Cacao Diseases pp 383-428 | Cite as

Ceratocystis Wilt Pathogens: History and Biology—Highlighting C. cacaofunesta, the Causal Agent of Wilt Disease of Cacao

  • Odalys García Cabrera
  • Eddy Patricia López Molano
  • Juliana José
  • Javier Correa Álvarez
  • Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães Pereira


Ceratocystis is a genus of ascomycete fungi that includes aggressive pathogens of economically important plants worldwide. This fungus is the causal agent of Ceratocystis wilt disease and canker disease, which often kills the plant causing major losses in agricultural production. In the last two decades, emerging diseases related to Ceratocystis infections have been greatly increased. Ceratocystis wilt of cacao is caused by C. cacaofunesta, one of the three well-established host-specific pathogens in the genus. Ceratocystis wilt of cacao has caused sporadic epidemics in the Americas, but its importance is often underestimated. Furthermore, the disease represents a serious threat to the world’s cacao production due to the risk of pathogen spread. Silvicultural practices in cacao agroforests, the marketing of seeds, and cacao grafting in association with a minimal knowledge of the biology of the pathogen effectively contributed to this threat. This chapter explores the controversial taxonomic and evolutionary history of the genus Ceratocystis as well as the biology of C. cacaofunesta.


Bark Beetle Cacao Tree Ambrosia Beetle Wilt Pathogen Ophiostomatoid Fungus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors would like to acknowledge Lyndel Meinhardt from the United States Department of Agriculture—Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) and Derivaldo Evangelista de Jesus from Porto Novo Farm, who provided pictures of Ceratocystis wilt of cacao in the field. We would also like to acknowledge Professor Eduardo Galembeck and the undergraduate student Rafaela Raposo who also collaborated with photos of Ceratocystis wilt disease of cacao and the fungus C. cacaofunesta, respectively. This work was supported by research funding of Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP), Grant number 2009/50119-9 and Centro Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq).


  1. Al Adawi, A. O., Al Jabri, R. M., Deadman, M. L., Barnes, I., Wingfield, B., & Wingfield, M. J. (2013a). The mango sudden decline pathogen, Ceratocystis manginecans, is vectored by Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) in Oman. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 135(2), 243–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al Adawi, A. O., Barnes, I., Khan, I. A., Al Subhi, A. M., Al Jahwari, A. A., & Deadman, M. L. (2013b). Ceratocystis manginecans associated with a serious wilt disease of two native legume trees in Oman and Pakistan. Australasian Plant Pathology, 42(2), 179–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al Adawi, A. O., Deadman, M. L., Al Rawahi, A. K., Al Maqbali, Y. M., Al Jahwari, A. A., Al Saadi, B. A., et al. (2006). Etiology and causal agents of mango sudden decline disease in the Sultanate of Oman. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 116(4), 247–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alarcon, C. R. M. (1994). Determinación de resistencia de 250 clones de cacao de origen nacional al ataque de mal de machete. Graduation thesis, Universidad Agraria del Ecuador.Google Scholar
  5. Ambourn, A. K., Juzwik, J., & Moon, R. D. (2005). Seasonal dispersal of the oak wilt fungus by Colopterus truncatus and Carpophilus sayi in Minnesota. Plant Disease, 89(10), 1067–1076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ambrosio, A. B., do Nascimento, L. C., Oliveira, B. V., Teixeira, P. J. P., Tiburcio, R. A., Thomazella, D. P., et al. (2013). Global analyses of Ceratocystis cacaofunesta mitochondria: From genome to proteome. BMC Genomics, 14(1), 91.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Araujo, L., Silva Bispo, W. M., Cacique, I. S., Cruz, M. F. A., & Rodrigues, F. A. (2014). Histopathological aspects of mango resistance to the infection process of Ceratocystis fimbriata. Plant Pathology, 63(6), 1282–1295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arbelaez, G. E. (1957). La llaga macana del tronco del cacao. Acta Agronómica (Colombia), 7, 71–103.Google Scholar
  9. Baccelli, I., Lombardi, L., Luti, S., Bernardi, R., Picciarelli, P., Scala, A., et al. (2014). Cerato-platanin induces resistance in Arabidopsis leaves through stomatal perception, overexpression of salicylic acid- and ethylene-signalling genes and camalexin biosynthesis. PLoS ONE, 9(6), e100959. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100959.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baker, J. M. (1963). Ambrosia beetles and their fungi, with particular reference to Platypus cylindrus Fab. In Symbiotic associations (pp. 232–265). 13th Symposium of the Society for General Microbiology, Royal Institution, London.Google Scholar
  11. Baker, C. J., Harrington, T. C., Krauss, U., & Alfenas, A. C. (2003). Genetic variability and host specialization in the Latin American clade of Ceratocystis fimbriata. Phytopathology, 93 (10), 1274–1284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barnes, I., Gaur, A., Burgess, T., Roux, J., Wingfield, B. D., & Wingfield, M. J. (2001). Microsatellite markers reflect intra‐specific relationships between isolates of the vascular wilt pathogen Ceratocystis fimbriata. Molecular Plant Pathology, 2(6), 319–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barnes, I., Nakabonge, G., Roux, J., Wingfield, B. D., & Wingfield, M. J. (2005). Comparison of populations of the wilt pathogen Ceratocystis albifundus in South Africa and Uganda. Plant Pathology, 54(2), 189–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Barnes, I., Roux, J., Wingfield, B. D., Dudzinski, M. J., Old, K. M., & Wingfield, M. J. (2003). Ceratocystis pirilliformis, a new species from Eucalyptus nitens in Australia. Mycologia, 95(5), 865–871.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bastos, C. N., & Evans, H. C. (1978). Ocorrência de Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell & Halst. na Amazônia Brasileira. Acta Amazonica, 8, 543–544.Google Scholar
  16. Beaver, R. A. (1989). Insect-fungus relationships in the bark and ambrosia beetles. In N. Wilding, N. Collins, P. Hammond, & J. Webber (Eds.), Insect-fungus interactions (pp. 121–143). London: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bezerra, J. L. (1997). Ceratocystis fimbriata causing death of budded cocoa seedlings in Bahia, Brazil. Incoped Newsletter, 1, 6.Google Scholar
  18. Blaedow, R. A., Juzwik, J., & Barber, B. (2010). Propiconazole distribution and effects on Ceratocystis fagacearum survival in roots of treated red oaks. Phytopathology, 100(10), 979–985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Boddi, S., Comparini, C., Calamassi, R., Pazzagli, L., Cappugi, G., & Scala, A. (2004). Cerato-platanin protein is located in the cell walls of ascospores, conidia and hyphae of Ceratocystis fimbriata f. sp. platani. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 233(2), 341–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Booth, J. A. (1969). Gossypium hirsutum tolerance to Verticillium albo-atrum infection. I. Amino acid exudation from aseptic roots of tolerant and susceptible cotton. Phytopathology, 59(1), 43.Google Scholar
  21. Borja, D. C., Caycedo, J. E. L., & Ríos, J. A. L. (1995). El secamiento de los citricos en la zona cafetera central. Cenicafé Avances Tecnicos, No. 212.Google Scholar
  22. Brasier, C. M. (1987). Recent genetic changes in the Ophiostoma ulmi population: the threat to the future of the elm. In M. S. Wolfe & C. E. Caten (Eds.), Populations of plant pathogens: Their dynamics and genetics (pp. 213–226). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  23. Bretz, T. W. (1951). Oak wilt fungus pathogenic to Chinese chestnut. Plant Disease Reporter, 35(1), 28.Google Scholar
  24. Bruhn, J. N., Pickens, J. B., & Stanfield, D. B. (1991). Probit analysis of oak wilt transmission through root grafts in red oak stands. Forest Science, 37(1), 28–44.Google Scholar
  25. CABI. (2001). Ceratocystis fimbriata (original text prepared by C. J. Baker and T. C. Harrington). In Crop protection compendium. Wallingford: CAB International.
  26. CABI. (2015). Ceratocystis fimbriata (original text by Harrington, T. C. and Baker, C.). In Crop protection compendium. Wallingford: CAB International.Google Scholar
  27. Camilli, K., Appel, D. N., & Watson, W. T. (2007). Studies on pruning cuts and wound dressings for oak wilt control. Arboriculture and Urban Forestry, 33(2), 132.Google Scholar
  28. Castellani, A. (1939). Viability of some pathogenic fungi in distilled water. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 42(225), 65–72.Google Scholar
  29. Castillo Zapata, J. (1982). Producción de una selección resistente a llaga macana Ceratocystis fimbriata (Ell. Halst) Hunt. con relación a las variedades tipica y bourbon. Cenicafé (Colombia), 33(2), 53–66.Google Scholar
  30. Castro-Caicedo, B. L. (1998). Incidencia de llaga macana (Ceratocystis fimbriata, Ell. Halst. Hunt.) en la práctica de poda de ramas bajeras del café. Avances Técnicos Cenicafé, 252, 1–8.Google Scholar
  31. Castro-Caicedo, B. L., & Cortina-Guerrero, H. A. (2009). Evaluación de resistencia a Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. Halst. Hunt. en progenies f5 de café Borbón resistente x Caturra. Cenicafé, 60(2), 115–125.Google Scholar
  32. Castro-Caicedo, B. L., Cortina-Guerrero, H. A., Roux, J., & Wingfield, M. J. (2013). New coffee (Coffea arabica) genotypes derived from Coffea canephora exhibiting high levels of resistance to leaf rust and Ceratocystis canker. Tropical Plant Pathology, 38(6), 485–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Causin, R., Montecchio, L., Mutto Accordi, S., Galbero, G., & Lodi, M. (1995). Control of Ceratocystis fimbriata f. sp. platani by trunk injections of fungicides. Informatore Fitopatologico (Italy), 45, 28–31.Google Scholar
  34. Chee, K. H. (1970). Evaluation of fungicides for control of mouldy rot (Ceratocystis fimbriata) of Hevea brasiliensis. Plant Disease Reporter, 54(10), 897–899.Google Scholar
  35. Cheesman, E. E. (1944). Notes on the nomenclature, classification and possible relationships of cacao populations. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad), 21, 144–159.Google Scholar
  36. Chen, S. F., van Wyk, M., Roux, J., Wingfield, M. J., Xie, Y. J., & Zhou, X. D. (2013). Taxonomy and pathogenicity of Ceratocystis species on Eucalyptus trees in South China, including C. chinaeucensis sp. nov. Fungal Diversity, 58, 267–279 (Cited in Fig. 12.2).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Chong, G. L. (1961). Desarrollo de la infeción y naturaleza de la resistencia clonal a Ceratocystis fimbriata. Tesis para obtener el grado, Facultad de Agronomia y Veterinaria, Universidad de Guayaquil, Ecuador.Google Scholar
  38. Christen, P., Meza, J. C., & Revah, S. (1997). Fruity aroma production in solid state fermentation by Ceratocystis fimbriata: Influence of the substrate type and the presence of precursors. Mycological Research, 101(8), 911–919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Clark, C. A., & Moyer, J. W. (1988). Compendium of sweet potato diseases. St. Paul, MN: American Phytopathological Society. 74 pp.Google Scholar
  40. Clérivet, A., Déon, V., Alami, I., Lopez, F., Geiger, J. P., & Nicole, M. (2000). Tyloses and gels associated with cellulose accumulation in vessels are responses of plane tree seedlings (Platanus× acerifolia) to the vascular fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata f. sp platani. Trees, 15(1), 25–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Crone, L. J. (1963). Symptoms, spread, and control of canker stain of Plane trees. Dissertation Abstracts, 23(6), 1857–1858.Google Scholar
  42. Cummings-Carlson, J., Martin, A. J., & Scanton, K. (2010). Oak Wilt management: What are the options? University of Wisconsin-Extension, Cooperative Extension, 6 pp.Google Scholar
  43. Daines, R. H. (1971). The control of black rot of Sweet Potatoes by the use of fungicide dips at various temperatures. Phytopathology, 61(9), 1145–1146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dand, R. (2011). The international cocoa trade (3rd ed.). Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing. 647 pp.Google Scholar
  45. Davidson, E. (1935). Fungi causing stain in logs and lumber in the southern States, including five new species. Journal of Agricultural Research, 50(10), 789–807.Google Scholar
  46. Davis, S. H., & Peterson, J. L. (1973). A tree wound dressing to prevent spread of the Ceratocystis causing canker stain disease of the plane tree. Plant Disease Reporter, 57, 28–30.Google Scholar
  47. De Beer, Z. W., Duong, T. A., Barnes, I., Wingfield, B. D., & Wingfield, M. J. (2014). Redefining Ceratocystis and allied genera. Studies in Mycology, 789, 187–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. De Beer, Z. W., Seifert, K. A., & Wingfield, M. J. (2013). A nomenclator for Ophiostomatoid genera and species in the Ophiostomatales and Microascales. The Ophiostomatoid Fungi: Expanding Frontiers, CBS Biodiversity Series, 12, 243–320.Google Scholar
  49. De Hoog, G. S., & Scheffer, R. J. (1984). Ceratocystis versus Ophiostoma: A reappraisal. Mycologia, 76, 292–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. de O Barsottini, M. R., de Oliveira, J. F., Adamoski, D., Teixeira, P. J., Prado, P. F., Tiezzi, H. O., et al. (2013). Functional diversification of cerato-platanins in Moniliophthora perniciosa as seen by differential expression and protein function specialization. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 26(11), 1281–1293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Delgado, R. (2003). Fuentes de resistência al mal de machete em accesiones de cacao silvestre coletadas en la Amazonia Ecuatoriana. XII Seminário Nacional de Sanidad Vegetal, Latacunga, Ecuador.Google Scholar
  52. Delgado, A. J., & Echandi, E. (1965). Evaluación de la resistencia de especies y clones de cacao al mal del machete provocado por Ceratocystis fimbriata. Turrialba, 15(4), 286–289.Google Scholar
  53. Delgado, R., & Suárez, C. (2003). Diferencias en agressividad entre aislamentos de Ceratocystis fimbriata de Ecuador y Brasil en cacao. XII Seminário Nacional de Sanidad Vegetal, Latacunga, Ecuador.Google Scholar
  54. Desrosiers, R. (1956). Diferenciacion entre variedades de cacao con base a su susceptibilidad a la infeccion con Ceratostomella fimbriata (E. and H.) Elliot, en El Ecuador. Turrialba, 6, 48–52.Google Scholar
  55. Desrosiers, R. (1957). Developments in the control of witches’ broom, monilia pod rot and ceratostomella diseases of cacao. Vlth Conf. Interamericana de Cacau Salvador, Bahia, 1956, pp. 73–78.Google Scholar
  56. DeVay, J. E., English, H., Lukezic, F. L., & O’Reilly, H. J. (1968). Ceratocystis canker of almond trees. Phytopathology, 58, 949–954.Google Scholar
  57. Dickman, M. B., & de Figueiredo, P. (2013). Death be not proud—cell death control in plant fungal interactions. PLoS Pathogens, 9(9), e1003542.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Duchesne, L. C., Hubbes, M., & Jeng, R. S. (1992). Biochemistry and molecular biology of defense reactions in the xylem of angiosperm trees. In A. Blanchette & R. Biggs (Eds.), Defense mechanisms of woody plants against fungi (pp. 133–146). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Elliott, J. A. (1923). The ascigerous stage of the sweet potato black rot fungus. Phytopathology, 13, 56.Google Scholar
  60. Engelbrecht, C. J. B., & Harrington, T. C. (2005). Intersterility, morphology and taxonomy of Ceratocystis fimbriata on sweet potato, cacao and sycamore. Mycologia, 97(1), 57–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Engelbrecht, C. J., Harrington, T. C., & Alfenas, A. (2007a). Ceratocystis Wilt of Cacao–a disease of increasing importance. Phytopathology, 97(12), 1648–1649.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Engelbrecht, C. J. B., Harrington, T. C., Alfenas, A. C., & Suarez, C. (2007b). Genetic variation of populations of the cacao wilt pathogen, Ceratocystis cacaofunesta. Plant Pathology, 56, 923–933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Engelbrecht, C. J. B., Harrington, T. C., Steimel, J., & Capretti, P. (2004). Genetic variation in eastern North American and putatively introduced populations of Ceratocystis fimbriata f. platani. Molecular Ecology, 13(10), 2995–3005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ennos, R. A., & McConnell, K. C. (1995). Using genetic markers to investigate natural selection in fungal populations. Canadian Journal of Botany, 73, S302–S310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. FAO, Roma (Italia). (2009). Latin America and the Caribbean. Global review of forest pests and diseases. Estudio FAO Montes (FAO), paper 156.Google Scholar
  66. FEDECACAO, Federación Nacional De Cacaoteros. (2007). Guía Técnica para el Cultivo del Cacao. Bogotá D.C., 2 ed. LCB Ltda. 192 p.Google Scholar
  67. Ferrari, J. P., & Pichenot, M. (1976). The canker stain disease of plane tree in Marseilles and in the south of France. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 6(1), 18–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ferreira, F. A. (2000). Constatação rápida de Ceratocystis fimbriata na doença murcha de Ceratocystis em eucalipto por meio de cortes histopatológicos à mão livre. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 25(Suppl), 372.Google Scholar
  69. Ferreira, F. A., Demuner, A. M., Demuner, N. L., & Pigato, S. (1999). Murcha de Ceratocystis em eucalipto no Brasil. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 24(Suppl), 284.Google Scholar
  70. Ferreira, M. A., Harrington, T. C., Alfenas, A. C., & Mizubuti, E. S. (2011). Movement of genotypes of Ceratocystis fimbriata within and among Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil. Phytopathology, 101(8), 1005–1012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ferreira, M. A., Harrington, T. C., Gongora‐Canul, C. C., Mafia, R. G., Zauza, E. A. V., & Alfenas, A. C. (2013). Spatial–temporal patterns of Ceratocystis Wilt in Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil. Forest Pathology, 43(2), 153–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ferreira, E. M., Harrington, T. C., Thorpe, D. J., & Alfenas, A. C. (2010). Genetic diversity and interfertility among highly differentiated populations of Ceratocystis fimbriata in Brazil. Plant Pathology, 59(4), 721–735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ferreira, F. A., Maffia, L. A., Barreto, R. W., Demuner, N. L., & Pigatto, S. (2006). Sintomatologia da murcha de Ceratocystis fimbriata em eucalipto. Revista árvore, 30(2), 155–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Firmino, A. C., Novaes, Q. S., Tozze, H. J., Jr., Sobrinho, G. R., Santos, A., Bezerra, J. L., et al. (2013). First report of Ceratocystis fimbriata causing fruit-rot of Passiflora edulis in Brazil. New Disease Reports, 27, 4. doi: 10.5197/j.2044-0588.2013.027.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Fourie, A., Wingfield, M. J., Wingfield, B. D., & Barnes, I. (2015). Molecular markers delimit cryptic species in Ceratocystis sensu stricto. Mycological Progress, 14(1), 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. French, D. W., & Juzwik, J. (1999). Oak wilt in Minnesota. Report MI-03174. University of Minnesota Extension Service, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN.Google Scholar
  77. Gardella, D. S., Enriquez, G. A., & Saunders, J. L. (1982). Inheritance of clonal resistance to Ceratocystis fimbriata in cacao hybrids. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Cocoa Research Conference (pp. 695–702), Cartagena, Colombia, October 18–23, 1981. Colombia: Cocoa Producers’ Alliance.Google Scholar
  78. Gehring, E. H. (1995). Oak Wilt perspectives (p. 147). The Proceedings of the National Oak Wilt Symposium, June 22–25, 1992, Austin, TX.Google Scholar
  79. Gibbs, J. N., & French, D. W. (1980). The transmission of oak wilt. Research Paper, USDA Forest Service (NC 185).Google Scholar
  80. Gioti, A., Mushegian, A. A., Strandberg, R., Stajich, J. E., & Johannesson, H. (2012). Unidirectional evolutionary transitions in fungal mating systems and the role of transposable elements. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 29(10), 3215–3226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Giraud, T., Gladieux, P., & Gavrilets, S. (2010). Linking the emergence of fungal plant diseases with ecological speciation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 25(7), 387–395.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Goheen, D., & Hansen, E. (1993). Effects of pathogens and bark beetles on forests. In T. D. Schowalter & G. M. Filip (Eds.), Beetle pathogen interactions in conifer forests (pp. 175–196). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  83. Goitía, W., & Rosales, C. J. (2001). Relación entre la incidencia de escolítidos y la necrosis del cacao en Aragua, Venezuela. Manejo Integrado de Plagas, 62, 65–71.Google Scholar
  84. Guerrero, H. M. D. O. (1975). Estudio de la resistencia a Ceratocystis fimbriata Ellis y halst, en Hibridos y clones de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), utilizando dos metodos de evaluacion. Instituto Interamericano de Ciencias Agricolas de la OEA.Google Scholar
  85. Hall, C., Heath, R., & Guest, D. I. (2011). Rapid and intense accumulation of terpenoid phytoalexins in infected xylem tissues of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) resistant to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 76(3), 182–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Hall, N., Keon, J. P. R., & Hargreaves, J. A. (1999). A homologue of a gene implicated in the virulence of human fungal diseases is present in a plant fungal pathogen and is expressed during infection. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 55, 69–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Halsted, B. D. (1890). Some fungous diseases of the sweet potato. The black rot. New Jersey Agriculture Experiment Station Bulletin, 76, 7–14.Google Scholar
  88. Halsted, B. D., & Fairchild, D. G. (1891). Sweet-potato black rot (Ceratocystis fimbriata, Ell. & Hals.). The Journal of Mycology, 7(1), 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Harrington, T. C. (1981). Cycloheximide sensitivity as a taxonomic character in Ceratocystis. Mycologia, 73(6), 1123–1129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Harrington, T. C. (2000). Host specialization and speciation in the American wilt pathogen. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 25, 262–263.Google Scholar
  91. Harrington, T. C. (2009). The genus Ceratocystis. Where does the oak wilt fungus fit? In R. F. Billings & D. N. Appel (Eds.), The Proceedings of the 2nd National Oak Wilt Symposium (pp. 21–35). Texas Forest Service Publication. National Oak Wilt Symposium, June 4–7, 2007, Austin, TX.
  92. Harrington, T. C. (2013). Ceratocystis diseases. In P. Gonthier & G. Nicolotti (Eds.), Infectious forest diseases (pp. 230–255). Wallingford: CAB International.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Harrington, T. C., Huang, Q., Ferreira, M. A., & Alfenas, A. C. (2015). Genetic analyses trace the Yunnan, China population of Ceratocystis fimbriata on pomegranate and taro to populations on Eucalyptus in Brazil. Plant Disease, 99(1), 106–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Harrington, T. C., Kazmi, M. R., Al-Sadi, A. M., & Ismail, S. I. (2014). Intraspecific and intragenomic variability of ITS rDNA sequences reveals taxonomic problems in Ceratocystis fimbriata sensu stricto. Mycologia, 106(2), 224–242. doi: 10.3852/106.2.224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Harrington, T. C., & McNew, D. L. (1997). Self-fertility and uni-directional mating-type switching in Ceratocystis coerulescens, a filamentous ascomycete. Current Genetics, 32(1), 52–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Harrington, T. C., Pashenova, N. V., McNew, D. L., Steimel, J., & Konstantinov, M. Y. (2002). Species delimitation and host specialization of Ceratocystis laricicola and C. polonica to larch and spruce. Plant Disease, 86(4), 418–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Harrington, T. C., & Rizzo, D. M. (1999). Defining species in the fungi. In J. J. Worrall (Ed.), Structure and dynamics of fungal populations (pp. 43–71). Dordrecht: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Harrington, T. C., Steimel, J., & Kile, G. (1998). Genetic variation in three Ceratocystis species with outcrossing, selfing and asexual reproductive strategies. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 28(4), 217–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Harrington, T. C., Thorpe, D. J., & Alfenas, A. C. (2011). Genetic variation and variation in aggressiveness to native and exotic hosts among Brazilian populations of Ceratocystis fimbriata. Phytopathology, 101(5), 555–566.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Harris, J. L., & Taber, W. A. (1973). Ultrastructure and morphogenesis of the synnema of Ceratocystis ulmi. Canadian Journal of Botany, 51(9), 1565–1571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Hausner, G., Reid, J., & Klassen, G. R. (1993a). Ceratocystiopsis: A reappraisal based on molecular criteria. Mycological Research, 97(5), 625–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Hausner, G., Reid, J., & Klassen, G. R. (1993b). On the phylogeny of Ophiostoma, Ceratocystis ss, and Microascus, and relationships within Ophiostoma based on partial ribosomal DNA sequences. Canadian Journal of Botany, 71(9), 1249–1265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Heath, R. N., Wingfield, M. J., Wingfield, B. D., Meke, G., Mbaga, A., & Roux, J. (2009). Ceratocystis species on Acacia mearnsii and Eucalyptus spp. in eastern and southern Africa including six new species. Fungal Diversity, 34, 41.Google Scholar
  104. Hinds, T. E. (1972). Ceratocystis canker of Aspen. Phytopathology, 62(2), 213–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Hirota, K., Kato, K., & Miyagawa, T. (1984). Chemical control of Ceratocystis canker in fig. Research Bulletin of the Aichi-ken Agricultural Research Center, 16, 211–218.Google Scholar
  106. Huang, Q., Zhu, H. R., Chen, Y. Y., Wang, Y. L., Liu, W. J. L., & Ruan, X. Y. (2003). First report of pomegranate wilt caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata in Yunnan, China. Plant Disease, 87(9), 1150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Hunt, J. (1956). Taxonomy of the genus Ceratocystis. Lloydia, 19, 1–58.Google Scholar
  108. ICCO. (2013). Annual report 2012–2013. London, UK: International Cocoa Organization.Google Scholar
  109. Ioannou, N., Scheneider, R. W., & Grogan, R. G. (1977). Effect of oxygen, carbon dioxide and ethylene on growth, sporulation and production of microsclerotia by Verticillium dahliae. Phytopathology, 67, 645–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Iton, E. F. (1960). Ceratostomella wilt in cacao in Trinidad. In InterAmerican Cacao Conference, 8th, Port of Spain, Trinidad, Proceedings (pp. 201–204).Google Scholar
  111. Iton, E. F. (1966). CeratocystisWilt. In Annual report on Cacao research, 1965 (pp. 48–49). St Augustine, Trinidad: Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture, University of the West Indies.Google Scholar
  112. Iton, E. F., & Conway, G. (1961). Studies on a wilt disease of Cacao at River Estate. II. Some aspects of wind transmission. In Report on Cacao research, 1959–60 (pp. 47–58). Trinidad.Google Scholar
  113. Johnson, J. A., Harrington, T. C., & Engelbrecht, C. J. B. (2005). Phylogeny and taxonomy of the North American clade of the Ceratocystis fimbriata complex. Mycologia, 97(5), 1067–1092.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Juzwik, J., Appel, D. N., MacDonald, W. L., & Burks, S. (2011). Challenges and successes in managing oak wilt in the United States. Plant Disease, 95(8), 888–900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Juzwik, J., Cease, K. R., & Meyer, J. M. (1998). Acquisition of Ophiostoma quercus and Ceratocystis fagacearum by nitidulids from O. quercus-colonized oak wilt mats. Plant Disease, 82(2), 239–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Juzwik, J., Harrington, T. C., MacDonald, W. L., & Appel, D. N. (2008). The origin of Ceratocystis fagacearum, the oak wilt fungus*. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 46(1), 13–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Juzwik, J., Skalbeck, T. C., & Neuman, M. F. (2004). Sap beetle species (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) visiting fresh wounds on healthy oaks during spring in Minnesota. Forest Science, 50(6), 757–764.Google Scholar
  118. Kajitani, Y., & Masuya, H. (2011). Ceratocystis ficicola sp. nov., a causal fungus of fig canker in Japan. Mycoscience, 52(5), 349–353. doi: 10.1007/S10267-011-0116-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Kazmi, M. R., Fateh, F. S., Majeed, K., Kashkhely, A. M., Hussain, I., Ahmad, I., et al. (2005). Incidence and etiology of mango sudden death phenomenon in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 17, 154–158.Google Scholar
  120. Kessler, K. J. (1966). Xylem sap as a growth medium for 4 tree wilt fungi. Phytopathology, 56(10), 1165.Google Scholar
  121. Kile, G. A. (1993). Plant diseases caused by species of Ceratocystis sensu stricto and Chalara. In M. J. Wingfield, K. A. Seifert, & J. A. Webber (Eds.), Ceratocystis and ophiostoma: Taxonomy, ecology and pathogenicity (pp. 173–183). Saint Paul, MN: APS Press.Google Scholar
  122. Kliejunas, J. T., Tkacz, B. M., Burdsall, H. H., Jr., DeNitto, G. A., Eglitis, A., Haugen, D. A., et al. (2001). Pest risk assessment of the importation into the United States of unprocessed Eucalyptus logs and chips from South America. General Technical Report-Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service, (FPL-GTR-124).Google Scholar
  123. Krings, U., & Berger, R. G. (1998). Biotechnological production of flavours and fragrances. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 49(1), 1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Lanza, E., & Palmer, J. K. (1977). Biosynthesis of monoterpenes by Ceratocystis moniliformis. Phytochemistry, 16(10), 1555–1560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Leefmans, S. (1934). Diseases and pests of cultivated crops in the Dutch East Indies in 1931. Mededelingen van het Institut voor Plantziekten Onderzoek. 82 pp.Google Scholar
  126. Li, J., Gao, J. M., Han, Y. H., Sun, Y. X., & Huang, Q. (2014). First report of Ceratocystis fimbriata-caused wilt of Eriobotrya japonica in China. Plant Disease, 98(9), 1270. (Cited in Fig. 12.2).Google Scholar
  127. Lin, H., & Phelan, P. L. (1992). Comparison of volatiles from beetle-transmitted Ceratocystis fagacearum and four non-insect-dependent fungi. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 18(9), 1623–1632.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Malaguti, G. (1952). Ceratostomella fimbriata on Cacao in Venezuela. Acta Científica Venezolana, 3(3), 94–97.Google Scholar
  129. Malaguti, G. (1956). La necrosis del tronco del cacao en Venezuela. Agronomía Tropical (Venezuela), 5(4), 207–226.Google Scholar
  130. Malloch, D., & Blackwell, M. (1993). Dispersal biology of the ophiostomatoid fungi. In M. J. Wingfield, K. A. Seifert, & J. F. Webber (Eds.), Ceratocystis and Ophiostoma: Taxonomy, ecology and pathology (pp. 195–206). St. Paul, MN: APS Press.Google Scholar
  131. Marín Montoya, M., & Wingfield, M. J. (2006). A review of Ceratocystis sensu stricto with special reference to the species complexes C. coerulescens and C. fimbriata. Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomía, Medellín, 59(1), 3045–3375.Google Scholar
  132. Marin, M., Castro, B., Gaitan, A., Preisig, O., Wingfield, B. D., & Wingfield, M. J. (2003). Relationships of Ceratocystis fimbriata isolates from Colombian coffee‐growing regions based on molecular data and pathogenicity. Journal of Phytopathology, 151(7–8), 395–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Martin, W. J. (1954). Varietal reaction to Ceratostomella fimbriata in sweet potato. Phytopathology, 44, 383–387.Google Scholar
  134. Martin, W. J. (1971). Evaluation of fungicides for effectiveness against the Sweet Potato black rot fungus, Ceratocystis fimbriata. Plant Disease Reporter, 55(6), 523–526.Google Scholar
  135. Masood, A., Saeed, S., Iqbal, N., Malik, M. T., & Kazmi, M. R. (2010). Methodology for the evaluation of symptoms severity of mango sudden death syndrome in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 42(2), 1289–1299.Google Scholar
  136. Masood, A., Saeed, S., & Sajjad, A. (2008). Characterization and damage patterns of different bark beetle species associated with mango sudden death syndrome in Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan Entomologist, 30(2), 163–168.Google Scholar
  137. Mata, S. N. (1991). Métodos de inoculacion de Ceratocystis fimbriata e Evaluacion de Resistencia en Cacao. Graduation thesis, Universidade de Costa Rica.Google Scholar
  138. Matasci, M., & Gessler, C. (1997). Ein pilz bedroht die existenz der platane. Acta Veterinaria Hungarita, 45, 69–75.Google Scholar
  139. Mazón, M., Díaz, F., & Gaviria, J. C. (2013). Effectiveness of different trap types for control of bark and ambrosia beetles (Scolytinae) in Criollo cacao farms of Mérida, Venezuela. International Journal of Pest Management, 59(3), 189–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Mbenoun, M. (2014). Diversity, ecology and taxonomy of tree infecting Ceratocystis species in Africa. Thesis for Philosophiae Doctor Degree in the Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, University of Pretoria, South Africa.Google Scholar
  141. Mbenoun, M., De Beer, Z. W., Wingfield, M. J., Wingfield, B. D., & Roux, J. (2014a). Reconsidering species boundaries in the Ceratocystis paradoxa complex, including a new species from oil palm and cacao in Cameroon. Mycologia, 106(4), 757–784.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Mbenoun, M., Wingfield, M. J., Boyogueno, A. D. B., Wingfield, B. D., & Roux, J. (2014b). Molecular phylogenetic analyses reveal three new Ceratocystis species and provide evidence for geographic differentiation of the genus in Africa. Mycological Progress, 13(2), 219–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. McCracken, F. I., & Burkhardt, E. C. (1979). Reported as a serious pathogen in a 4-year survey of canker diseases of natural Platanus stands and plantations in 9 Southern states. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry, 3(1), 26–28.Google Scholar
  144. Melin, E., & Nannfeldt, J. A. (1934). Researches into the blueing of ground wood-pulp. Svenska Skogvardsforen Tidskr, 32, 397–616.Google Scholar
  145. Merek, E. L., & Fergus, C. L. (1954). The effect of temperature and relative humidity on the longevity of spores of the oak wilt fungus. Phytopathology, 44(2), 61–64.Google Scholar
  146. Minervini, G., Zerbetto, F., Intropido, M., Martino, A. D., Moretti, M., Bisiach, M., et al. (2001). Control of canker stain of plane tree by trunk injection of fungicides [Platanus-Lombardy]. Informatore Fitopatologico (Italy), 51(7–8), 59–64.Google Scholar
  147. Minter, D. W., Kirk, P. M., & Sutton, B. C. (1983). Thallic phialides. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 80(1), 39–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Moller, W. J., & DeVay, J. E. (1968). Carrot as a species-selective isolation medium for Ceratocystis fimbriata. Phytopathology, 58(1), 123–124.Google Scholar
  149. Monteiro, W. R., Pires, J. L., & Pinto, L. R. M. (1995). Variedade Theobahia. Informação e Difusão Nova Série, 1, 1–2.Google Scholar
  150. Moreau, C. (1954). Sur le developpement du Ceratocystis moniliformis (Hedgcock) nov. comb. Revue de Mycologie, 17, 141–153.Google Scholar
  151. Morris, M. J., Wingfield, M. J., & Beer, C. D. (1993). Gummosis and wilt of Acacia mearnsii in South Africa caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata. Plant Pathology, 42(5), 814–817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. N’goran, J. A. K., Laurent, V., Risterucci, A. M., & Lanaud, C. (2000). The genetic structure of cocoa populations (Theobroma cacao. L.) revealed by RFLP analysis. Euphytica, 115(2), 83–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Ni, M., Feretzaki, M., Sun, S., Wang, X., & Heitman, J. (2011). Sex in fungi. Annual Review of Genetics, 45, 405.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Nkuekam, G. K., Barnes, I., Wingfield, M. J., & Roux, J. (2009). Distribution and population diversity of Ceratocystis pirilliformis in South Africa. Mycologia, 101(1), 17–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Nkuekam, G. K., Jacobs, K., De Beer, Z. W., Wingfield, M. J., & Roux, J. (2008). Ceratocystis and Ophiostoma species including three new taxa, associated with wounds on native South African trees. Fungal Divers, 289, 37–59.Google Scholar
  156. Nkuekam, G. K., Wingfield, M. J., Mohammed, C., Carnegie, A. J., Pegg, G. S., & Roux, J. (2012). Ceratocystis species, including two new species associated with nitidulid beetles, on eucalypts in Australia. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 101(2), 217–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Nkuekam, G. K., Wingfield, M. J., & Roux, J. (2013). Ceratocystis species, including two new taxa, from Eucalyptus trees in South Africa. Australasian Plant Pathology, 42(3), 283–311. (Cited in Fig. 12.2).Google Scholar
  158. Ocampo, R. F., Mafla, B. G., & Victoria, K. J. I. (1982). Mejoramiento genético para resistencia a Ceratocystis fimbriata en cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). In VIII International Cocoa Research Conference (pp. 725–730). Cartagena, Colombia: Cocoa Producers Alliance. Proceedings.Google Scholar
  159. Ocasio-Morales, R. G., Tsopelas, P., & Harrington, T. C. (2007). Origin of Ceratocystis platani on native Platanus orientalis in Greece and its impact on natural forests. Plant Disease, 91, 901–904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. OEPP/EPPO. (1986). Data sheets on quarantine organisms “Ceratocystis fimbriata f.sp. platani”. OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 16, 21–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Oliveira, M. L., Niella, A. R. R., Silva, V. R., & Lima, L. C. (2013a). Ceratocystis Wilt, a new disease of the cupuassu tree, in Brazil. Agrotrópica, 25(1), 33–38.Google Scholar
  162. Oliveira, B. D., Silva, S. D. V. M., Damaceno, V. O., Almeida, C. D., Locatelli, M., Lima, A. D. A., et al. (2009). Identification of resistance source to Ceratocystis Wilt in cacao seedlings. Identificacao de fontes de resistencia a Ceratocystis cacaofunesta em mudas de cacaueiro. Agrotrópica (Brasil), 21(1), 83–88.Google Scholar
  163. Oliveira, B. D., Silva, S. D. V. M., & dos Santos, M. V. O. (2013b). Antagonismo in vitro de Trichoderma spp. A Patógenos Do Cacaueiro. Agrotrópica (Brasil), 25(2), 117–120.Google Scholar
  164. Olson, E. O., & Martin, W. J. (1949). Relationship of Ceratostomella fimbriata from the Hevea rubber tree and sweet potato. Phytopathology, 39, 17.Google Scholar
  165. Ouellette, G. B., & Rioux, D. (1992). Anatomical and physiological aspects of resistance to Dutch elm disease. In R. A. Blanchette & A. R. Biggs (Eds.), Defense mechanisms of woody plants against fungi (pp. 257–307). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Paez, A. R., & Castano, J. Z. (2001). Respuesta de patrones y copas citricos a Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. Y Halst., agente causal del secamento o muerte subita. Fitopatologia Colombiana, 25, 71–78.Google Scholar
  167. Pan, S. C., & Cole, G. T. (1995). Molecular and biochemical characterization of a Coccidioides immitis-specific antigen. Infection and Immunity, 63, 3994–4002.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Panconesi, A. (1999). Canker stain of plane trees: A serious danger to urban plantings in Europe. Journal of Plant Pathology, 81, 3–15.Google Scholar
  169. Pariaud, B., Ravigné, V., Halkett, F., Goyeau, H., Carlier, J., & Lannou, C. (2009). Aggressiveness and its role in the adaptation of plant pathogens. Plant Pathology, 58(3), 409–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Paulin-Mahady, A. E., Harrington, T. C., & McNew, D. (2002). Phylogenetic and taxonomic evaluation of Chalara, Chalaropsis, and Thielaviopsis anamorphs associated with Ceratocystis. Mycologia, 94(1), 62–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Pazzagli, L., Cappugi, G., Manao, G., Camici, G., Santini, A., Comparini, C., et al. (2001). Cerato-platanin, a hydrophobin-like protein, is rapidly released in culture by Ceratocystis fimbriata f. sp. platani (pp. 18–22). Proceedings of the Fifth Congress of the European Foundation for Plant Pathology, Taormina-Giardini Naxos, Italy.Google Scholar
  172. Pazzagli, L., Cappugi, G., Manao, G., Camici, G., Santini, A., & Scala, A. (1999). Purification, characterization, and amino acid sequence of cerato-platanin, a new phytotoxic protein from Ceratocystis fimbriata f. sp. platani. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 274(35), 24959–24964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Pazzagli, L., Carresi, L., Pantera, B., Zoppi, C., Cappugi, G., Comparini, C., et al. (2004, September 8–10). Cerato-platanin, a phytotoxic protein from Ceratocystis fimbriata f. sp. platani: cloning, expression and functional characterization (pp. 280–282). Proceedings of the 7th National Biotechnology Congress, Catania, Italy.Google Scholar
  174. Pereira, J. L., Ram, A., Figuereido, J. M., & de Almeida, L. C. (1989). La primera aparición de la “escoba de bruja” en la principal área productora de cacao del Brasil. Turrialba (IICA), 39(7), 459–461.Google Scholar
  175. Ploetz, R. C. (2003). Diseases of mango. In R. C. Ploetz (Ed.), Diseases of tropical fruit crops (pp. 327–363). Oxford: Ed CABI Publishing (Cited in Fig. 12.2).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Ploetz, R. C. (2007). Cacao diseases: Important threats to chocolate production worldwide. Phytopathology, 97(12), 1634–1639.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Pontis, R. E. (1951). A canker disease of the coffee tree in Colombia and Venezuela. Phytopathology, 41, 179–184.Google Scholar
  178. Ram, A., Valle, R. R. M., Freitas, D. D., de Pesquisas, C., & Centro de Pesquisas do Cacau, Ilhéus, BA (Brasil). (2004). Controle de cancro ou murcha de Ceratocystis do cacaueiro na Bahia, Brasil. Agrotrópica (Brasil), 16(1–3), 111–114.Google Scholar
  179. Regional Conference for Europe. (2014, April 2–4). The impact of global trade and mobility on forest health in Europe. Regional Conference for Europe, Bucharest, Romania.Google Scholar
  180. Rementeria, A., Lopez-Molina, N., Ludwig, A., Vivanco, A. B., Bikandi, J., Ponton, J., et al. (2005). Genes and molecules involved in Aspergillus fumigatus virulence. Revista Ibero americana de Micologia, 22, 1–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Ribeiro, I. J. A., Rossetto, C. J., Donadio, L. C., Sabino, J. C., Martins, A. I. M., & Gallo, P. B. (1995). Mango Wilt. XIV Selection of mango (Mangifera indica L.) rootstocks resistant to the mango wilt Fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell & Halst. I Acta Horticulturae, 370, 159–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Rodas, C. A., Roux, J., Van Wyk, M., Wingfield, B. D., & Wingfield, M. J. (2008). Ceratocystis neglecta sp nov., infecting Eucalyptus trees in Colombia. Fungal Diversity, 28, 73–84.Google Scholar
  183. Rorer, J. B. (1918). Enfermedades y plagas del cacao en el Ecuador y metodos modernos apropiados al cultivo del cacao, informe presentado al presidente y miembros de la Asociación de agricultores del Ecuador. Guayaquil, 80 pp.Google Scholar
  184. Rosado, C. C. G., Mauro, L., Guimarães, S., Titon, M., & Lau, D. (2010). Resistance to Ceratocystis Wilt (Ceratocystis fimbriata) in Parents and Progenies of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. Silvae Genetica, 589, 2–3.Google Scholar
  185. Rossetto, C. J., & Ribeiro, I. J. A. (1990). Mango wilt. XII. Recommendations for control. Revista de Agricultura (Piracicaba), 65(2), 173–180.Google Scholar
  186. Rossetto, C. J., Ribeiro, I. J. A., Gallo, P. B., Soares, N. B., Sabino, J. C., Martins, A. L. M., et al. (1997). Mango breeding for resistance to diseases and pests. Acta Horticulturae, 455, 299–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Roux, J., Coutinho, T. A., Byabashaija, D. M., & Wingfield, M. J. (2001). Diseases of plantation Eucalyptus in Uganda. South African Journal of Science, 97, 16–18.Google Scholar
  188. Roux, J., Van Wyk, M., Hatting, H., & Wingfield, M. J. (2004). Ceratocystis species infecting stem wounds on Eucalyptus grandis in South Africa. Plant Pathology, 53(4), 414–421. (Cited in Fig. 12.2).Google Scholar
  189. Roux, J., & Wingfield, M. J. (2013). Ceratocystis species on the African continent, with particular reference to C. albifundus, an African species in the C. fimbriata sensu lato species complex. The Ophiostomatoid Fungi: Expanding Frontiers: Biodiversity Series, 12, 131–138.Google Scholar
  190. Roux, J., Wingfield, M. J., Bouillet, J. P., Wingfield, B. D., & Alfenas, A. C. (2000). A serious new wilt disease of Eucalyptus caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata in Central Africa. Forest Pathology, 30, 175–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Ruperez, A., & Muñoz, C. (1980). Nuevas causas de desaparición del platano. Boletín Servicio de defensa contra Plagas e Inspección Fitopatologica, 6, 106–107.Google Scholar
  192. Sanchez, L., Seila, R. L., Christen, P., & Revah, S. (2002). Effect of leucine on aroma volatiles production from Ceratocystis fimbriata grown in liquid culture. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 18(3), 231–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Santos, R. M. F., Silva, S. D. V. M., Sena, K., Micheli, F., & Gramacho, K. P. (2013). Kinetics and histopathology of the Cacao-Ceratocystis cacaofunesta interaction. Tropical Plant Biology, 6 (1), 37–45. doi: 10.1007/s12042-012-9115-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Sauer, J. D. (1993). Historical geography of crop plants: A select roster. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 311 pp.Google Scholar
  195. Saunders, J. (1965). El complejo Xyleborus-Ceratocystis del cacao. Cacao. Centro Interamericano del cacao, 10(2), 8–14.Google Scholar
  196. Scala, A., Pazzagli, L., Comparini, C., Santini, A., Tegli, S., & Cappugi, G. (2004). Cerato-platanin, an early-produced protein by Ceratocystis fimbriata f. sp. platani, elicits phytoalexin synthesis in host and non-host plants. Journal of Plant Pathology, 86, 27–33.Google Scholar
  197. Seidl, V., Marchetti, M., Schandl, R., Allmaier, G., & Kubicek, C. P. (2006). Epl1, the major secreted protein of Hypocrea atroviridis on glucose, is a member of a strongly conserved protein family comprising plant defense response elicitors. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 273, 4346–4359.Google Scholar
  198. Seifert, K. A., de Beer, Z. W., & Wingfield, M. J. (2013). The ophiostomatoid fungi: Expanding frontiers. Utrecht: CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre. 337 pp.Google Scholar
  199. Shi, J., Mueller, W. C., & Beckman, C. H. (1992). Vessel occlusion and secretory activities of vessel contact cells in resistant or susceptible cotton plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 40(2), 133–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Silva, S. D. V. M., & Luz, E. D. M. N. (2000). Ceratocystis fimbriata em cacaueiros das variedades cultivadas na Bahia. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 25(Suppl), 424.Google Scholar
  201. Silva, S. D. V. M., Paim, M. C. A., & Castro, W. M. (2004). Cacau Jaca resistente a Ceratocystis fimbriata na região cacaueira da Bahia, Brasil. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 29(5), 538–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Silveira, S. F., Harrington, T. C., Mussi-Dias, V., Engelbrecht, C. J., Alfenas, A. C., & Silva, C. R. (2006). Annona squamosa, a new host of Ceratocystis fimbriata. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 31 (4), 394–397. (Cited in Fig. 12.2).Google Scholar
  203. Singh, D., Brinkerhoff, L. A., & Gunn, G. (1971). Effect of alanine on development of Verticillium wilt in cotton cultivars with different levels of resistance. Phytopathology, 61, 881–882.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Somasekhara, Y. M. (1999). New record of Ceratocystis fimbriata causing wilt of pomegranate in India. Plant Disease, 83, 406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Soria-Vasco, J. A., & Salazar, L. G. (1965). Pruebas preliminares de resistencia a Ceratocystis fimbriata en clones e híbridos de cacao. Turrialba, 15(4), 290–295.Google Scholar
  206. Soulioti, N., Tsopelas, P., & Woodward, S. (2015). Platypus cylindrus, a vector of Ceratocystis platani in Platanus orientalis stands in Greece. Forest Pathology. doi: 10.1111/efp.12176.
  207. Souza, C. A. S., & Dias, L. A. S. (2001). Melhoramento ambiental e socioeconômico. In L. A. S. Dias (Ed.), Melhoramento genético do cacaueiro (pp. 56–83). Viçosa: Folha de Viçosa Ltda.Google Scholar
  208. Spatafora, J. W., & Blackwell, M. (1994). The polyphyletic origins of ophiostomatoid fungi. Mycological Research, 98(1), 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Sprecher, E., & Hanssen, H. P. (1983). Distribution and strain-dependent formation of volatile metabolites in the genus Ceratocystis. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 49(4-5), 493–499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Steimel, J., Engelbrecht, C. J. B., & Harrington, T. C. (2004). Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for the fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata. Molecular Ecology Notes, 4(2), 215–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Stone, J. K. (2001). Necrotroph. Encyclopedia of Plant Pathology, 2, 676–677.Google Scholar
  212. Tabachnik, M., & DeVay, J. E. (1980). Black root rot development in cotton roots caused by Thielaviopsis basicola and the possible role of methyl acetate in pathogenesis. Physiological Plant Pathology, 16(1), 109–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Talboys, P. W. (1972). A discussion on disease resistance in plants. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 181, 319–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Tarigan, M., Roux, J., Van Wyk, M., Tjahjono, B., & Wingfield, M. J. (2011). A new wilt and die-back disease of Acacia mangium associated with Ceratocystis manginecans and C. acaciivora sp. nov. in Indonesia. South African Journal of Botany, 77(2), 292–304. doi: 10.1016/j.sajb.2010.08.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Tayler, V. A., & Stephens, J. (1929). Native rubber in the Dutch East Indies. Report to the Rubber Growers’ Association.Google Scholar
  216. Teviotdale, B. L., & Harper, D. H. (1991). Infection of pruning and small bark wounds in almond by Ceratocystis fimbriata. Plant Disease, 75(10), 1026–1030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Thorold, C. A. (1975). Diseases of cocoa. Oxford: Clarendon Press. xii + 423 pp.Google Scholar
  218. Tsopelas, P., & Angelopoulos, A. (2004). First report of canker stain disease of plane trees, caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata f. sp. platani in Greece. Plant Pathology, 53(4), 531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Tsopelas, P., Paplomatas, E. J., Tjamos, S. E., Soulioti, N., & Elena, K. (2011). First report of Phytophthora ramorum on Rhododendron in Greece. Plant Disease, 95(2), 223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Upadhyay, H. P. (1981). A monograph of Ceratocystis and Ceratocystiopsis. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press.Google Scholar
  221. Van der Nest, M. A., Bihon, W., De Vos, L., Naidoo, K., Roodt, D., Rubagotti, E., et al. (2014). Draft genome sequences of Diplodia sapinea, Ceratocystis manginecans, and Ceratocystis moniliformis. IMA Fungus, 5(1), 135–140. (Cited in Fig. 12.2).Google Scholar
  222. Van Wyk, M., Al Adawi, A. O., Khan, I. A., Deadman, M. L., Al Jahwari, A. A., Wingfield, B. D., et al. (2007a). Ceratocystis manginecans sp. nov., causal agent of a destructive mango wilt disease in Oman and Pakistan. Fungal Diversity, 27, 213–230.Google Scholar
  223. Van Wyk, M., Pegg, G., Lawson, S., & Wingfield, M. J. (2007b). Ceratocystis atrox sp. nov. associated with Phoracantha acanthocera infestations on Eucalyptus grandis in Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 36(5), 407–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Van Wyk, M., Roux, J., Barnes, I., Wingfield, B. D., Chhetri, D. B., Kirisits, T., et al. (2004). Ceratocystis bhutanensis sp. nov., associated with the bark beetle Ips schmutzenhoferi on Picea spinulosa in Bhutan. Studies in Mycology, 50, 265–379.Google Scholar
  225. Van Wyk, M., Roux, J., Barnes, I., Wingfield, B. D., & Wingfield, M. J. (2006a). Molecular phylogeny of the Ceratocystis moniliformis complex and description of C. tribiliformis sp. nov. Fungal Diversity, 21, 181–201.Google Scholar
  226. Van Wyk, M., Roux, J., Nkuekam, G. K., Wingfield, B. D., & Wingfield, M. J. (2012). Ceratocystis eucalypticola sp. nov. from Eucalyptus in South Africa and comparison to global isolates from this tree. IMA Fungus: The Global Mycological Journal, 3(1), 45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Van Wyk, M., Van der Merwe, N. A., Roux, J., Wingfield, B. D., Kamgan, G. N., & Wingfield, M. J. (2006b). Population genetic analyses suggest that the Eucalyptus fungal pathogen Ceratocystis fimbriata has been introduced into South Africa: Research Letter. South African Journal of Science, 102(5 & 6), 259.Google Scholar
  228. Van Wyk, M., Wingfield, B. D., Al-Adawi, A. O., Rossetto, C. J., Ito, M. F., & Wingfield, M. J. (2011). Two new Ceratocystis species associated with mango disease in Brazil. Mycotaxon, 117(1), 381–404. (Cited in Fig. 12.2).Google Scholar
  229. Van Wyk, M., Wingfield, B. D., Clegg, P. A., & Wingfield, M. J. (2009). Ceratocystis larium sp. nov., a new species from Styrax benzoin wounds associated with incense harvesting in Indonesia. Persoonia, 22, 75.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Van Wyk, M., Wingfield, B. D., Marin, M., & Wingfield, M. J. (2010a). New Ceratocystis species infecting coffee, cacao, citrus and native trees in Colombia. Fungal Diversity, 40(1), 103–117. doi: 10.1007/s13225-009-0005-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Van Wyk, M., Wingfield, B. D., Mohali, S., & Wingfield, M. J. (2008). Ceratocystis fimbriatomima, a new species in the C. fimbriata sensu lato complex isolated from Eucalyptus trees in Venezuela. Fungal Diversity, 34, 173–183.Google Scholar
  232. Van Wyk, M., Wingfield, B. D., & Wingfield, M. J. (2010b). Four new Ceratocystis spp associated with wounds on Eucalyptus, Schizolobium and Terminalia trees in Ecuador. Fungal Diversity, 46(1), 111–131. doi: 10.1007/s13225-010-0051-3.Google Scholar
  233. Van Wyk, M., Wingfield, B. D., & Wingfield, M. J. (2013). Ceratocystis species in the Ceratocystis fimbriata complex. The Ophiostomatoid Fungi: Expanding Frontiers: Biodiversity Series, 12, 65–73.Google Scholar
  234. Vandamme, E. J., & Soetaert, W. (2002). Bioflavours and fragrances via fermentation and biocatalysis. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 77(12), 1323–1332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Viégas, A. P. (1960). Seca da mangueira. Seção de Fitopatologia, Instituto Agronómico. Bragantia: Boletim técnico da Divisão de experimentação e pesquisas, Instituto agronômico, 19, 163.Google Scholar
  236. Von Arx, J. A. (1952). Ueber die Ascomycetengattungen Ceratostomella Sacc., Ophiostoma Syd. Und Rostrella Zimmermann. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 18(1), 201–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Walter, J. M., Rex, E. G., & Schreiber, R. (1952). The rate of progress and destructiveness of canker stain of Plane trees. Phytopathology, 42(5), 236–239.Google Scholar
  238. Webster, R. K., & Butler, E. E. (1967a). A morphological and biological concept of the species Ceratocystis fimbriata. Canadian Journal of Botany, 45(9), 1457–1468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Webster, R. K., & Butler, E. E. (1967b). The origin of self-sterile, cross-fertile strains and culture sterility in Ceratocystis fimbriata. Mycologia, 59, 212–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Wilken, P. M., Steenkamp, E. T., Wingfield, M. J., De Beer, Z. W., & Wingfield, B. D. (2013). IMA Genome-F 1: Ceratocystis fimbriata: Draft nuclear genome sequence for the plant pathogen, Ceratocystis fimbriata. IMA Fungus, 4(2), 357. (Cited in Fig. 12.2).Google Scholar
  241. Wilken, P. M., Steenkamp, E. T., Wingfield, M. J., de Beer, Z. W., & Wingfield, B. D. (2014). DNA loss at the Ceratocystis fimbriata mating locus results in self-sterility. PLoS One, 9(3), e92180. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092180.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Wingfield, M. J., De Beer, C., Visser, C., & Wingfield, B. D. (1996). A new Ceratocystis species defined using morphological and ribosomal DNA sequence comparisons. Systematic and Applied Microbiology, 19(2), 191–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Wingfield, B. D., Grant, W. S., Wolfaardt, J. F., & Wingfield, M. J. (1994). Ribosomal RNA sequence phylogeny is not congruent with ascospore morphology among species in Ceratocystis sensu stricto. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 11(3), 376–383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Wingfield, M. J., Seifert, K. A., & Webber, J. F. (1993). Ceratocystis and Ophiostoma: Taxonomy, ecology and pathogenicity. St. Paul, MN: American Phytopathological Society. 293 pp.Google Scholar
  245. Wingfield, B. D., Van Wyk, M., Roos, H., & Wingfield, M. J. (2013). Ceratocystis: Emerging evidence for discrete generic boundaries. The Ophiostomatoid Fungi: Expanding Frontiers, 90, 57–64.Google Scholar
  246. Witthuhn, R. C., Harrington, T. C., Wingfield, B. D., Steimel, J. P., & Wingfield, M. J. (2000). Deletion of the MAT-2 mating-type gene during uni-directional mating-type switching in Ceratocystis. Current Genetics, 38(1), 48–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Witthuhn, R. C., Wingfield, B. D., Wingfield, M. J., Wolfaardt, M., & Harrington, T. C. (1998). Monophyly of the conifer species in the Ceratocystis coerulescens complex based on DNA sequence data. Mycologia, 90, 96–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Wood, G. A. R., & Lass, R. A. (2001). Diseases, in Cocoa (4th ed.). Oxford: Blackwell. doi: 10.1002/9780470698983.ch11.
  249. Wright, C. H. (1925). The modern aspects of disease control. India Rubber Journal, 1, 40–43.Google Scholar
  250. Yang, X. J., Chen, F. R., & Zhang, L. X. (2000). Screening of fungicides for control of Ceratocystis fimbriata Ellis et Halsted. Plant Protection, 26, 38–39.Google Scholar
  251. Yu, L., Zhou, L., Chen, X. L., Gao, L. L., Huang, Q., & Chen, H. R. (2011). Genetic diversity analysis of Ceratocystis fimbriata strains isolated from China. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica, 41, 345–351.Google Scholar
  252. Yuce, E. K., Yigit, S., & Tosun, N. (2011). Efficacy of solarization combined with metam sodium and hydrogen peroxide in control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in Tomato greenhouse. Acta Horticulturae, 914, 385–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Zaparoli, G., Cabrera, O. G., Medrano, F. J., Tiburcio, R., Lacerda, G., & Pereira, G. G. (2009). Identification of a second family of genes in Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches’ broom disease in cacao, encoding necrosis-inducing proteins similar to cerato-platanins. Mycological Research, 113, 61–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Zauza, E. A. V., Alfenas, A. C., Harrington, T. C., Mizubuti, E. S., & Silvai, J. F. (2004). Resis tance of Eucalyptus clones to Ceratocystis fimbriata. Plant Disease, 88(7), 758–760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Zimmerman, A. (1900). On a canker of Coffea arabica caused by Rostrella coffeae gen. et sp. n. Bulletin of the Botanic Gardens, Buitenzorg, 4, 19–22.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Odalys García Cabrera
    • 1
  • Eddy Patricia López Molano
    • 1
  • Juliana José
    • 1
  • Javier Correa Álvarez
    • 2
  • Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães Pereira
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratório de Genômica e Expressão, Departamento de Genética, Evolução e BioagentesInstituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de CampinasCampinasBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas, Escuela de CienciasUniversidad EAFITMedellínColombia

Personalised recommendations