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History of Use and Epidemiology of Mustard Compounds

  • Leila Etemad
  • Mohammad Moshiri
  • Mahdi Balali-MoodEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) are synthetic chemicals that have toxic effects on plants, animals and humans. Sulfur mustard (SM) is one of blister agents which is synthesized by Belgian chemist Cesar Mansuète Despretz in 1822 for the first time. Victor Meyer, a Germania chemist, in 1886, completely described the chemical structure of SM. In the World War One, German army used SM for the first time against British soldiers in a field near Ypres Belgium. Nitrogen mustard (NM) was initially synthesized as a CWA, but has never been used as a chemical weapon. Different analogues of NM were made during the early twentieth century and some of them have been prescribed as chemotherapeutic medications. Spain was the first government that used SM against the Rif rebellion civilian in 1921–1926. Mussolini also ordered the Italian army to use SM against unprotected Ethiopian forces and civilian population in 1935–1936. Through 1963–1967, the Egyptian air force used CWAs and SM in Yaman. Although a large amount of SM was made during the World War II, fortunately it was not used during that war. Iraqi army used SM and other CWAs against Iranian forces and Iranian and Kurdish civilian in 1983–1988. The result of repeated Iraq’s chemical attacks during the 8 years of war was above 100 thousand casualties, of which almost 5000 were died. It was estimated that more than half of the chemical casualties were due to SM poisoning, but 32,000 of them have medical records and around 30,000 of them are now suffering from the delayed toxic effects of SM. The most tragic use of SM was the chemical bombardment of the city of Sardasht (a city in the northwestern border of Iran with Iraq) in spring of 1987 and Halabja (a Kurdish town in Iraq) massacre in 1988.

Keywords

Sulfur Mustard Nitrogen Mustard Chemical Warfare Agents War History Iraq-Iran War Word War One Chemotherapy Blister Agents 

Notes

Glossary

Aerial bomb

Is a type of explosive weapon intended to travel through the air with predictable trajectories, usually designed to be dropped from an aircraft.

Allies

Were the countries that opposed the Axis powers together during the Second World War. The Allies promoted the alliance as seeking to stop German, Japanese and Italian aggression.

Artillery shells

Is a payload-carrying projectile which, as opposed to shot, contains an explosive or other filling.

Chemotherapy

Is a category of cancer treatment that uses chemical substances, especially one or more anti-cancer drugs that are given as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.

CWA: chemical warfare agents

A chemical substance whose toxic properties are used to kill, injure or incapacitate human beings.

Ethiopian

Officially known as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.

Exposure

The condition of being subjected to something, as to infectious agents, extremes of weather, radiation, or chemical agent which may have a harmful effect.

Geneva Protocol

The Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare is a treaty prohibiting the use of chemical and biological weapons in international armed conflicts.

Iraq – Iran war (19811988)

Is a conflict that started by Republic of Iraq offence to Islamic Republic of Iran at September 1980 and lasting to August 1988. It was initially referred to in English as the Gulf War.

Intoxication

An abnormal state that is essentially a poisoning.

Lymphoma

Is the name applied to a group of blood cell tumors that develop from lymphatic cells.

Mines

It is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.

Nitrogen mustard (NM)

Is cytotoxic chemotherapy agent similar to mustard gas and can induce blister. Although their common use is medicinal, in principle these compounds can also be deployed as chemical warfare agents.

Rif

The Rif is a mainly mountainous region of northern Morocco.

Rif War (1921–26)

Was a conflict between Spanish colonial forces (later assisted by France) and Moroccan Berbers of the Rif mountainous region led by Muhammad Abd el-Krim.

Mortar bombs

Is a weapon that fires explosive projectiles known as (mortar) bombs at low velocities, short ranges, and high-arcing ballistic trajectories.

Rockets

Is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.

Sardasht

Is a city in and the capital of Zeydun District, in Behbahan County, Khuzestan Province, Iran.

Security counsel of UN

Is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations and is charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.

SM: Sulfur mustard

A class of related cytotoxic and vesicant chemical warfare agents with the ability to form large blisters on the exposed skin and in the lungs.

Toxicity

The degree to which a substance can damage an organism.

World War One (WWI)

It is also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.

World War II (1939–1945)

Also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945.

Yellow rain

Is airborne substance that was alleged to have been used in biological attacks and contains trichothecene mycotoxin (a poison produced by fungi that was known to have potential as a biological weapon).

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leila Etemad
    • 1
  • Mohammad Moshiri
    • 2
    • 3
  • Mahdi Balali-Mood
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Pharmaceutical Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  2. 2.Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology DepartmentFaculty of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  3. 3.Health Insurance Research OfficeArmed Forces Insurance Organization of Islamic Republic of Iran (Mashhad Branch)TehranIran
  4. 4.Medical Toxicology Research Centre, Faculty of MedicineMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran

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