Introduction: Exotic Annual Bromus in the Western USA
The spread and impacts of exotic species are unambiguous, global threats to many ecosystems. A prominent example is the suite of annual grasses in the Bromus genus (Bromus hereafter) that originate from Europe and Eurasia but have invaded or are invading large areas of the Western USA. This book brings a diverse, multidisciplinary group of authors together to synthesize current knowledge, research needs, and management implications for Bromus. Exotic plant invasions are multifaceted problems, and understanding and managing them requires the biological, ecological, sociological, and economic perspectives that are integrated in this book. Knowing how well information from one geographic or environmental setting can transfer to another is a key need for broadly distributed Bromus species especially given ongoing climate change. Thus, the chapters in the book compare and contrast invasibility of different ecoregions and invasiveness of different Bromus species. A universal theme is managing for ecosystems that are resilient to disturbance and resistant to invasion which will be essential for adaptation to the human-caused problem of Bromus in the Western USA.
KeywordsResistance Resilience Exotic annual Bromus grasses Western USA
Jessica Vander Veen provided invaluable assistance in preparing the manuscript for submission. Sue Phillips provided comments on many chapters. Funding was provided by USDA REENet Grant #03083. Plant taxonomy follows the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov) in all but Chap. 6 which uses a broader range of sources. Any use of trade names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the US Government.
- Billings WD (1990) Bromus tectorum, a biotic cause of ecosystem impoverishment in the Great Basin. The Earth in Transition. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, pp 301–322Google Scholar
- Caudle D, DiBenedetto J, Karl M et al (2013) Interagency ecological site handbook for rangelands. http://jornada.nmsu.edu/files/InteragencyEcolSiteHandbook.pdf. Accessed 2 Jun 2015
- Chapin FS III, Torn SE, Tateno M (1996) Principles of ecosystem sustainability. Am Nat 148:1016–1037Google Scholar
- D’Antonio CM, Vitousek PM (1992) Biological invasions by exotic annual grasses, the grass/fire cycle, and global change. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 23:63–87Google Scholar
- Gulmon SL (1977) A comparative study of the grassland of California and Chile. Flora 166:261–278Google Scholar
- Walker BH, Holling CS, Carpenter SR et al (2004) Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social-ecological systems. Ecol Soc 9:5Google Scholar