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Overview: Foodborne Pathogens in Wildlife Populations

Chapter
Part of the Food Microbiology and Food Safety book series (FMFS)

Abstract

Numerous bacterial and parasitic pathogens may be transmitted through food and included in that group are zoonotic pathogens that not only proliferate within domesticated animals but may also be resident within wildlife. As a result of wildlife being a pathogen reservoir and the ability of this animal group to easily intrude on farms, wildlife contributes to the maintenance of infections on domestic farms as well as serves as an environmental source of fresh produce contamination. To discern the degree to which wildlife represents a food safety risk, this overview first summarizes those documented incidents in which contaminated wildlife has been directly or indirectly associated with human illness. It continues with providing a set of tables that document the results of studies directed at assessing the prevalence of bacterial, parasitic, and viral pathogen contamination in mammals, birds, and amphibians and reptiles. To understand the strengths and limitations of those surveillance studies, discussion is included that describes how sample source, cultivation conditions, sample size and number, and specificity of the detection method may impact the data collected. Discussion on factors that contribute to pathogen transmission to wildlife are also presented and include the physiological state of the animal, behavioral features of the animal that contribute to intra- and interspecies interactions, seasonal effects on transmission, and management practices applied to wildlife or domestic animals. The overview concludes with a section directed at discussing other drawbacks to pathogen contamination of wildlife and includes contamination of water sources and wildlife serving as a reservoir for antibiotic resistance and emerging pathogens.

Keywords

Campylobacter Cryptosporidium Escherichia coli Foodborne pathogens Foodborne disease outbreak Listeria monocytogenes Prevalence Salmonella Trichinella Wildlife Zoonosis 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Food Safety, Department of Food Science and TechnologyUniversity of GeorgiaGriffinUSA

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