Advertisement

Target Therapy in Lung Cancer

  • Stefano CafarottiEmail author
  • Filippo Lococo
  • Patrizia Froesh
  • Francesco Zappa
  • Dutly Andrè
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 893)

Abstract

Lung cancer is an extremely heterogeneous disease, with well over 50 different histological variants recognized under the fourth revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) typing system [1]. Because these variants have differing genetic and biological properties correct classification of lung cancer is necessary to assure that lung cancer patients receive optimum management. Due to the recent understanding that histologic typing and EGFR mutation status are important for target the therapy in lung adenocarcinoma patients [2] there was a great need for a new classification that addresses diagnostic issues and strategic management to allow for molecular testing in small biopsy and cytology specimens. For this reason and in order to address advances in lung cancer treatment an international multidisciplinary classification was proposed by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), American Thoracic Society (ATS), and European Respiratory Society (ERS) [3], further increasing the histological heterogeneity and improving the existing WHO-classification. Is now the beginning of personalized therapy era that is ideally finalized to treat each individual case of lung cancer in different way.

Keywords

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation Advanced NSCLC American Thoracic Society Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Travis WD, Brambilla E, Muller-Hermelink HK, Harris CC (eds) (2004) World Health Organization classification of tumours. Pathology and genetics of tumours of the lung, pleura, thymus and heart. IARC Press, LyonGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Antonicelli A, Cafarotti S, Indini A, Galli A et al (2013) EGFR-targeted therapy for non-small cell lung cancer: focus on EGFR oncogenic mutation. Int J Med Sci 10(3):320–330CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Travis WD et al (2011) IASLC/ATS/ERS international multidisciplinary classification of lung adenocarcinoma. J Thorac Oncol 6(2):244–285CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cheng L, Zhang S, Alexander R et al (2011) The landscape of EGFR pathways and personalized management of non-small-cell lung cancer. Future Oncol 7:519–541CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Normanno N, De Luca A, Bianco C et al (2006) Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in cancer. Gene 366:2–16CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hynes NE, Lane HA (2005) ERBB receptors and cancer: the complexity of targeted inhibitors. Nat Rev Cancer 5:341–354CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hirsch FR, Varella-Garcia M, Capuzzo F (2009) Predictive value of EGFR and HER2 overexpression in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Oncogene 28:S32–S37CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Quesnelle KM, Boehm AL, Grandis JR (2007) STAT-mediated EGFR signaling in cancer. J Cell Biochem 102(2):311–319CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wang X, Zhang S, MacLennan GT et al (2008) Epidermal growth factor receptor protein expression and gene amplification in the chemorefractory metastatic embryonal carcinoma. Mod Pathol 22:7–12CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wang X, Zhang S, MacLennan GT et al (2007) Epidermal growth factor receptor protein expression and gene amplification in small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Clin Cancer Res 13:953–957CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Herbst RS, Heymach JV, Lippman SM (2008) Lung cancer. N Engl J Med 359:1367–1380CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Costa DB, Halmos B, Kumar A et al (2007) BIM mediates EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor-induced apoptosis in lung cancers with oncogenic EGFR mutations. PLoS Med 4:1669–1679CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sharma SV, Haber DA, Settleman J (2007) Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in lung cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 7:169–181CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sequist LV, Bell DW, Lynch TJ et al (2007) Molecular predictor of response to epidermal growth factor receptor antagonists in non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 25:587–595CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ladanyi M, Pao W (2008) Lung adenocarcinoma: guiding EGFR-targeted therapy and beyond. Mod Pathol 21(Suppl 2):S16–S22CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Shigematsu H, Lin L, Takahashi T et al (2005) Clinical and biological features associated with epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutations in lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 97:339–346CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pao W, Girard N (2011) New driver mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer. Lancet Oncol 12:175–180CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yamamoto H, Toyooka S, Mitsudomi T (2009) Impact of EGFR mutation analysis in non-small-cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer 63:315–321CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Eberhard DA, Johnson BE, Amler LC et al (2005) Mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor and in KRAS are predictive and prognostic indicators in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer treated with chemotherapy alone and in combination with erlotinib. J Clin Oncol 23:5900–5909CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schrump DS, Altorki NK, Henschke CL et al (2005) Non-small cell lung cancer. In: DeVita VT (ed) Cancer: principles and practices of oncology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 753–810Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Azzoli CG, Baker S Jr, Temin S et al (2009) American society of clinical oncology clinical practice guideline update on chemotherapy for stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 27:6251–6266CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fossella F, Pereira JR, von Pawel J et al (2003) Randomized, multinational phase III study of docetaxel plus platinum combinations versus vinorelbine plus cisplatin for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: the TAX 326 study group. J Clin Oncol 21:3016–3022CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sandler A, Gray R, Perry MC et al (2006) Paclitaxel-carboplatin alone or with bevacizumab for non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med 355:2542–2550CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shepherd FA, Dancey J, Ramlau R et al (2000) Prospective randomized trial of docetaxel versus best supportive care in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 18:2095–2103CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hanna N, Shepherd FA, Fossella FV et al (2004) Randomized phase III trial of pemetrexed versus docetaxel in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer previously treated with chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 22:1589–1597CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shepherd FA, Rodrigues PJ, Ciuleanu T et al (2005) Erlotinib in previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med 353:123–132CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lynch TJ, Bell DW, Sordella R et al (2004) Activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor underlying responsiveness of non-small-cell lung cancer to gefitinib. N Engl J Med 350:2129–2139CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Paez JG, Janne PA, Lee JC et al (2004) EGFR mutations in lung cancer: correlation with clinical response to gefitinib therapy. Science 304:1497–1500CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fujita S, Katakami N, Masago K et al (2012) Customized chemotherapy based on epidermal growth factor receptor mutation status for elderly patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a phase II trial. BMC Cancer 12:185CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mok TS, Wu YL, Thongprasert S et al (2009) Gefitinib or carboplatin-paclitaxel in pulmonary adenocarcinoma. N Engl J Med 361:947–957CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Maemondo M, Inoue A, Kobayashi K et al (2010) Gefitinib or chemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer with mutated EGFR. N Engl J Med 362:2380–2388CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nguyen KS, Kobayashi S, Costa DB (2009) Acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in non-small-cell lung cancers dependent on the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway. Clin Lung Cancer 10:281–289CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jackman D, Pao W, Riely GJ et al (2010) Clinical definition of acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 28:357–360CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Suda K, Onozato R, Yatabe Y et al (2009) EGFR T790M mutation: a double role in lung cancer survival? J Thorac Oncol 4:1–4CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pao W, Miller VA, Politi KA et al (2005) Acquired resistance of lung adenocarcinomas to gefitinib or erlotinib is associated with a second mutation in the EGFR kinase domain. PLoS Med 2:e73, Int J Med Sci (2013) Vol. 10 http://www.medsci.org 329CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Yun CH, Mengwasser KE, Toms AV et al (2008) The T790M mutation in EGFR kinase causes drug resistance by increasing the affinity for ATP. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:2070–2075CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chen HJ, Mok TS, Chen ZH et al (2009) Clinicopathologic and molecular features of epidermal growth factor receptor T790M mutation and c-MET amplification in tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant Chinese non small cell lung cancer. Pathol Oncol Res 15:651–658CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Viloria-Petit A, Crombet T, Jothy S et al (2001) Acquired resistance to the antitumor effect of epidermal growth factor receptor-blocking antibodies in vivo: a role for altered tumor angiogenesis. Cancer Res 61:5090–5101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Guix M, Faber AC, Wang SE et al (2008) Acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in cancer cells is mediated by loss of IGF-binding proteins. J Clin Invest 118:2609–2619PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Okudela K, Suzuki M, Kageyama S et al (2007) PIK3CA mutation and amplification in human lung cancer. Pathol Int 57:664–671CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Yamamoto H, Shigematsu H, Nomura M et al (2008) PIK3CA mutations and copy number gains in human lung cancers. Cancer Res 68:6913–6921CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sequist LV, Waltman BA, Dias-Santagata D et al (2011) Genotypic and histological evolution of lung cancers acquiring resistance to EGFR inhibitors. Sci Transl Med 3, 75ra26CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sequist LV, Besse B, Lynch TJ et al (2010) Neratinib, an irreversible pan-ErbB receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor: results of phase II trial in patients with advanced non small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 28:3076–3083CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jakobsen JN, Sorensen JB (2012) Intratumor heterogeneity and chemotherapy-induced changes in EGFR status in non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 69(2):289–299CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rosell R, Moran T, Queralt C et al (2009) Screening for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in lung cancer. N Engl J Med 361:958–966CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Thatcher N, Chang A, Parikh P et al (2005) Gefitinib plus best supportive care in previously treated patients with refractory advanced nonsmall-cell lung cancer: results from a randomised, placebo-controlled, multicentre study (Iressa Survival Evaluation in Lung Cancer). Lancet 366:1527–1537CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bai H, Wang Z, Chen K, Zhao J, Lee JJ, Wang S, Zhou Q, Zhuo M, Mao L, An T, Duan J, Yang L, Wu M, Liang Z, Wang Y, Kang X, Wang J (2012) Influence of chemotherapy on EGFR mutation status among patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 30(25):3077–3083CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Warth A, Macher-Goeppinger S, Muley T, Thomas M, Hoffmann H, Schnabel PA, Penzel R, Schirmacher P, Aulmann S (2012) Clonality of multifocal non-small cell lung cancer: implications for staging and therapy. Eur Respir J 39:1437–1442CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Girard N, Deshpande C, Azzoli CG, Rusch VW, Travis WD, Ladanyi M, Pao W (2010) Use of epidermal growth factor receptor/Kirsten rat sarcoma 2 viral oncogene homolog mutation testing to define clonal relationships among multiple lung adenocarcinomas: comparison with clinical guidelines. Chest 137(1):46–52CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Chung JH, Choe G, Jheon S, Sung SW, Kim TJ, Lee KW, Lee JH, Lee CT (2009) Epidermal growth factor receptor mutation and pathologic-radiologic correlation between multiple lung nodules with ground-glass opacity differentiates multicentric origin from intrapulmonary spread. J Thorac Oncol 4(12):1490–1495CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lococo F, Cesario A, Leuzzi G, Apolone G (2014) Second primary non-small-cell lung cancer: implications of the new adenocarcinoma classification in the challenging decision of the best surgical strategy. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 45:1115–1116CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefano Cafarotti
    • 1
    Email author
  • Filippo Lococo
    • 2
  • Patrizia Froesh
    • 3
  • Francesco Zappa
    • 4
  • Dutly Andrè
    • 5
  1. 1.Unit of Thoracic SurgeryEOC-ORBVBellinzonaSwitzerland
  2. 2.Unit of Thoracic SurgeryIRCCS-Arcispedale Santa Maria NuovaReggio EmiliaItaly
  3. 3.Unit of OncologyIOSIBellinzonaSwitzerland
  4. 4.Unit of OncologyClinica Luganese MoncuccoLuganoSwitzerland
  5. 5.Unit of Thoracic SurgeryChefarzt der neuen Klinik für Thoraxchirurgie am KantonsspitalSt. GallenSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations