Future Directions

  • Frederick O. Stephens
  • Karl Reinhard Aigner


In this chapter you will learn about:


Positron Emission Tomography Palliative Care Chimeric Antigen Receptor Bowel Cancer Proton Beam Therapy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network (2013); Nature Genetics; 45, 1113–1120; doi:10.1038/ng.2764 The Cancer Genome Atlas Pan-Cancer analysis project Google Scholar
  2. Libutti SK; Cancer Gene Therapy (2015) 22, 63; doi:10.1038/cgt.2015.1; Genetically engineered lymphocytes and adoptive cell therapy: cancer immunotherapy’s smart bombs Google Scholar
  3. Lam SS, Chen WR, et al., Discovery Medicine (2015); Apr;19(105):293–301; Advances in strategies and methodologies in cancer immunotherapy Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frederick O. Stephens
    • 1
    • 2
  • Karl Reinhard Aigner
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryThe University of SydneyMosmanAustralia
  2. 2.The Royal Prince Alfred and Sydney HospitalsMosmanAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Surgical OncologyMedias Clinic Surgical OncologyBurghausenGermany

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