Studying Teacher Orchestration Load in Technology-Enhanced Classrooms
Teacher orchestration of technology-enhanced learning (TEL) processes plays a major role in students’ outcomes, especially in face-to-face classrooms. However, few studies look into the fine-grained details of how such orchestration unfolds, the challenges and cognitive overload that using technologies at a classroom level pose for teachers. This paper proposes a mixed-method approach to the study of orchestration cognitive load, combining physio-behavioural (eye-tracking) and subjective measurements (questionnaires, stimulated recall interviews). We illustrate the approach by applying it to study the orchestration of two technology-enhanced geometry lessons, by a secondary school teacher. The results of our mixed-method analyses highlight the difficulty of classroom-level (as opposed to individual- or group-level) interactions, especially in modelling students’ progress and understanding. Such insights can be useful in the design of new classroom technologies, and to focus researchers’ attention on critical orchestration episodes during their evaluation.
KeywordsOrchestration load Eye-tracking Stimulated recall Cognitive load Classroom studies
This research was supported by a Marie Curie Fellowship within the 7th European Community Framework Programme (MIOCTI, FP7–PEOPLE–2012–IEF project no. 327384). Special thanks to Wendy Farden and the International School of Lausanne for their collaboration.
- 3.Bailey, B.: Usability testing: an early history. http://webusability.com/usability-testing-a-early-history/. Accessed on 17 March 2015
- 7.Creswell, J.W.: Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Sage publications, Thousand Oaks (2013) Google Scholar
- 12.Dillenbourg, P., Zufferey, G., Alavi, H., Jermann, P., Do-Lenh, S., Bonnard, Q., Cuendet, S., Kaplan, F.: Classroom orchestration: the third circle of usability. In: Proceedings of CSCL 2011, vol. 1, pp. 510–517 (2011)Google Scholar
- 13.Doyle, W.: Ecological approaches to classroom management. In: Evertson, C.M., Weinstein, C.S. (eds.) Handbook of Classroom Management: Research, Practice, and Contemporary Issues , pp. 97–125 (2006)Google Scholar
- 17.Kharrufa, A., Martinez-Maldonado, R., Kay, J., Olivier, P.: Extending tabletop application design to the classroom. In: Proceedings of the 2013 ACM International Conference on Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces, pp. 115–124. ACM (2013)Google Scholar
- 18.Newell, A.: Unified Theories of Cognition. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (1994)Google Scholar
- 23.Prieto, L.P., Sharma, K., Wen, Y., Dillenbourg, P.: The burden of facilitating collaboration: towards estimation of teacher orchestration load using eye-tracking measures. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, Vol. I, pp. 212–219 (2015)Google Scholar
- 24.Prieto, L.P., Wen, Y., Caballero, D., Sharma, K., Dillenbourg, P.: Studying teacher cognitive load in multi-tabletop classrooms using mobile eye-tracking. In: Proceedings of the Ninth ACM International Conference on Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces, pp. 339–344. ACM (2014)Google Scholar