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Automated Identification of Injury Dynamics After Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia

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Part of the Computational Biology book series (COBO, volume 22)

Abstract

Neonatal hypoxic ischemic injury (HII) is a devastating brain disease for which hypothermia is currently the only approved treatment. As new therapeutic interventions emerge there is a significant need for noninvasive objective quantification of the spatiotemporal lesion dynamics combined with precise information about lesion constituents (ischemic core and penumbra). These metrics are important for deciding treatment parameters (type, time, site, and dose) and for monitoring injury-therapy interactions. Such information provided ‘on-line’ in a timely fashion to the clinician could revolutionize clinical management. Like other spatiotemporal biological processes, video bioinformatics can assist objective monitoring of injury–therapy interactions. We have been studying the efficacy of various potential treatments in translational (rodent) HII models using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We have developed a novel computational tool, hierarchical region splitting (HRS) to rapidly identify ischemic lesion metrics. HRS detects similar lesion volumes compared to manual detection methods and is fast, robust, and reliable compared to other computational methods. HRS also provides additional information about the location, size, and evolution of the core and penumbra, which are difficult to ascertain with manual methods. This chapter summarizes the ability of HRS to identify lesion dynamics and ischemic core-penumbra evolution following neonatal HII. In addition, we demonstrate that HRS provides information about lesion dynamics following different therapies (e.g., hypothermia, stem cell implantation). Our findings show that computational analysis of MR images using HRS provides novel quantitative approaches that can be applied to clinical and translational stroke research using data mining of standard experimental and clinical MRI data.

Keywords

Lesion Volume Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Spatiotemporal Evolution Ischemic Core Neuronal Stem Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Acronyms

ADC

Apparent diffusion coefficient

CP

Core-penumbra

CVPR

Computer vision and pattern recognition

DPM

Diffusion-perfusion mismatch

DWI

Diffusion-weighted imaging

EM

Expectation-maximization

HII

Hypoxic ischemic injury

HRS

Hierarchical region splitting

HT

Hypothermia

IHC

Immunohistochemistry

MR

Magnetic resonance

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

MWS

Modified watershed

NIH

National Institute of Health

NSC

Neural stem cell

NT

Normothermia

PWI

Perfusion-weighted imaging

ROI

Region of interest

RPSS

Rat pup severity score

SIRG

Symmetry-integrated region growing

SWI

Susceptibility weighted imaging

T2WI

T2-weighted imaging

Notes

Acknowledgment

This research work has been supported by grants from the Department of Pediatrics (School of Medicine, Loma Linda University) and NIH-NINDS (1RO1NS059770-01A2). The authors would also like to acknowledge kind sharing of comparative results from SIRG and MWS methods by Dr. Yu Sun and Prof. Bir Bhanu in the Center of Research in Intelligent Systems (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California at Riverside).

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics School of MedicineLoma Linda UniversityLoma LindaUSA

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