The Aikido inspiration to safety and efficiency: an investigation on forward roll impact forces

  • Andrea Soltoggio
  • Bettina Bläsing
  • Alessandro Moscatelli
  • Thomas Schack
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 392)


Aikido is a Japanese martial art inspired by harmony and intelligent exploitation of human body movements, a consequence of which is believed to be a minimisation of impacts. This study measures the effectiveness of aikido-specific movements to minimise impact forces, and arguably the risk of injuries, in person-to-floor contact. In one experiment, we measured a significant reduction of impact forces with the ground for aikido experts during a forward roll in comparison to untrained participants. This first initial result encourages further studies of aikido techniques in areas such as safety and efficacy in sport exercise, safety during full body motion involving falls and impacts, transfer to human-robot interaction and training of elderly people.


Impact Force Vertical Force Force Platform Untrained Subject Untrained Participant 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Asai, K.: Youtube: Katsuaki Asai Allemagne [last checked june 2015] (1970),
  2. 2.
    Asai, K.: Interview with Katsuaki Asai [last checked june 2015] (1993),
  3. 3.
    Bates, D., Mächler, M., Bolker, B., Walker, S.: Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. arXiv preprint arXiv:1406.5823 pp. 1–51 (2014)
  4. 4.
    Edelman, A.J.: The implementation of a video-enhanced aikido-based school violence prevention training program to reduce disruptive and assaultive behaviors among severely emotionally disturbed adolescents. (1994)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Groen, B.E., Smulders, E., De Kam, D., Duysens, J., Weerdesteyn, V.: Martial arts fall training to prevent hip fractures in the elderly. Osteoporosis international 21(2), 215–221 (2010)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kroll, B.: Arguing with adversaries: Aikido, rhetoric, and the art of peace. College Composition and Communication pp. 451–472 (2008)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Saposnek, D.T.: Aikido: A systems model for maneuvering in mediation. Mediation Quarterly 1987(14-15), 119–136 (1986)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shuman, K.M., Meyers, M.C.: Skateboarding injuries: An updated review. The Physician and Sportsmedicine (0), 1–7 (2015)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ruiz-del Solar, J., Moya, J., Parra-Tsunekawa, I.: Fall detection and management in biped humanoid robots. In: Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2010 IEEE International Conference on. pp. 3323–3328. IEEE (2010)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ueshiba, K., Ueshiba, M., Stevens, J.: Best aikido: the fundamentals. Kodansha (2002)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ueshiba, M.: The art of peace. Shambhala Publications (2002)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Weerdesteyn, V., Groen, B., van Swigchem, R., Duysens, J.: Martial arts fall techniques reduce hip impact forces in naive subjects after a brief period of training. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 18(2), 235–242 (2008)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Westbrook, A., Ratti, O.: Aikido and the dynamic sphere: An illustrated introduction. Tuttle Publishing (2001)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrea Soltoggio
    • 1
  • Bettina Bläsing
    • 2
  • Alessandro Moscatelli
    • 3
  • Thomas Schack
    • 2
  1. 1.Computer Science DepartmentLoughborough UniversityLoughboroughUK
  2. 2.Neurocognition and Action Research GroupBielefeld UniversityBielefeldGermany
  3. 3.Cognitive NeuroscienceBielefeld UniversityBielefeldGermany

Personalised recommendations