Dermatological Examination of Bullous Diseases

  • Marcel F. JonkmanEmail author


Physical examination in bullous diseases always comprises looking at the skin and mucous membranes. Examine the skin not only for the presence of vesicles or bullae but also for other efflorescences. Nikolsky’s, Sheklakov’s, and Asboe-Hansen’s signs test the resilience of the skin. The mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, eyes, and genitals need to be examined systematically. Disease activity and extent of the skin and mucous membranes can be assessed using disease activity outcome measures that are validated for pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid, and mucous membrane pemphigoid.


Nikolsky’s sign Disease activity Autoimmune disease Vesiculobullous disease 


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On the Web

  1. International Pemphigus and Pemphigoid Foundation.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of DermatologyCenter for Blistering Diseases, University Medical Center Groningen, University of GroningenGroningenthe Netherlands

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