Advertisement

Endothelial Keratoplasty

  • Ovette F. Villavicencio
  • Marianne O. PriceEmail author
  • Francis W. PriceJr.
Chapter

Abstract

Full-thickness corneal transplant was for many years the only surgical option for corneal endothelial diseases. With the advantages of better visual potential, shorter recovery times, and lower rejection risk, endothelial keratoplasty (EK) has now superseded penetrating keratoplasty (PK) for these conditions. This revolutionary change was initiated by the insight of Gerrit Melles that partial-thickness grafts could stick to the back of the cornea without sutures. Progressive surgical refinement and advances in instrumentation by many surgeons have led to widespread adoption. Currently, Descemet’s stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK/DSAEK) is the most popular surgical procedure for corneal endothelial dysfunction. Descemet’s membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) has emerged as an alternative to DSEK offering improved vision, shorter recovery time, and reduced rates of immunologic graft rejections. Compared to DSEK, DMEK selectively replaces bare endothelium and Descemet’s membrane without a stromal scaffold. This chapter focuses on the evolution of EK, techniques, outcomes, and complications.

Keywords

Endothelial keratoplasty Penetrating keratoplasty DLEK DSEK DSAEK DMEK 

References

  1. 1.
    Tillett CW. Posterior lamellar keratoplasty. Am J Ophthalmol. 1956;41:530–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Melles GR, Eggink FA, Lander F, et al. A surgical technique for posterior lamellar keratoplasty. Cornea. 1998;17:618–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Melles GR, Lander F, Nieuwendaal C. Sutureless, posterior lamellar keratoplasty: a case report of a modified technique. Cornea. 2002;21:325–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Terry MA, Ousley PJ. Deep lamellar endothelial keratoplasty in the first United States patients: early clinical results. Cornea. 2001;20:239–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Melles GR, Wijdh RH, Nieuwendaal CP. A technique to excise the descemet membrane from a recipient cornea (descemetorhexis). Cornea. 2004;23:286–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Price Jr FW, Price MO. Descemet’s stripping with endothelial keratoplasty in 50 eyes: a refractive neutral corneal transplant. J Refract Surg. 2005;21:339–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Price Jr FW, Price MO. Descemet’s stripping with endothelial keratoplasty in 200 eyes: early challenges and techniques to enhance donor adherence. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2006;32:411–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gorovoy MS. Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty. Cornea. 2006;25:886–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Price MO, Price Jr FW. Descemet’s stripping with endothelial keratoplasty: comparative outcomes with microkeratome-dissected and manually dissected donor Tissue. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:1936–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chen ES, Terry MA, Shamie N, et al. Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty: six month results in a prospective study of 100 eyes. Cornea. 2008;27:514–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Basak SK. Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty in endothelial dysfunctions: three months results in 75 eyes. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2008;56:291–6.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ólafsdóttir E. Making the transition from PK to DSEK: experiences during the learning curve. Acta Ophthalmol. 2011;89(3):290–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Price FW, Price MO. Endothelial keratoplasty to restore clarity to a failed penetrating graft. Cornea. 2006;25:895–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Price MO, Price Jr FW. Descemet’s stripping endothelial keratoplasty for treatment of iridocorneal endothelial syndrome. Cornea. 2007;26:493–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Covert DJ, Koenig SB. Descemet stripping and automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) in eyes with failed penetrating keratoplasty. Cornea. 2007;26:692–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Covert DJ, Koenig SB. New triple procedure: Descemet’s stripping and automated endothelial keratoplasty combined with phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. Ophthalmology. 2007;114:1272–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Price MO, Price Jr FW, Trespalacios R. Endothelial keratoplasty technique for aniridic aphakic eyes. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2007;33:376–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lee WB, Jacobs DS, Musch DC, Kaufman SC, Reinhart WJ, Shtein RM. Descemet’s stripping endothelial keratoplasty: safety and outcomes: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology. 2009;116(9):1818–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Melles GR, Lander F, Rietveld FJ. Transplantation of Descemet’s membrane carrying viable endothelium through a small scleral incision. Cornea. 2002;21:415–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Melles GR, Ong TS, Ververs B, van der Wees J. Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). Cornea. 2006;25:987–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Studeny P, Farkas A, Vokrojova M, Liskova P, Jirsova K. Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty with a stromal rim (DMEK-S). Br J Ophthalmol. 2010;94(7):909–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    McCauley MB, Price FW, Price MO. Descemet membrane automated endothelial keratoplasty: hybrid technique combining DSAEK stability with DMEK visual results. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2009;35:1659–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Busin M, Madi S, Santorum P, Scorcia V, Beltz J. Ultrathin Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty with the microkeratome double-pass technique: two-year outcomes. Ophthalmology. 2013;120(6):1186–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Taravella MJ, Shah V, Davidson R. Ultrathin DSAEK. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2013;53(2):21–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Woodward MA, Titus MS, Shtein RM. Effect of microkeratome pass on tissue processing for Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty. Cornea. 2014;33:507–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mehta JS, Shilbayeh R, Por YM, Cajucom-Uy H, Beuerman RW, Tan DT. Femtosecond laser creation of donor cornea buttons for Descemet-stripping endothelial keratoplasty. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2008;34(11):1970–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cheng YY, Hendrikse F, Pels E, Wijdh RJ, van Cleynenbreugel H, Eggink CA, van Rij G, Rijneveld WJ, Nuijts RM. Preliminary results of femtosecond laser-assisted Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126(10):1351–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nottage JM, Nirankari VS. Endothelial keratoplasty without Descemet’s stripping in eyes with previous penetrating corneal transplants. Br J Ophthalmol. 2012;96(1):24–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chaurasia S, Ramappa M, Murthy SI, Garg P, Sangwan VS. Endothelial keratoplasty without stripping the Descemet’s membrane. Br J Ophthalmol. 2011;95(10):1473–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kobayashi A, Yokogawa H, Sugiyama K. Non-Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty for endothelial dysfunction secondary to argon laser iridotomy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;146(4):543–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mehta JS, Por YM, Beuerman RW, Tan DT. Glide insertion technique for donor cornea lenticule during Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2007;33:1846–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Busin M, Bhatt PR, Scorcia V. A modified technique for Descemet membrane stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty to minimize endothelial cell loss. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126:1133–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Macsai MS, Kara-Jose AC. Suture technique for Descemet stripping and endothelial keratoplasty. Cornea. 2007;26:1123–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Khor WB, Mehta JS, Tan DT. Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty with a graft insertion device: surgical technique and early clinical results. Am J Ophthalmol. 2011;151(2):223–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kuo AN, Harvey TM, Afshari NA. Novel delivery method to reduce endothelial injury in descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;145(1):91–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lie JT, Birbal R, Ham L, van der Wees J, Melles GR. Donor tissue preparation for Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2008;34(9):1578–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Venzano D, Pagani P, Randazzo N, et al. Descemet membrane air-bubble separation in donor corneas. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2010;36:2022–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yoeruek E, Bayyoud T, Hofmann J, et al. Comparison of pneumatic dissection and forceps dissection in Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty: histological and ultrastructural findings. Cornea. 2012;31:920–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Giebel AW, Price FW. Descemet’s membrane endothelial keratoplasty: the bare minimum. In: Price Jr FW, Price MO, editors. DSEK: what you need to know about endothelial keratoplasty. Thorofare: Slack Incorporated; 2009. p. 119–46.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Guerra FP, Anshu A, Price MO, et al. Descemet’s membrane endothelial keratoplasty: prospective study of 1-year visual outcomes, graft survival, and endothelial cell loss. Ophthalmology. 2011;18:2368–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tenkman LR, Price Jr FW, Price MO. Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty donor preparation: navigating challenges and improving efficiency. Cornea. 2014;33:319–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Feng MT, Burkhart ZN, Price Jr FW, Price MO. Effect of donor preparation- to-use times on Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty outcomes. Cornea. 2013;32:1080–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kruse FE, Laaser K, Cursiefen C, et al. A stepwise approach to donor preparation and insertion increases safety and outcome of Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty. Cornea. 2011;30:580–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jardine GJ, Holiman JD, Stoeger CG, Chamberlain WD. Imaging and quantification of endothelial cell loss in eye bank prepared DMEK grafts using trainable segmentation software. Curr Eye Res. 2014;39(9):894–901.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Agarwal A, Dua H, Narang P, Kumar D, Agarwal A, Jacob S, Agarwal A, Gupta A. Pre-Descemet’s endothelial keratoplasty (PDEK). Br J Ophthalmol. 2014;98:1181–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Dua HS, Faraj LA, Said DG, et al. Human corneal anatomy redefined: a novel pre-Descemet’s layer (Dua’s layer). Ophthalmology. 2013;120(9):1778–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Chaurasia S, Price FW, Gunderson L, Price MO. Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty: clinical results of single versus triple procedures (combined with cataract surgery). Ophthalmology. 2014;121:454–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Dapena I, Moutsouris K, Droutsas K, et al. Standardized “no-touch” technique for Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty. Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129(1):88–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Liarakos VS, Dapena I, Ham L, van Dijk K, Melles GR. Intraocular graft unfolding techniques in Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2013;131(1):29–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Burkhart ZN, Feng MT, Price MO, Price FW. Handheld slit beam techniques to facilitate DMEK and DALK. Cornea. 2013;32(5):722–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Tsui JY, Goins KM, Sutphin JE, Wagoner MD. Phakic Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty: prevalence and prognostic impact of postoperative cataracts. Cornea. 2011;30(3):291–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Price MO, Price DA, Fairchild KM, Price Jr FW. Rate and risk factors for cataract formation and extraction after Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty. Br J Ophthalmol. 2010;94(11):1468–71.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Burkhart ZN, Feng MT, Price FW, Price MO. One-year outcomes in eyes remaining phakic after Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2014;40:430–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Chaurasia S, Murthy S, Ramappa M, Mohamed A, Garg P. Outcomes of Descemet’s stripping endothelial keratoplasty in eyes with failed therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty. Acta Ophthalmol. 2013;92:167–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Anshu A, Price MO, Price FW. Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty and hybrid techniques for managing failed penetrating grafts. Cornea. 2013;32:1–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Anshu A, Price MO, Price FW. Descemet’s stripping endothelial keratoplasty under failed penetrating keratoplasty: visual rehabilitation, complications and graft survival rate. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:2155–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Chaurasia S, Ramappa M, Garg P, Murthy SI, Senthil S, Sangwan VS. Endothelial keratoplasty in the management of irido-corneal endothelial syndrome. Eye (Lond). 2013;27(4):564–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ramappa M, Ashar J, Vaddavalli PK, Chaurasia S, Murthy SI. Endothelial keratoplasty in children: surgical challenges and early outcomes. Br J Ophthalmol. 2012;96(8):1149–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Li JY, Terry MA, Goshe J, et al. Three-year visual acuity outcomes after Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty. Ophthalmology. 2012;119:1126–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Letko E, Price DA, Lindoso EM, Price MO, Price Jr FW. Secondary graft failure and repeat endothelial keratoplasty after Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty. Ophthalmology. 2011;118(2):310–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rudolph M, Laaser K, Bachmann BO, Cursiefen C, Epstein D, Kruse FE. Corneal higher-order aberrations after Descemet’s membrane endothelial keratoplasty. Ophthalmology. 2012;119(3):528–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Shinton AJ, Tsatsos M, Konstantopoulos A, Goverdhan S, Elsahn AF, Anderson DF, Hossain P. Impact of graft thickness on visual acuity after Descemet’s stripping endothelial keratoplasty. Br J Ophthalmol. 2012;96(2):246–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Seery LS, Nau CB, McLaren JW, Baratz KH, Patel SV. Graft thickness, graft folds, and aberrations after Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty for fuchs dystrophy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2011;152(6):910–6.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Holz HA, Meyer JJ, Espandar L, Tabin GC, Mifflin MD, Moshirfar M. Corneal profile analysis after Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty and its relationship to postoperative hyperopic shift. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2008;34(2):211–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Laaser K, Bachmann BO, Horn FK, Cursiefen C, Kruse FE. Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty combined with phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation: advanced triple procedure. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012;154(1):47–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Price MO, Giebel AW, Fairchild KM, Price Jr FW. Descemet’s membrane endothelial keratoplasty: prospective multicenter study of visual and refractive outcomes and endothelial survival. Ophthalmology. 2009;116(12):2361–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Phillips PM, Phillips LJ, Much JW, Maloney C. Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty: six-month results of the first 100 consecutive surgeries performed solo by a surgeon using 1 technique with 100% follow-up. Cornea. 2012;31(12):1361–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Chen ES, Phillips PM, Terry MA, Shamie N, Friend DJ. Endothelial cell damage in Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty with the underfold technique: 6- and 12-month results. Cornea. 2010;29(9):1022–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Price MO, Price Jr FW. Endothelial cell loss after Descemet stripping with endothelial keratoplasty influencing factors and 2-year trend. Ophthalmology. 2008;115(5):857–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Price MO, Fairchild KM, Price DA, Price Jr FW. Descemet’s stripping endothelial keratoplasty five-year graft survival and endothelial cell loss. Ophthalmology. 2011;118(4):725–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Price MO, Gorovoy M, Price Jr FW, Benetz BA, Menegay HJ, Lass JH. Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty: three-year graft and endothelial cell survival compared with penetrating keratoplasty. Ophthalmology. 2013;120(2):246–51.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Talajic JC, Straiko MD, Terry MA. Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty: then and now. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2013;53(2):1–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Tourtas T, Laaser K, Bachmann BO, Cursiefen C, Kruse FE. Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty versus Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012;153(6):1082–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Guerra FP, Anshu A, Price MO, et al. Endothelial keratoplasty: fellow eyes comparison of Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty and Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty. Cornea. 2011;30:1382–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Baydoun L, Tong C, Tse W. Endothelial cell density after Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty: 1 to 5-year follow-up. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012;154(4):762–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Feng MT, Price MO, Miller JM, Price Jr FW. Air reinjection and endothelial cell density in Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty: five-year follow-up. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2014;40:1116–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Anshu A, Price MO, Tan DT, Price Jr FW. Endothelial keratoplasty: a revolution in evolution. Surv Ophthalmol. 2012;57(3):236–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Chaurasia S, Vaddavalli PK, Ramappa M, Garg P, Sangwan VS. Clinical profile of graft detachment and outcomes of rebubbling after Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty. Br J Ophthalmol. 2011;95(11):1509–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Feng MT, Price MO, Price Jr FW. Update on Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2013;53(2):31–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Wilhelmus KR, Stulting RD, Sugar J, et al. Primary corneal graft failure. A national reporting system. Medical Advisory Board of the Eyebank Association of America. Arch Ophthalmol. 1995;113:1497–502.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Terry MA, Shamie N, Chen ES, Hoar KL, Phillips PM, Friend DJ. Endothelial keratoplasty: the influence of preoperative donor endothelial cell densities on dislocation, primary graft failure, and 1-year cell counts. Cornea. 2008;27(10):1131–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Terry MA, Shamie N, Chen ES, Hoar KL, Friend DJ. Endothelial keratoplasty a simplified technique to minimize graft dislocation, iatrogenic graft failure, and pupillary block. Ophthalmology. 2008;115(7):1179–86.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Li JY, Terry MA, Goshe J, et al. Graft rejection after Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty: graft survival and endothelial cell loss. Ophthalmology. 2012;119:90–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hjortdal J, Pedersen I, Bak-Nielsen S, Ivarsen A. Graft rejection and graft failure after penetrating keratoplasty or posterior lamellar keratoplasty for fuchs endothelial dystrophy. Cornea. 2013;32(5):e60–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Allan B, Terry MA, Price Jr FW, Price MO, Griffin NB, Claesson M. Corneal transplant rejection rate and severity after endothelial keratoplasty. Cornea. 2007;26:1039–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Anshu A, Price MO, Price Jr FW. Risk of corneal transplant rejection significantly reduced with Descemet’s membrane endothelial keratoplasty. Ophthalmology. 2012;119(3):536–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Vajaranant TS, Price MO, Price FW, Gao W, Wilensky JT, Edward DP. Visual acuity and intraocular pressure after Descemet’s stripping endothelial keratoplasty in eyes with and without preexisting glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 2009;116(9):1644–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Naveiras M, Dirisamer M, Parker J, Ham L, Van Dijk K, Dapena I, Melles G. Causes of glaucoma after Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012;153:958–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Price MO, Price Jr FW, Kruse FE, Bachmann BO, Tourtas T. Randomized comparison of topical prednisolone acetate 1% versus fluorometholone 0.1% in the first year after Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty. Cornea. 2014;33:880–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Anshu A, Planchard B, Price MO, da R Pereira C, Price FW Jr. A cause of reticular interface haze and its management after descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty. Cornea. 2012;31:1365–8.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Kitzmann AS, Wagoner MD, Syed NA, Goins KM. Donor-related Candida keratitis after Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty. Cornea. 2009;28(7):825–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Sharma N, Agarwal PC, Kumar CS, Mannan R, Titiyal JS. Microbial keratitis after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty. Eye Contact Lens. 2011;37(5):320–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Koizumi N, Okumura N, Ueno M, Nakagawa H, Hamuro J, Kinoshita S. Rho-associated kinase inhibitor eye drop treatment as a possible medical treatment for fuchs corneal dystrophy. Cornea. 2013;32(8):1167–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Okumura N, Koizumi N, Ueno M, Sakamoto Y, Takahashi H, Hirata K, Torii R, Hamuro J, Kinoshita S. Enhancement of corneal endothelium wound healing by Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor eye drops. Br J Ophthalmol. 2011;95(7):1006–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Bruinsma M, Tong CM, Melles GRJ. What does the future hold for the treatment of Fuchs endothelial dystrophy; will ‘keratoplasty’ still be a valid procedure? Eye. 2013;27:1115–22.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ovette F. Villavicencio
    • 1
  • Marianne O. Price
    • 2
    Email author
  • Francis W. PriceJr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Price Vision GroupIndianapolisUSA
  2. 2.Cornea Research Foundation of AmericaIndianapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations