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Guidelines for Healthy Eating

  • Linda Van HornEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Only since the 1940s has the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine provided recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) for Americans, and not until 1993 were the dietary reference intakes (DRIs) supplied. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was launched in the 1960s for the purpose of monitoring the dietary intake of the US population on a regular basis and identifying nutrients of concern. These data now represent the backbone of ongoing dietary surveillance in this country. In 1980, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) published the first US Dietary Guidelines for Americans that are reviewed and updated every 5 years. The NHANES data help to measure population-wide adherence to these guidelines as well as provide evidence of nutrient inadequacies and excesses. With advances in diet assessment methodology and biostatistical analyses, research has provided evidence beyond single nutrients to include whole foods, food groups, and even eating patterns. These data juxtaposed with technological advances in measuring biomarkers, metabolites, and the microbiome offer and ever-increasing awareness of the importance of diet and eating behaviors in achieving optimal health and reducing risk for chronic diseases. A review of current dietary guidelines based on extensive systematic reviews conducted by major national health and medical organizations is provided and their commonalities and differences are discussed.

Keywords

Healthy eating Diet quality Diet adherence Diet and lifestyle Nutrient density 

Abbreviations

ACC/AHA

American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association

AHA

American Heart Association

AHEI

Alternative Healthy Eating Index

AI

Adequate intake

BP

Blood pressure

CDC

Centers for Disease Control

DASH

Dietary approaches for stopping hypertension

DGAC

Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee Report

DHHS

Department of Health and Human Services

DRIs

Dietary reference intakes

EAR

Estimated average requirement

FFQ

Food-frequency questionnaire

FNB

Food and Nutrition Board

HEI

Healthy Eating Index

HDL–C

High-density lipoprotein–cholesterol

IOM

Institute of Medicine

LDL-C

Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol

NEL

Nutrition Evidence Library

NHANES

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

RDAs

Recommended dietary allowances

T2D

Type-2 diabetes

UL

Upper intake level

USDA

US Department of Agriculture

USDGs

US Dietary Guidelines

WCRF/AICR

World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Preventive MedicineNorthwestern University Feinberg School of MedicineChicagoUSA

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