Advertisement

Paradigms of Lifestyle Medicine and Wellness

  • Robert ScalesEmail author
  • Matthew P. Buman
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter defines a paradigm for preventive medicine and offers a framework for physicians and allied health-care professionals to apply lifestyle medicine and wellness in the clinic. Strategies are identified to improve the physician’s ability to provide effective lifestyle medicine within a busy clinical practice. This includes education in preventive medicine and ongoing support for the physician that begins in medical school and prepares them to deliver team-based models of wellness.

Keywords

Lifestyle medicine Wellness Motivational interviewing Connected health Preventive medicine Behavior change counseling Primordial prevention Primary prevention Secondary prevention Tertiary prevention 

Abbreviations

ACSM

American College of Sports Medicine

AHRQ

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

AMA

American Medical Association

BHC

Behavioral health consultant

CAD

Canadian Medical Association

DALYs

Disability-adjusted life yea

EIM

Exercise is Medicine

FCTC

Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

GBDS

Global Burden of Disease Study

HAPO

Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome

PCBH

Primary Care Behavioral Health

PCMH

Patient-Centered Medical Home

PCPCC

Patient-Centered Primary Care Collaborative

PPACA

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

QOL

Quality of life

T2D

Type-2 diabetes

US

United States

USPSTF

US Preventive Services Task Force

WHO

World Health Organization

YLD

Years lived with a disability

YLL

Years of life lost

References

  1. 1.
    McKinley JB. A case for refocusing upstream: the political economy of illness. In: Conrad P, editor. The sociology of health and illness: critical perspectives. 8th ed. New York: Worth Publishers; 2010. p. 578–91.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Muennig PA, Glied SA. What changes in survival rates tell us about US health care. Health Aff (Millwood). 2010;29(11):2105–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Koh HK, Sebelius KG. Promoting prevention through the affordable care act. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(14):1296–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The guide to clinical preventive services 2012: recommendations of the U. S. Preventive Services Task Force. 2012. http://www.ahrq.gov/professionals/clinicians-providers/guidelines-recommendations/guide/guide-clinical-preventive-services.pdf/professionals/clinicians-providers/guidelines-recommendations/guide/guide-clinical-preventive-services.pdf. Accessed 6 May 2014.
  5. 5.
    Agency for Healtcare Research and Quality. U. S. Preventive Services Task Force A and B recommendations: U. S. Preventive Task Force. 2014. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspsabrecs.htm. Accessed 6 May 2014.
  6. 6.
    Mausner JS, Mausner KS, Epidemiology B. Epidemiology: an introductory text. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co; 1985.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, Danaei G, Shibuya K, Adair-Rohani H, et al. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2013;380(9859):2224–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    National Public Health Partnership. The language of prevention. Melbourne: NPHP; 2006.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, Hamman RF, Lachin JM, Walker EA, et al. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(6):393–403.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, Donato KA, Eckel RH, Franklin BA, et al. Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute scientific statement. Circulation. 2005;112(17):2735–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Suaya JA, Stason WB, Ades PA, Normand S-LT, Shepard DS. Cardiac rehabilitation and survival in older coronary patients. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;54(1):25–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Witt BJ, Jacobsen SJ, Weston SA, Killian JM, Meverden RA, Allison TG, et al. Cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction in the community. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;44(5):988–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Haskell WL, Alderman EL, Fair JM, Maron DJ, Mackey SF, Superko HR, et al. Effects of intensive multiple risk factor reduction on coronary atherosclerosis and clinical cardiac events in men and women with coronary artery disease. The Stanford Coronary Risk Intervention Project (SCRIP). Circulation. 1994;89(3):975–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brown WJ, Pavey T, Bauman AE. Comparing population attributable risks for heart disease across the adult lifespan in women. Br J Sports Med. 2014;49:1069–76. doi:0.1136/bjsports-2013-093090.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Blair SN, Kohl HW, Barlow CE, Paffenbarger RS, Gibbons LW, Macera CA. Changes in physical fitness and all-cause mortality: a prospective study of healthy and unhealthy men. JAMA. 1995;273(14):1093–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Blair SN, Kampert JB, Kohl HW, Barlow CE, Macera CA, Paffenbarger RS, et al. Influences of cardiorespiratory fitness and other precursors on cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in men and women. JAMA. 1996;276(3):205–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kodama S, Saito K, Tanaka S, Maki M, Yachi Y, Asumi M, et al. Cardiorespiratory fitness as a quantitative predictor of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in healthy men and women: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2009;301(19):2024–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Myers J, Prakash M, Froelicher V, Do D, Partington S, Atwood JE. Exercise capacity and mortality among men referred for exercise testing. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(11):793–801.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ornish D, Brown SE, Billings J, Scherwitz L, Armstrong W, Ports T, et al. Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease?: the Lifestyle Heart Trial. Lancet. 1990;336(8708):129–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ornish D, Scherwitz LW, Billings JH, Gould KL, Merritt TA, Sparler S, et al. Intensive lifestyle changes for reversal of coronary heart disease. JAMA. 1998;280(23):2001–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hambrecht R, Niebauer J, Marburger C, Grunze M, Kälberer B, Hauer K, et al. Various intensities of leisure time physical activity in patients with coronary artery disease: effects on cardiorespiratory fitness and progression of coronary atherosclerotic lesions. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1993;22(2):468–77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Niebauer J, Hambrecht R, Velich T, Hauer K, Marburger C, Kälberer B, et al. Attenuated progression of coronary artery disease after 6 years of multifactorial risk intervention role of physical exercise. Circulation. 1997;96(8):2534–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz G, Liu S, Solomon CG, et al. Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(11):790–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hietaniemi M, Jokela M, Rantala M, Ukkola O, Vuoristo JT, Ilves M, et al. The effect of a short-term hypocaloric diet on liver gene expression and metabolic risk factors in obese women. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009;19(3):177–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lin DW, Neuhouser ML, Schenk JM, Coleman IM, Hawley S, Gifford D, et al. Low-fat, low-glycemic load diet and gene expression in human prostate epithelium: a feasibility study of using cDNA microarrays to assess the response to dietary intervention in target tissues. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007;16(10):2150–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ornish D, Magbanua MJM, Weidner G, Weinberg V, Kemp C, Green C, et al. Changes in prostrate gene expression in men undergoing an intensive nutrition and lifestyle intervention. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105(24):8369–74.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hagberg JM, Rankinen T, Loos R, Perusse L, Roth SM, Wolfarth B, et al. Advances in exercise, fitness, and performance genomics in 2010. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(5):743–52.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ellsworth DL, Croft DT, Weyandt J, Sturtz LA, Blackburn HL, Burke A, et al. Intensive cardiovascular risk reduction induces sustainable changes in expression of genes and pathways important to vascular function. Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics. 2014: CIRCGENETICS. 113.000121.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Coustan DR, Lowe LP, Metzger BE, Dyer AR. The Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) study: paving the way for new diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010;202(6):654, e1–e6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Feil R, Fraga MF. Epigenetics and the environment: emerging patterns and implications. Nat Rev Genet. 2012;13(2):97–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Foraker RE, Olivo-Marston SE, Allen NB. Lifestyle and primordial prevention of cardiovascular disease: challenges and opportunities. Curr Cardiovasc Risk Rep. 2012;6(6):520–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pollak KI, Krause KM, Yarnall KS, Gradison M, Michener JL, Østbye T. Estimated time spent on preventive services by primary care physicians. BMC Health Serv Res. 2008;8(1):245.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yawn B, Goodwin MA, Zyzanski SJ, Stange KC. Time use during acute and chronic illness visits to a family physician. Fam Pract. 2003;20(4):474–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Podl TR, Goodwin MA, Kikano GE, Stange KC. Direct observation of exercise counseling in community family practice. Am J Prev Med. 1999;17(3):207–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wee CC, McCarthy EP, Davis RB, Phillips RS. Physician counseling about exercise. JAMA. 1999;282(16):1583–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    College of Family Physicians of Canada. Physical activity report: results from the 2001 National Family Physician Workforce Survey. 2001. http://www.cfpc.ca/research/janus/janushome.asp. Accessed 21 April 2014.
  37. 37.
    Sciamanna CN, Tate DF, Lang W, Wing RR. Who reports receiving advice to lose weight?: results from a multistate survey. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160(15):2334–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Pollak KI, Alexander SC, Coffman CJ, Tulsky JA, Lyna P, Dolor RJ, et al. Physician communication techniques and weight loss in adults: project CHAT. Am J Prev Med. 2010;39(4):321–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cabana MD, Rand CS, Powe NR, Wu AW, Wilson MH, Abboud P-AC, et al. Why don’t physicians follow clinical practice guidelines? A framework for improvement. JAMA. 1999;282(15):1458–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Walsh JM, McPhee SJ. A systems model of clinical preventive care: an analysis of factors influencing patient and physician. Health Educ Behav. 1992;19(2):157–75.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wallace JE, Lemaire JB, Ghali WA. Physician wellness: a missing quality indicator. Lancet. 2009;374(9702):1714–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bodenheimer T. Building teams in primary care: lessons learned. Oakland: California HealthCare Foundation; 2007.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Emmons KM, Rollnick S. Motivational interviewing in health care settings: opportunities and limitations. Am J Prev Med. 2001;20(1):68–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Maguire P, Pitceathly C. Key communication skills and how to acquire them. Br Med J. 2002;325(7366):697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Anderson M, Cohen J, Hallock J, Kassebaum D, Turnbull J, Whitcomb M. Learning objectives for medical student education-Guidelines for medical schools: report I of the Medical School Objectives Project. Acad Med. 1999;74(1):13–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Association of American Medical Colleges. Medical School Graduation Questionnaire. 2013. All Schools Summary Report 2013.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Richmond R, Zwar N, Taylor R, Hunnisett J, Hyslop F. Teaching about tobacco in medical schools: a worldwide study. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2009;28(5):484–97.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Yach D. WHO framework convention on tobacco control. Lancet. 2003;361(9357):611.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Rigotti NA, Bitton A, Richards AE, Reyen M, Wassum K, Raw M. An international survey of training programs for treating tobacco dependence. Addiction. 2009;104(2):288–96.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Common program requirements. 2013. http://www.acgme.org/acgmeweb/Portals/0/PFAssets/ProgramRequirements/CPRs2013.pdf. Accessed 10 July 2014.
  51. 51.
    Frank E, Galuska DA, Elon LK, Wright EH. Personal and clinical exercise-related attitudes and behaviors of freshmen US medical students. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2004;75(2):112–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Dyrbye LN, Varkey P, Boone SL, Satele DV, Sloan JA, Shanafelt TD. Physician satisfaction and burnout at different career stages. Mayo Clin Proc. 2013;88:1358–67.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Dyrbye LN, Harper W, Durning SJ, Moutier C, Thomas MR, Massie FS Jr, et al. Patterns of distress in US medical students. Med Teach. 2011;33(10):834–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hull SK, DiLalla LF, Dorsey JK. Prevalence of health-related behaviors among physicians and medical trainees. Acad Psychiatry. 2008;32(1):31–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sotile WM, Sotile MO. The resilient physician: effective emotional management for doctors & their medical organizations. Chicago: American Medical Association Press; 2002.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Frank E, Rothenberg R, Lewis C, Belodoff BF. Correlates of physicians’ prevention-related practices: findings from the Women Physicians’ Health Study. Arch Fam Med. 2000;9(4):359.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Stewart MA. Effective physician-patient communication and health outcomes: a review. Can Med Assoc J. 1995;152(9):1423.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Shanafelt TD, Bradley KA, Wipf JE, Back AL. Burnout and self-reported patient care in an internal medicine residency program. Ann Intern Med. 2002;136(5):358–67.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Haas JS, Cook EF, Puopolo AL, Burstin HR, Cleary PD, Brennan TA. Is the professional satisfaction of general internists associated with patient satisfaction? J Gen Intern Med. 2000;15(2):122–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Jones JW, Barge BN, Steffy BD, Fay LM, Kunz LK, Wuebker LJ. Stress and medical malpractice: organizational risk assessment and intervention. J Appl Psychol. 1988;73(4):727.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Yarnall KS, Pollak KI, Østbye T, Krause KM, Michener JL. Primary care: is there enough time for prevention? Am J Public Health. 2003;93(4):635–41.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Østbye T, Yarnall KS, Krause KM, Pollak KI, Gradison M, Michener JL. Is there time for management of patients with chronic diseases in primary care? Ann Fam Med. 2005;3(3):209–14.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bodenheimer T. Building teams in primary care: 15 case studies. Oakland: California HealthCare Foundation; 2007.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Handley M, MacGregor K, Schillinger D, Sharifi C, Wong S, Bodenheimer T. Using action plans to help primary care patients adopt healthy behaviors: a descriptive study. J Am Board Fam Med. 2006;19(3):224–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ammentorp J, Uhrenfeldt L, Angel F, Ehrensvärd M, Carlsen EB, Kofoed P-E. Can life coaching improve health outcomes? A systematic review of intervention studies. BMC Health Serv Res. 2013;13(1):428.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Regier DA, Narrow WE, Rae DS, Manderscheid RW, Locke BZ, Goodwin FK. The de facto US mental and addictive disorders service system: epidemiologic catchment Area prospective 1-year prevalence rates of disorders and services. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1993;50(2):85–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gatchel RJ, Oordt MS, Association AP. Clinical health psychology and primary care: practical advice and clinical guidance for successful collaboration. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Gray GV, Brody DS, Johnson D. The evolution of behavioral primary care. Prof Psychol Res Pract. 2005;36(2):123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Robinson P, Reiter J. Behavioral consultation and primary care: a guide to integrating services. New York: Springer; 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Stosahl K. Integrating behavioral health and primary care services: the primary mental health model. In: Blount A, editor. Integrated primary care: the future of medical and mental health collaboration. New York, NY: W. W. Norton; 1998. p. 139–66.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Butler M, Kane RL, McAlpine D, Kathol RG, Fu SS, Hagedorn H, et al. Integration of mental health/substance abuse and primary care. Rockville: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2008.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Culliton BJ. Extracting knowledge from science: a conversation with Elias Zerhouni. Health Aff (Millwood). 2006;25(3):w94–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Hesse BW, Nilsen WJ, M Hunter C. News from NIH: the patient-centered medical home. Transl Behav Med. 2012;2:1–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Nielsen M, Langner B, Zema C, Hacker T, Grundy P. Benefits of implementing the Primary Care Medical Home: a review of cost & quality results. Washington, DC: Patient-Centered Primary Care Collaborative; 2012.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Rosenthal MB, Abrams AK. Measuring the success of medical homes: recommendations from the PCMH Evaluators’ collaborative. 2012. http://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/blog/2012/may/measuring-the-success-of-medical-homes-blog/publications/blog/2012/may/measuring-the-success-of-medical-homes-blog. Accessed 22 Aug 2014.
  76. 76.
    Rabin B, Glasgow R. Dissemination of interactive health communication programs. In: Routledge, editor. Interactive health communication technologies: promising strategies for health behavior change. 1st ed. New York: Routledge; 2012.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Pew Internet Research. Pew internet: mobile. 2014. http://www.pewinternet.org/fact-sheets/mobile-technology-fact-sheet//fact-sheets/mobile-technology-fact-sheet/. Accessed 23 May 2014.
  78. 78.
    Sanchez MA, Rabin BA, Gaglio B, Henton M, Elzarrad MK, Purcell P, et al. A systematic review of eHealth cancer prevention and control interventions: new technology, same methods and designs? Transl Behav Med. 2013;3(4):392–401.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Knowles SR, Mikocka-Walus A. Utilization and efficacy of internet-based eHealth technology in gastroenterology: a systematic review. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2014;49(4):387–408.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Glasgow RE, Strycker LA, King DK, Toobert DJ. Understanding who benefits at each step in an Internet-Based Diabetes Self-Management Program: application of a Recursive Partitioning Approach. Med Decis Mak. 2014;34(2):180–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Giordano A, Scalvini S, Zanelli E, Corrà U, GL L, Ricci V, et al. Multicenter randomised trial on home-based telemanagement to prevent hospital readmission of patients with chronic heart failure. Int J Cardiol. 2009;131(2):192–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Leppin AL, Gionfriddo MR, Kessler M, Brito JP, Mair FS, Gallacher K, et al. Preventing 30-day hospital readmissions: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174:1095–107.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Joynt KE, Jha AK. A path forward on Medicare readmissions. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(13):1175–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Bennett GG, Glasgow RE. The delivery of public health interventions via the Internet: actualizing their potential. Annu Rev Public Health. 2009;30:273–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Pagoto S, Schneider K, Jojic M, DeBiasse M, Mann D. Evidence-based strategies in weight-loss mobile apps. Am J Prev Med. 2013;45(5):576–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Fanning J, Mullen SP, McAuley E. Increasing physical activity with mobile devices: a meta-analysis. J Med Internet Res. 2012;14(6):e161.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Hekler EB, Klasnja P, Froehlich JE, Buman MP, editors. Mind the theoretical gap: interpreting, using, and developing behavioral theory in HCI research. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems; ACM; 2013.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Bender JL, Yue RYK, To MJ, Deacken L, Jadad AR. A lot of action, but not in the right direction: systematic review and content analysis of smartphone applications for the prevention, detection, and management of cancer. J Med Int Res. 2013;15(12):e287.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Godbehere P, Wareing P. Hypertension assessment and management: role for digital medicine. J Clin Hypertens. 2014;16(3):235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    American College of Sports Medicine. Exercise is medicine. 2013. http://www.exerciseismedicine.org. Accessed 6 May 2014.
  91. 91.
    Greenwood JL, Joy EA, Stanford JB. The physical activity vital sign: a primary care tool to guide counseling for obesity. J Phys Act Health. 2010;7(5):571–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Sallis RE. Exercise is medicine and physicians need to prescribe it! Br J Sports Med. 2009;43(1):3–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Tulloch H, Fortier M, Hogg W. Physical activity counseling in primary care: who has and who should be counseling? Patient Educ Couns. 2006;64(1):6–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Goldstein MG, DePue J, Kazura A, Niaura R. Models for provider–patient interaction: applications to health behavior change. In: Shumaker S, Schron E, Ockene J, McBee W, editors. The handbook of health behavior change. 2nd ed. New York: Springer; 1998. p. 85–113.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Rollnick S, Miller WR, Butler C. Motivational interviewing in health care: helping patients change behavior. New York: Guilford; 2008.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Miller WR, Rollnick S. Motivational interviewing: helping people change. New York: Guilford; 2013.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Rubak S, Sandbæk A, Lauritzen T, Christensen B. Motivational interviewing: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Gen Pract. 2005;55(513):305–12.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Söderlund LL, Madson MB, Rubak S, Nilsen P. A systematic review of motivational interviewing training for general health care practitioners. Patient Educ Couns. 2011;84(1):16–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Lundahl B, Burke BL. The effectiveness and applicability of motivational interviewing: a practice’friendly review of four meta’analyses. J Clin Psychol. 2009;65(11):1232–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Lundahl B, Moleni T, Burke BL, Butters R, Tollefson D, Butler C, et al. Motivational interviewing in medical care settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Patient Educ Couns. 2013;93(2):157–68.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Scales R, Miller JH. Motivational techniques for improving compliance with an exercise program: skills for primary care clinicians. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2003;2(3):166–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    McTigue KM, Harris R, Hemphill B, Lux L, Sutton S, Bunton AJ, et al. Screening and interventions for obesity in adults: summary of the evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2003;139(11):933–49.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Whitlock EP, Polen MR, Green CA, Orleans T, Klein J. Behavioral counseling interventions in primary care to reduce risky/harmful alcohol use by adults: a summary of the evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2004;140(7):557–68.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Madson MB, Loignon AC, Lane C. Training in motivational interviewing: a systematic review. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2009;36(1):101–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Miller WR, Yahne CE, Moyers TB, Martinez J, Pirritano M. A randomized trial of methods to help clinicians learn motivational interviewing. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2004;72(6):1050.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Motivational Interviewing Network of Trainers. 2013. http://www.motivationalinterviewing.org. Accessed 23 May 2014.
  107. 107.
    Daeppen J-B, Fortini C, Bertholet N, Bonvin R, Berney A, Michaud P-A, et al. Training medical students to conduct motivational interviewing: a randomized controlled trial. Patient Educ Couns. 2012;87(3):313–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Cardiovascular DiseasesMayo Clinic-ArizonaScottsdaleUSA
  2. 2.School of Nutrition and Health PromotionArizona State UniversityPhoenixUSA

Personalised recommendations