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Immunological and Hematological Complications of Sulfur Mustard Poisoning

  • Bamdad Riahi-Zanjani
  • Mahmoud MahmoudiEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Sulfur mustard (SM) is an incapacitating chemical warfare agent, which has been widely employed in particular regions. The short and long term biological effects of SM have been clinically and basically studied. Sulfur mustard has been demonstrated to induce a broad continuum of pathological effects in affected individuals. In addition to skin, lung, eyes and gastrointestinal manifestations, SM has been shown to induce hematological and immunological complications. The acute and chronic immune-hematological outcomes of individuals exposed to SM are reviewed here. It seems that the dysfunctions of the immune system in these patients may contribute to the increased incidence of a myriad of diseases that have been documented in SM exposed veterans, including cancers. As the toxic effects of SM are progressive and the clinical outcome of veterans can worsen over time, developing additional therapeutic strategies is needed. Some of these strategies might be based on immunopotentiating interventions.

Keywords

Sulfur mustard Immuno-hematological complications Veterans 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Medical Toxicology Research Center, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  2. 2.Department of Immunology and AllergyImmunology Research Center, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran

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