Summary and Conclusion

  • Mahdi Balali-MoodEmail author
  • Mohammad Abdollahi


Mustard compounds (MC) were initially synthesized in the nineteenth century and then considered to be used as the chemical warfare agents (CWA). Both nitrogen (NM) and sulfur mustard (SM) on exposure induce skin blister and thus called vesicant or blistering agents. But NM has never been used as a CWA; it is used as an anticancer medicine. Acute toxic effects of SM appear after variable periods of latency (minutes to weeks) depending on the dose, mode of exposure, environmental temperature, and the individual. Delayed toxic effects of SM in the survivors of the WW1 and the Iranian and Kurdish veterans have been evident along with social problems for both the patients and the governments of the involved countries. The main objective of the book was to provide a scientific information and practical guide on MC for the scientists, health professionals, and regulatory bodies who are involved in teaching, research, medical care of the patients, and policy/regulatory making. The International organizations such as the OPCW, UN, WHO, Red Cross as well as the national authorities of chemical weapon conventions and military toxicologists shall also benefit from this book. The most advantage of this book is that almost all chapters have been written by experts in the field. Meanwhile, delayed complications and long term effects of SM poisonings is an issue that has been very well explained according to target organs and tissue injuries in this book.


Nitrogen compounds sulfur mustard nitrogen mustard chemical warfare agents poisoning intoxication toxicity 

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Medical Toxicology Research Centre, Faculty of MedicineMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  2. 2.Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research CenterTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Toxicology and Poisoning Research CentreTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Endocrinology & Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences InstituteTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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