Modeling the Behavior of Unskilled Users in a Multi-UAV Simulation Environment
The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) has been growing over the last few years. The accelerated evolution of these systems is generating a high demand of qualified operators, which requires to redesign the training process and focus on a wider range of candidates, including inexperienced users in the field, in order to detect skilled-potential operators. This paper uses data from the interactions of multiple unskilled users in a simple multi-UAV simulator to create a behavioral model through the use of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). An optimal HMM is validated and analyzed to extract common behavioral patterns among these users, so that it is proven that the model represents correctly the novelty of the users and may be used to detect and predict behaviors in multi-UAV systems.
KeywordsUnmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) Hidden Markov Model (HMM) Behavioral model
This work is supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Education under Project Code TIN2014-56494-C4-4-P, Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid under project CIBERDINE S2013/ICE-3095, and Savier an Airbus Defense & Space project (FUAM-076914 and FUAM-076915). The authors would like to acknowledge the support obtained from Airbus Defence & Space, specially from Savier Open Innovation project members: José Insenser, Gemma Blasco and Juan Antonio Henríquez.
- 5.Hayashi, M.: Hidden Markov models to identify pilot instrument scanning and attention patterns. In: 2003 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, vol. 3, pp. 2889–2896. IEEE (2003)Google Scholar
- 6.Leiden, K., Laughery, K.R., Keller, J., French, J., Warwick, W., Wood, S.D.: A review of human performance models for the prediction of human error. Ann Arbor 1001, 48105 (2001)Google Scholar
- 7.McCarley, J.S., Wickens, C.D.: Human factors concerns in UAV flight. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Institute of Aviation, Aviation Human Factors Division (2004)Google Scholar
- 9.Pereira, E., Bencatel, R., Correia, J., Félix, L., Gonçalves, G., Morgado, J., Sousa, J.: Unmanned air vehicles for coastal and environmental research. J. Coast. Res. 2009(56), 1557–1561 (2009)Google Scholar
- 12.Rodríguez-Fernández, V., Héctor, D., Menéndez, D.C.: Design and development of a lightweight multi-uav simulator. In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Cybernetics (CYBCONF). IEEE (Paper accepted, 2015)Google Scholar