A Robotic Platform for Lower Limb Optical Motion Tracking in Open Space

Conference paper
Part of the Mechanisms and Machine Science book series (Mechan. Machine Science, volume 38)


Conventional human motion tracking techniques based on optical systems reports important limitations for mobile applications (e.g. small spatial covering, poor environment flexibility). The present paper addresses a novel approach for optical motion tracking in open space. The measurement unit is transferred from its stationary basis onto a robotic moving platform. The platform design and limitations are described in the first place. It follows a comparative analysis of the measurement data accuracy for the stationary and mobile system. Post-processing techniques to convert acquired motion from the platform coordinate system into the ground’s absolute one are evaluated for the specific application of gait analysis.


Gait measurement Lower limb Optical motion tracking Mobile robot Mobile measurement system 



The study was supported by NCCR robotics, the National Center of Competence in Research (Switzerland), the ASRIM (Association Suisse Romande et Italienne contre les Myopathies) and the FSRMM (Fondation Suisse de Recherche sur les Maladies Musculaires).


  1. 1.
    Muybridge E (1887) Animal locomotion. An electro-photographic investigation of consecutive phases of animal movements (1872–1885). Accessed 08 Nov 2014
  2. 2.
    Marey E-J (1873) La machine animale, locomotion terrestre et aérienne. G. Baillie, ParisGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Whittle MW (1982) Calibration and performance of a 3-dimensional television system for kinematic analysis. J Biomech 15(3):185–196MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Whittle MW (1996) Clinical gait analysis: a review. Hum Mov Sci 15(3):369–387MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zhou H, Hu H (2008) Human motion tracking for rehabilitation—a survey. Biomed Signal Process Control 3(1):1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Menache A (2004) Motion tracking system and methodGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    DeVita P, Hortobagyi T (2000) Age causes a redistribution of joint torques and powers during gait. J Appl Physiol 88(5):1804–1811Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kirtley C, Whittle MW, Jefferson RJ (1985) Influence of walking speed on gait parameters. J Biomed Eng 7(4):282–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Thomas M, McPherson M, Thayer R (1995) Offset skating characteristics of world cup level cross-country skiers. In: ISBS-conference proceedings archive, vol 1, no 1Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Danion F, Varraine E, Bonnard M, Pailhous J (2003) Stride variability in human gait: the effect of stride frequency and stride length. Gait Posture 18(1):69–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Thelen DG, Chumanov ES, Hoerth DM, Best TM, Swanson SC, Li L, Young M, Heiderscheit BC (2005) Hamstring muscle kinematics during treadmill sprinting. Med Sci Sports Exerc 37(1):108–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Stoquart G, Detrembleur C, Lejeune T (2008) Effect of speed on kinematic, kinetic, electromyographic and energetic reference values during treadmill walking. Neurophysiologie Clinique/Clinical Neurophysiology 38(2):105–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nessler JA, Leone CJD, Gilliland S (2009) Nonlinear time series analysis of knee and ankle kinematics during side by side treadmill walking. Chaos Interdiscip J Nonlinear Sci 19(2):026104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Alton F, Baldey L, Caplan S, Morrissey MC (1998) A kinematic comparison of overground and treadmill walking. Clin Biomech 13(6):434–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wank V, Frick U, Schmidtbleicher D (1998) Kinematics and electromyography of lower limb muscles in overground and treadmill running. Int J Sports Med 19(07):455–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dany Lafontaine ML (2010) 3-D kinematics using moving cameras. Part 1: development and validation of the mobile data acquisition system. Hum Kinet J. Accessed 12 Nov 2014
  17. 17.
    Codamotion-Movement Analysis. Accessed 10 Nov 2014
  18. 18.
    Atracsys-accuTrack 250. Accessed 14 Apr 2014
  19. 19.
    Measurement Sciences Products-Measurement Sciences. Accessed 10 Nov 2014
  20. 20.
    Ortlieb A, Olivier J, Bouri M, Bleuler H (2014) Evaluation of an active optical system for lower limb motion tracking. 3D AHM, LausanneGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Craven P, Wahba G (1978) Smoothing noisy data with spline functions. Numer Math 31(4):377–403MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL)Laboratory of Robotic Systems (LSRO)LausanneSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations