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Metabolic Profiles—Based on the 2013 Prevention Guidelines

  • Neil J. StoneEmail author
  • John Wilkins
  • Sakina Kazmi
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter reviews the utility of measuring biometric parameters as they relate to the practice of lifestyle medicine and estimating risk for type-2 diabetes (T2D) and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). The new 2013 American College of Cardiology-American Heart Association (ACC-AHA) Prevention Guidelines provide guidance as to which additional factors aid in improved net reclassification. These are explored in detail. The 2013 ACC-AHA Guidelines recommended lifestyle change as the foundation for primary prevention and also as crucially important to deal with residual risk in secondary prevention. The assessment of the metabolic syndrome (MetS)continues to be of clinical value to clinicians as it identifies metabolic parameters that are easily measurable, understood by the patient as markers of a poor cardio-metabolic prognosis, and importantly, markers that all improve with lifestyle changes.

Keywords

Metabolic syndrome Atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk Biomarkers Coronary artery calcium score Residual risk 

Abbreviations

ABI

Ankle Brachial Index

ACC-AHA

American College of Cardiology-American Heart Association

ASCVD

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

CAC

Coronary artery calcium

CI

Confidence interval

cIMT

Carotid intima-media thickness

CHD

Coronary heart disease

CKD

Chronic kidney disease

CVD

Cardiovascular disease

DPP

Diabetes Prevention Program

GFR

Glomerular filtration rate

HDL-C

High-density lipoprotein cholesterol

IDL

Intermediate-density lipoprotein

LDL-C

Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol

MetS

Metabolic syndrome

MESA

Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

NHANES

National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

NMR

Nuclear magnetic resonance

PAD

Peripheral artery disease

RR

Relative risk

T2D

Type-2 diabetes

TG

Triglycerides

TOS

The Obesity Society

VLDL

Very low-density lipoprotein

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern UniversityChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Preventive MedicineFeinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern UniversityChicagoUSA
  3. 3.Department of CardiologyFeinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern UniversityChicagoUSA

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