• Elaine TrujilloEmail author
  • Barbara K. Dunn
  • Peter Greenwald


A number of lifestyle factors affect cancer risk and survival, including nutrition and eating patterns, overweight and obesity status, physical activity and sedentary behavior, and alcohol and tobacco use. More than 30 % of cancers are associated with diet. Public health guidelines recommend a plant-based diet for cancer prevention. Maintaining a healthy weight throughout life may be one of the most important ways to protect against cancer. Physical activity may protect against cancer in general, improve long-term health of cancer survivors, and possibly reduce the risk of cancer recurrence. Alcohol acts in various ways to increase cancer risk. A vast array of research findings show tobacco use in any form is associated with diseases of practically all organs in the human body, including multiple cancers. Inherited genetic variants, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, may retard or enhance the carcinogenic effects of these exposures. Epigenetic processes may also influence the adverse or beneficial effects of lifestyle exposures.


Nutrition Diet Overweight Obesity Energy balance Physical activity Sedentary behavior Alcohol Smoking Tobacco 



Body Mass Index


Food and Drug Administration






Physical activity


Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial


Singlenucleotide polymorphisms


Tumor necrosis factor-α


World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research


Women’s Healthy Eating and Living


Women’s Intervention Nutrition Study


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elaine Trujillo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Barbara K. Dunn
    • 2
  • Peter Greenwald
    • 3
  1. 1.BethesdaUSA
  2. 2.NIH/National Cancer Institute/Division of Cancer Prevention/Chemopreventive Agent Development Research GroupNIH Clinical CenterBethesdaUSA
  3. 3.Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute (NCI)BethesdaUSA

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