Psychiatric Complications of Sulfur Mustard (SM) Poisoning

  • Mohammad Reza Fayyazi BordbarEmail author
  • Farhad Faridhosseini
  • Ali Saghebi


Study of Sulfur Mustard (SM) effects on the central nervous system and its neuro-psychiatric complications have been proved difficult to deal with. In the First World War, and the Iran-Iraq war SM was extensively used and its medical and psychological complications can still be observed in the veterans years later. We have tried to include the findings of all available research literature regarding the neuro-psychiatric complications of SM.

The popular neurological complications attributed to SM exposure include: headache, fatigue, chronic neuropathy, impaired memory and concentration, and seizure. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders due to combat experience, especially chemical warfare agents (CWA) including SM. Its clinical features, and pharmacological and psychological treatments are covered in this chapter.

Other psychiatric complications commonly observed in the victims of SM exposure are: depression, anxiety, sleep disorders and sexual dysfunctions. Clinical features and treatment options of each disorder, in addition to their incidence and prevalence rates are discussed.

The last but not the least are the changes in quality of life of these patients due to chronic medical and psychological complications of SM exposure.

All in all, it’s safe to say that the neuro-psychiatric complications are serious and quite common outcome of SM exposure and need specific clinical attention.


PTSD Anxiety Neuropathy Headache Depression Sulfur mustard Poisoning Psychological complications 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Reza Fayyazi Bordbar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Farhad Faridhosseini
    • 1
  • Ali Saghebi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryPsychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran

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