Group Decision-Making and Participatory Planning

  • Annika Kangas
  • Mikko Kurttila
  • Teppo Hujala
  • Kyle Eyvindson
  • Jyrki Kangas
Part of the Managing Forest Ecosystems book series (MAFE, volume 30)


The use of public participation has become common in many forest management planning situations. In this chapter, we define the concepts of participatory planning and group decision-making, as well as stakeholder and decision-maker. We describe the purposes and potential benefits of participatory planning, for the participating stakeholders and for the organisations applying the approach in their planning processes. We present the definitions for different levels of participation and discuss how a suitable participation process for different types of planning cases could be designed. We discuss the importance of facilitation and describe different facilitator roles in supporting group decision-making. We also present criteria that may be used to measure the success of participation.


Delegation of power Conflict management Awareness raising Transparency of planning Acceptability Social learning Collaborative planning methods 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annika Kangas
    • 1
  • Mikko Kurttila
    • 2
  • Teppo Hujala
    • 3
  • Kyle Eyvindson
    • 4
  • Jyrki Kangas
    • 5
  1. 1.Economics and SocietyNatural Resources Institute Finland (Luke)JoensuuFinland
  2. 2.Bio-based Business and IndustryNatural Resources Institute Finland (Luke)JoensuuFinland
  3. 3.Bio-based Business and IndustryNatural Resources Institute Finland (Luke)HelsinkiFinland
  4. 4.Department of Forest SciencesUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  5. 5.School of Forest SciencesUniversity of Eastern FinlandJoensuuFinland

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