booth MS, Caldwell MM, Stark JM (2003) Overlapping resource use in three Great Basin species: implications for community invasibility and vegetation dynamics. J Ecol 91:36–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Borchert MI, Jain S (1978) The effect of rodent seed predation on four species of California annual grasses. Oecologia 33:101–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bradford JB, Lauenroth WK (2006) Controls over invasion of Bromus tectorum: the importance of climate, soil, disturbance and seed availability. J Veg Sci 17:693–704Google Scholar
  21. Bradley BA (2009) Regional analysis of the impacts of climate change on cheatgrass invasion shows potential risk and opportunity. Glob Change Biol 15(1):196–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bradley BA, Curtis CA, Chambers JC (2015) Bromus response to climate and projected changes with climate change. In: Germino MJ, Chambers JC, Brown CS (eds) Exotic brome-grasses in arid and semiarid ecosystems of the Western USA: causes, consequences, and management implications. Springer, New York, NY (Chapter 9)Google Scholar
  23. Brooks ML (2002) Peak fire temperatures and effects on annual plants in the Mojave Desert. Ecol Appl 12:1088–1102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Brooks ML (2009) Spatial and temporal distribution of non-native plants in upland areas of the Mojave Desert. The Mojave Desert: ecosystem processes and sustainability. University of Nevada Press, Reno, NVGoogle Scholar
  25. Brooks ML, Belnap J, Brown CS et al (2015) Exotic annual Bromus invasions - comparisons among species and ecoregions in the western United States. In: Germino MJ, Chambers JC, Brown CS (eds) Exotic brome-grasses in arid and semiarid ecosystems of the Western USA: causes, consequences, and management implications. Springer, New York, NY (Chapter 2)Google Scholar
  26. Bykova O, Sage RF (2012) Winter cold tolerance and the geographic range separation of Bromus tectorum and Bromus rubens, two severe invasive species in North America. Glob Change Biol 18:3654–3663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Callaway RM (2007) Positive interactions and interdependence in plant communities. Springer, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  28. Chambers JC, MacMahon JA (1994) A day in the life of a seed: movements and fates of seeds and their implications for natural and managed systems. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 25:263–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chambers JC (2000) Seed movements and seedling fates in disturbed sagebrush steppe ecosystems: implications for restoration. Ecol Appl 10:1400–1413Google Scholar
  30. Chambers JC, Bradley BA, Brown CS et al (2014a) Resilience to stress and disturbance, and resistance to Bromus tectorum L. invasion in cold desert shrublands of western North America. Ecosystems 17:360–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chambers JC, Miller RF, Board DI et al (2014b) Resilience and resistance of sagebrush ecosystems: implications for state and transition models and management treatments. Rangel Ecol Manag 67:440–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chambers JC, Pyke DA, Maestas JD et al (2014c) Using resistance and resilience concepts to reduce impacts of invasive annual grasses and altered fire regimes on the sagebrush ecosystem and greater sage-grouse: a strategic multi-scale approach. Gen Tech Rep RMRS-GTR-326. USDA, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO, p 73Google Scholar
  33. Chambers JC, Roundy BA, Blank RR et al (2007) What makes Great Basin sagebrush ecosystems invasible by Bromus tectorum? Ecol Monogr 77:117–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Chesson P (2000) General theory of competitive coexistence in spatially-varying environments. Theor Popul Biol 58:211–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Clark WH, Comanor PL (1975) Removal of annual plants from the desert ecosystem by western harvester ants, Pogonomyrmex occidentalis. Environ Entomol 4:52–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Condon L, Weisberg PJ, Chambers JC (2011) Abiotic and biotic influences on Bromus tectorum invasion and Artemisia tridentata recovery after fire. Int J Wildl Fire 20:597–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cook CW, Harris LE (1952) Nutritive value of cheatgrass and crested wheatgrass on spring ranges of Utah. J Range Manag 5:331–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Corbin J, Dyer A, Seabloom E (2007) Competitive interactions. In: Stromberg MR, Corbin JD, D’Antonio CM (eds) California grasslands: ecology and management. UC Press, Berkeley, CA, pp 156–168Google Scholar
  39. Corbin JD, D’Antonio CM (2004) Competition between native perennial and exotic annual grasses: implications for an historical invasion. Ecology 85:1273–1283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Corbineau F, Belaid D, Côme D (1992) Dormancy of Bromus rubens L. seeds in relation to temperature, light and oxygen effects. Weed Res 32:303–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Cox RD, Allen EB (2008) Stability of exotic annual grasses following restoration efforts in southern California coastal sage scrub. J Appl Ecol 45:495–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Cox RD, Allen EB (2011) The roles of exotic grasses and forbs when restoring native species to highly invaded southern California annual grassland. Plant Ecol 212:1699–1707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Crisp M (1975) Long term change in arid zone vegetation. Dissertation, University of Adelaide, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  44. Crist TO, Friese CF (1993) The impact of fungi on soil seeds: implications for plants and granivores in a semiarid shrub-steppe. Ecology 74:2231–2239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. D’Antonio CM, Thomsen M (2004) Ecological resistance in theory and practice. Weed Technol 18:1572–1577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Davies KW, Svejcar TJ, Bates JD (2009) Interaction of historical and nonhistorical disturbances maintains native plant communities. Ecol Appl 19:1536–1545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Davis MA, Grime JP, Thompson K (2000) Fluctuating resources in plant communities: a general theory of invasibility. J Ecol 88:528–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. DeFalco LA, Bryla DR, Smith-Longozo V et al (2003) Are Mojave Desert annual species equal? Resource acquisition and allocation for the invasive grass Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens (Poaceae) and two native species. Am J Bot 90:1045–1053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. DeFalco LA, Fernandez GC, Nowak RS (2007) Variation in the establishment of a non-native annual grass influences competitive interactions with Mojave Desert perennials. Biol Invasions 9:293–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Del Monte JP, Dorado J (2011) Effects of light conditions and after‐ripening time on seed dormancy loss of Bromus diandrus Roth. Weed Res 51:581–590Google Scholar
  51. Diamond JM, Call CA, Devoe N (2010) Effects of targeted cattle grazing on fire behavior of cheatgrass-dominated rangeland in the northern Great Basin, USA. Int J Wildl Fire 18:944–950CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Diamond JM, Call CA, Devoe N (2012) Effects of targeted grazing and prescribed burning on community and seed dynamics of a downy brome (Bromus tectorum)-dominated landscape. Invasive Plant Sci Manag 5:259–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Dyer AR, Hardison JL, Rice KJ (2012) Phenology constrains opportunistic growth response in Bromus tectorum L. Plant Ecol 213:103–112Google Scholar
  54. Dyer AR, Rice KJ (1999) Effects of competition on resource availability and growth of a California bunchgrass. Ecology 80:2697–2710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Eckert RE Jr, Peterson FF, Meurisse MS et al (1986) Effects of soil-surface morphology on emergence and survival of seedlings in big sagebrush communities. J Range Manag 39:414–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Enloe SF, DiTomaso JM, Orloff SB et al (2004) Soil water dynamics differ among rangeland plant communities dominated by yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis), annual grasses, or perennial grasses. Weed Biol Ecol 52:929–935Google Scholar
  57. Esque TC, Young JA, Tracy CR (2010) Short-term effects of experimental fires on a Mojave Desert seed bank. J Arid Environ 74:1302–1308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Evans RA, Young JA (1984) Microsite requirements for downy brome (Bromus tectorum) infestation and control on sagebrush rangelands. Weed Sci 32:13–17Google Scholar
  59. Fielding DJ, Brusven M (1992) Food and habitat preferences of Melanoplus sanguinipes and Aulocara elliotti (Orthoptera: Acrididae) on disturbed rangeland in southern Idaho. J Econ Entomol 85:783–788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Folke C (2006) Resilience: the emergence of a perspective for social-ecological systems analyses. Glob Environ Change 16:253–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Folke C, Carpenter S, Walker B et al (2004) Regime shifts, resilience, and biodiversity in ecosystem management. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 35:557–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gardener CJ, McIvor JG, Jansen A (1993a) Passage of legume and grass seeds through the digestive tract of cattle and their survival in faeces. J Appl Ecol 30:63–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Gardener CJ, McIvor JG, Jansen A (1993b) Survival of seeds of tropical grassland species subjected to bovine digestion. J Appl Ecol 30:75–85Google Scholar
  64. Germino MJ, Chambers JC, Brown CS (2015) Introduction: exotic annual Bromus in the Western USA. In: Germino MJ, Chambers JC, Brown CS (eds) Exotic brome-grasses in arid and semiarid ecosystems of the Western USA: causes, consequences, and management implications. Springer New York, NY (Chapter 1)Google Scholar
  65. Getz HL, Baker WL (2008) Initial invasion of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) into burned piñon-juniper woodlands in western Colorado. Am Midl Nat 159:489–497Google Scholar
  66. Goergen E, Chambers JC (2012) Facilitation and interference of seedling establishment by a native legume before and after wildfire. Oecologia 168:199–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Griffith AB (2010) Positive effects of native shrubs on Bromus tectorum demography. Ecology 91:141–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Gundale MJ, Sutherland S, DeLuca TH (2008) Fire, native species, and soil resource interactions influence the spatio‐temporal invasion pattern of Bromus tectorum. Ecography 31:201–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Gutterman Y (1994) Strategies of seed dispersal and germination in plants inhabiting deserts. Bot Rev 60:373–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Harper KT, Clair LLS (1985) Cryptogamic soil crusts on arid and semiarid rangelands in Utah: effects on seedling establishment and soil stability. Department of Botany and Range Science, Brigham Young University, Provo, UTGoogle Scholar
  71. Harper KT, Marble JR (1988) A role for nonvascular plants in management of arid and semiarid rangelands. In: Tueller PT (ed) Vegetation science applications for rangeland analysis and management. Springer, pp 135–169Google Scholar
  72. Harradine AR (1986) Seed longevity and seedling establishment of Bromus diandrus Roth. Weed Res 26:173–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hassan MA, West NE (1986) Dynamics of soil seeds pools in burned and unburned sagebrush semi-deserts. Ecology 67:269–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hempy-Mayer K, Pyke DA (2008) Defoliation effects on Bromus tectorum seed production: implications for grazing. Rangel Ecol Manag 61:116–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hill JP, Germino MJ, Wraith JM et al (2006) Advantages in water relations contribute to greater photosynthesis in Centaurea maculosa compared with established grasses. Int J Plant Sci 167:269–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hitchcock AS (1971) Manual of the grasses of the United States, vol 2. Courier Dover Publications, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  77. Holzapfel C, Mahall BE (1999) Bidirectional facilitation and interference between shrubs and annuals in the Mojave Desert. Ecology 80:1747–1761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Holling CS (1973) Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 4:1–2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hoover AN, Germino MJ (2012) A common-garden study of resource-island effects on a native and an exotic, annual grass after fire. Rangel Ecol Manag 65:160–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Howell W (1998) Germination and establishment of Bromus tectorum L. in relation to cation exchange capacity, seedbed, litter, soil cover and water. MS thesis, Prescott College, ArizonaGoogle Scholar
  81. Hulbert LC (1955) Ecological studies of Bromus tectorum and other annual bromegrasses. Ecol Monogr 25:181–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Humphrey LD, Schupp EW (2001) Seed banks of Bromus tectorum-dominated communities in the Great Basin. West N Am Nat 61:85–92Google Scholar
  83. James JJ (2008) Effect of soil nitrogen stress on the relative growth rate of annual and perennial grasses in the Intermountain West. Plant Soil 310:201–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. James JJ, Drenovsky RE, Monaco TA et al (2011) Managing soil nitrogen to restore annual grass-infested plant communities: effective strategy or incomplete framework? Ecol Appl 21:490–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Janzen DH (1984) Dispersal of small seeds by big herbivores: foliage is the fruit. Am Nat 123:338–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Johnston DB (2011) Movement of weed seeds in reclamation areas. Restor Ecol 19:446–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Jones R, Chambers, JC, Board DI et al (2015a) Understanding the role of resource limitation in restoration of sagebrush ecosystems dominated by cheatgrass – a mechanistic approach. Ecosphere. 6:107Google Scholar
  88. Jones R, Chambers JC, Johnson DW et al (2015b) Effect of repeated burning on plant and soil carbon and nitrogen in cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) dominated ecosystems. Plant Soil 386:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Jurand BS, Abella SR, Suazo AA (2013) Soil seed bank longevity of the exotic annual grass Bromus rubens in the Mojave Desert, USA. J Arid Environ 94:68–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Jurand BS, Abella SR (2013) Soil seed banks of the exotic annual grass Bromus rubens on a burned desert landscape. Rangel Ecol Manag 66:157–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Kaltenecker JH, Wicklow-Howard M, Pellant M (1999) Biological soil crusts: natural barriers to Bromus tectorum L. establishment in the northern Great Basin, USA. In: Eldridge D, Freudenberger D (eds) People and rangelands building the future. Aitkenvale, Queensland, pp 109–111Google Scholar
  92. Kanarek AR, Kao RH (2011) The relationships among plant cover, density, seed rain, and dispersal of Bromus tectorum in high-elevation populations. West N Am Nat 71:131–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Kane JM, Meinhardt KA, Chang T et al (2011) Drought-induced mortality of a foundation species (Juniperus monosperma) promotes positive afterlife effects in understory vegetation. Plant Ecol 212:733–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Karl MG, Heitschmidt R, Haferkamp MR (1999) Vegetation biomass dynamics and patterns of sexual reproduction in a northern mixed-grass prairie. Am Midl Nat 141:227–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Kotanen PM, Bergelson J, Hazlett DL (1998) Habitats of native and exotic plants in Colorado shortgrass steppe: a comparative approach. Can J Bot 76:664–672Google Scholar
  96. Keeley JE, McGinnis TW (2007) Impact of prescribed fire and other factors on cheatgrass persistence in a Sierra Nevada ponderosa pine forest. Int J Wildl Fire 16:96–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Kelrick MI (1991) Factors affecting seeds in a sagebrush-steppe ecosystem and implications for the dispersion of an annual plant species, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.). Dissertation, Utah State University, Logan, UTGoogle Scholar
  98. Kleiner EF, Harper K (1977) Occurrence of four major perennial grasses in relation to edaphic factors in a pristine community. J Range Manag 30:286–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Klemmedson JO, Smith JG (1964) Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.). Bot Rev 30:226–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Knutson KC, Pyke DA, Wirth TA et al (2014) Long‐term effects of seeding after wildfire on vegetation in Great Basin shrubland ecosystems. J Appl Ecol 51:1414–1424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Kulmatiski A, Beard KH, Stark JM (2006) Exotic plant communities shift water-use timing in a shrub-steppe ecosystem. Plant Soil 288:271–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. La Tourrette JE, Young JA, Evans RA (1971) Seed dispersal in relation to rodent activities in seral big sagebrush communities. J Range Manag 24:118–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Larsen KD (1995) Effects of microbiotic crusts on the germination and establishment of three range grasses. MS thesis, Boise State University, Boise, IDGoogle Scholar
  104. Larsen RT, Flinders JT, Mitchell DL et al (2007) Conservation risks of exotic chukars (Alectoris chukar) and their associated management: implications for a widely introduced phasianid. Wildl Res 34:262–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Leffler AJ, Ryel RJ (2012) Resource pool dynamics: conditions that regulate species interactions and dominance. Invasive plant ecology and management. Linking processes to practice. CABI International, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  106. Leger EA, Espeland EK, Merrill KR et al (2009) Genetic variation and local adaptation at a cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) invasion edge in western Nevada. Mol Ecol 18:4366–4379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Leger EA, Goergen EM, de Queiroz TF (2014) Can native annual forbs reduce Bromus tectorum biomass and indirectly facilitate establishment of a native perennial grass? J Arid Environ 102:9–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Levine JM, Adler PB, Yelenik SG (2004) A meta‐analysis of biotic resistance to exotic plant invasions. Ecol Lett 7:975–989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Loeser MR, Sisk TD, Crews TE (2007) Impact of grazing intensity during drought in an Arizona grassland. Conserv Biol 21:87–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Lowe PN, Lauenroth WK, Burke IC (2003) Effects of nitrogen availability on competition between Bromus tectorum and Bouteloua gracilis. Plant Ecol 167:247–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Mack RN (1981) Invasion of Bromus tectorum L. into Western North America: an ecological chronicle. Agro-Ecosystems 7:145–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Mack RN, Pyke DA (1983) The demography of Bromus tectorum: variation in time and space. J Ecol 71:69–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Mack RN, Thompson JN (1982) Evolution in steppe with few large, hooved mammals. Am Nat 119:757–773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Mazzola MB, Chambers JC, Blank RR et al (2011) Effects of resource availability and propagule supply on native species recruitment in sagebrush ecosystems invaded by Bromus tectorum. Biol Invasions 13:513–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. McCulley RL, Burke IC, Lauenroth WK (2009) Conservation of nitrogen increases with precipitation across a major grassland gradient in the Central Great Plains of North America. Oecologia 159:571–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. McGlone CM, Sieg CH, Kolb TE (2011) Invasion resistance and persistence: established plants win, even with disturbance and high propagule pressure. Biol Invasions 13:291–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Melgoza G, Nowak RS, Tausch RJ (1990) Soil water exploitation after fire: competition between Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) and two native species. Oecologia 83:7–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Meyer SE, Beckstead J, Pearce JL (2015) Community ecology of fungal pathogens on Bromus tectorum. In: Germino MJ, Chambers JC, Brown CS (eds) Exotic brome-grasses in arid and semiarid ecosystems of the Western USA: causes, consequences, and management implications. Springer, New York, NY (Chapter 7)Google Scholar
  119. Meyer SE, Garvin SC, Beckstead J (2001) Factors mediating cheatgrass invasion of intact salt desert shrubland. In: McArthur D, Fairbanks DJ (eds) Shrubland ecosystem genetics and biodiversity. Gen Tech Rep RMRS-P-21. USDA, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO, pp 224–232Google Scholar
  120. Meyer SE, Quinney D, Nelson DL, Weaver J (2007) Impact of the pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda on Bromus tectorum seedbank dynamics in North American cold deserts. Weed Res 47:54–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Miller R, Chambers J, Pyke D et al (2013) Fire effects on vegetation and soils in the Great Basin Region: response and site characteristics. Gen Tech Rep RMRS-GTR-308. USDA, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO, p 126Google Scholar
  122. Monaco TA, Johnson DA, Norton JM et al (2003) Contrasting responses of Intermountain West grasses to soil nitrogen. J Range Manag 56:282–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Monty A, Brown CS, Johnston DB (2013) Fire promotes downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) seed dispersal. Biol Invasions 15:1113–1123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Moyes AB, Witter MS, Gamon JA (2005) Restoration of native perennials in a California annual grassland after prescribed spring burning and solarization. Restor Ecol 13:659–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Mücher H, Chartres C, Tongway DJ et al (1988) Micromorphology and significance of the surface crusts of soils in rangelands near Cobar, Australia. Geoderma 42:227–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Murray R, Klemmedson J (1968) Cheatgrass range in southern Idaho: seasonal cattle gains and grazing capacities. J Range Manag 42:308–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Murray RB (1971) Grazing capacity, sheep gains: cheatgrass, bunchgrass ranges in southern Idaho. J Range Manag 21:407–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Murphy T, Naugle DE, Eardley R et al (2013) Trial by fire: improving our ability to reduce wildfire impacts to sage-grouse and sagebrush ecosystems through accelerated partner collaboration. Rangelands 35:2–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Newingham B, Vidiella P, Belnap J (2007) Do soil characteristics or microhabitat determine field emergence and success of Bromus tectorum? J Arid Environ 70:389–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Ogle SM, Reiners WA, Gerow KG (2003) Impacts of exotic annual brome grasses (Bromus spp.) on ecosystem properties of northern mixed grass prairie. Am Midl Nat 149:46–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Pakeman RJ, Digneffe G, Small JL (2002) Ecological correlates of endozoochory by herbivores. Funct Ecol 16:296–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Paruelo JM, Lauenroth WK (1996) Relative abundance of plant functional types in grasslands and shrublands of North America. Ecol Appl 6:1212–1224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Peart MH (1979) Experiments on the biological significance of the morphology of seed-dispersal units in grasses. J Ecol 67:843–863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Pekas KM, Schupp EW (2013) Influence of aboveground vegetation on seed bank composition and distribution in a Great Basin Desert sagebrush community. J Arid Environ 88:113–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Piemeisel RL (1951) Causes affecting change and rate of change in a vegetation of annuals in Idaho. Ecology 32:53–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Pierson EA, Mack RN (1990) The population biology of Bromus tectorum in forests: distinguishing the opportunity for dispersal from environmental restriction. Oecologia 84:519–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Pierson EA, Mack RN, Black RA (1990) The effect of shading on photosynthesis, growth, and regrowth following defoliation for Bromus tectorum. Oecologia 84:534–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Prasse R (1999) Experimentelle untersuchungen an gefäßpflanzenpopulationen auf verschiedenen geländeoberfl_chen in einem sandwüstengebiet (Experimental studies with populations of vascular plants on different soil surfaces in a sand desert area). Dissertation, Universitätsverlag Rasch, Osnabrück, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  139. Prevéy JS, Germino MJ, Huntly NJ (2010) Loss of foundation species increases population growth of exotic forbs in sagebrush steppe. Ecol Appl 20:1890–1902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Pyke DA (1986) Demographic responses of Bromus tectorum and seedlings of Agropyron spicatum to grazing by small mammals: occurrence and severity of grazing. J Ecol 75:739–754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Pyke DA (1987) Demographic responses of Bromus tectorum and seedlings of Agropyron spicatum to grazing by small mammals: the influence of grazing frequency and plant age. J Ecol 75:825–835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Pyke DA, Shaff SE, Lindgren A et al (2014) Region-wide ecological responses of arid Wyoming Big Sagebrush communities to fuel treatments. Rangel Ecol Manag 67:455–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Rasmussen G (1994) Prescribed burning considerations in sagebrush annual grassland communities. In: Monsen S, Kitchen SG (eds) Ecology and management of annual rangelands. Gen Tech Rep INT-GTR-313. USDA, Forest Service Ogden, UT, pp 69–70Google Scholar
  144. Reichenberger G, Pyke DA (1990) Impact of early root competition on fitness components of four semiarid species. Oecologia 85:159–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Reichman OJ (1979) Desert granivore foraging and its impact on seed densities and distributions. Ecology 60:1086–1092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Reisner MD, Grace JB, Pyke DA et al (2013) Conditions favouring Bromus tectorum dominance of endangered sagebrush steppe ecosystems. J Appl Ecol 50:1039–1049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Rice KJ, Mack RN (1991) Ecological genetics of Bromus tectorum. Oecologia 88(1):91–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Roberts HA (1981) Seed banks in soils. Adv Appl Biol 6:1–55Google Scholar
  149. Rogers LE, Uresk DW (1974) Food plant selection by the migratory grasshopper (Melanoplus sanguinipes) within a cheatgrass community. Northwest Sci 48:230–234Google Scholar
  150. Roundy BA, Hardegree SP, Chambers JC et al (2007) Prediction of cheatgrass field germination potential using wet thermal accumulation. Rangel Ecol Manag 60:613–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Ryel RJ, Ivans CY, Peek MS et al (2008) Functional differences in soil water pools: a new perspective on plant water use in water-limited ecosystems. In: Lüttge U, Beyschlag W, Murata J (eds) Progress in botany. Springer, Berlin, pp 397–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Sala OE, Lauenroth WK, Golluscio RA (1997) Plant functional types in temperate semi-arid regions. In: Smith TM, Shugart HH, Woodward FI (eds) Plant functional types. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA, pp 217–233Google Scholar
  153. Salo LF (2005) Red brome (Bromus rubens subsp. madritensis) in North America: possible modes for early introductions, subsequent spread. Biol Invasions 7:165–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Sankey JB, Germino MJ, Sankey TT et al (2012) Fire effects on the spatial patterning of soil properties in sagebrush steppe, USA: a meta-analysis. Int J Wildl Fire 21:545–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Schmelzer L (2009) Reducing fuel load of key cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) dominated range sites by the use of fall cattle grazing. MS thesis, University of Nevada, Reno, NVGoogle Scholar
  156. Seabloom EW, Harpole WS, Reichman OJ et al (2003) Invasion, competitive dominance, and resource use by exotic and native California grassland species. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:13384–13389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Shea K, Chesson P (2002) Community ecology theory as a framework for biological invasions. Trends Ecol Evol 17:170–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Smith DC, Meyer SE, Anderson V (2008) Factors affecting Bromus tectorum seed bank carryover in western Utah. Rangel Ecol Manag 61:430–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Smith S, Monson R, Anderson J (1997) Physiological ecology of North American desert plants. Springer, New York, NYCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Sorensen AE (1986) Seed dispersal by adhesion. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 17:443–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. St Clair L, Webb BL, Johansen JR et al (1984) Cryptogamic soil crusts: enhancement of seedling establishment in disturbed and undisturbed areas. Reclam Reveg Res 3:129–136Google Scholar
  162. Strand EK, Launchbaugh KL, Limb RF et al (2014) Livestock grazing effects on fuel loads for wildland fire in sagebrush dominated ecosystems. J Rangel Appl 1:35–57Google Scholar
  163. Thill DC, Beck KG, Callihan RH (1984) The biology of downy brome (Bromus tectorum). Weed Sci 32:7–12Google Scholar
  164. Wainwright CE, Wolkovich EM, Cleland EE (2012) Seasonal priority effects: implications for invasion and restoration in a semi‐arid system. J Appl Ecol 49:234–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Wells FH, Lauenroth WK (2007) The potential for horses to disperse alien plants along recreational trails. Rangel Ecol Manag 60:574–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. West NE, Yorks TP (2002) Vegetation responses following wildfire on grazed and ungrazed sagebrush semi-desert. J Range Manag 55:171–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Wikeem B, Pitt M (1992) Diet of California bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis californiana, in British Columbia: assessing optimal foraging habitat. Can Field-Nat 106:327–335Google Scholar
  168. Wilcox BP, Turnbull L, Young MH et al (2012) Invasion of shrublands by exotic grasses: ecohydrological consequences in cold versus warm deserts. Ecohydrology 5:160–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Wu K, Jain S (1979) Population regulation in Bromus rubens and B. mollis: life cycle components and competition. Oecologia 39:337–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Young JA, Evans RA (1975) Germinability of seed reserves in a big sagebrush community. Weed Sci 23:358–364Google Scholar
  171. Young JA, Evans RA, Palmquist DE (1989) Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) seed production. Weed Sci 37:47–53Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeanne C. Chambers
    • 1
    Email author
  • Matthew J. Germino
    • 2
  • Jayne Belnap
    • 3
  • Cynthia S. Brown
    • 4
  • Eugene W. Schupp
    • 5
  • Samuel B. St. Clair
    • 6
  1. 1.USDA Forest ServiceRocky Mountain Research StationRenoUSA
  2. 2.US Geological SurveyForest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science CenterBoiseUSA
  3. 3.US Geological SurveySouthwest Biological Science CenterMoabUSA
  4. 4.Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest ManagementColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA
  5. 5.Department of Wildland ResourcesUtah State UniversityLoganUSA
  6. 6.Plant and Wildlife SciencesBrigham Young UniversityProvoUSA

Personalised recommendations