Advertisement

Adaptation to Cancer from the Perspective of Attachment Theory

  • Chris HinnenEmail author

Abstract

While it seems obvious that having cancer is highly demanding and stressful, most patients actually report relatively low levels of distress after they are diagnosed with cancer or are distressed for only a relatively short time (Helgeson et al. 2004; Henselmans et al. 2010; Hinnen et al. 2008). Still, large variations in stress responses can be seen among people with cancer, and a substantial subgroup may show considerable and enduring levels of physical and emotional stress (Mitchell et al. 2011), especially at the end of life (Gao et al. 2010). In recent years scholars and researchers alike have turned to attachment theory to understand these variations in stress responses. In this chapter the literature and utility of attachment theory to understand individual differences in adaptation to cancer will be described.

Keywords

Attachment Style Attachment Theory Borderline Personality Disorder Emotional Inhibition Disorganize Attachment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Aizer AA, Chen M, McCarthy EP, Mendu ML, Koo S, Wilhite TJ et al (2013) Marital status and survival in patients with cancer. J Clin Oncol 31(31):3869–3876PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrykowski MA, Cordova MJ (1998) Factors associated with PTSD symptoms following treatment for breast cancer: test of the Anderson model. J Trauma Stress 11(2):189–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Attig T (2002) Questionable assumptions about assumptive worlds. In: Kauffman J (ed) Loss of the assumptive world. A theory of traumatic loss. Brunner-Routledge, New York, pp 55–68Google Scholar
  4. Aymanns P, Filipp SH, Klauer T (1995) Family support and coping with cancer – some determinants and adaptive correlates. Br J Soc Psychol 34:107–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bardwell WA, Nataajan L, Dimsdale JE, Rock CL, Mortimer JE, Hollenbach K et al (2006) Objective cancer-related variables are not associated with depressive symptoms in women treated for early-stage breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 24(16):2420–2427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bateman A, Fonagy P (2008) Mentalization in clinical practice. American Psychiatric Publishing, ArlingtonGoogle Scholar
  7. Bifulco A, Moran PM, Ball C, Lillie A (2002a) Adult attachment style. II: its relationship to psychosocial depressive-vulnerability. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 37(2):60–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bifulco A, Moran P, Ball C, Bernazzani O (2002b) Adult attachment style. I: its relationship to clinical depression. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 37(2):50–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bowlby J (1985) Loss: sadness and depression. Penguin Group, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Bowlby J (1988) A secure base: clinical applications of attachment theory. Tavistock/Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  11. Burnette JL, Davis DE, Green JD, Worthington EL Jr, Bradfield E (2009) Insecure attachment and depressive symptoms: the mediating role of rumination, empathy, and forgiveness. Pers Individ Differ 46(3):276–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Campbell A (2010) Oxytocin and human social behavior. Pers Soc Psychol Rev 14(3):281–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cardoso C, Ellenbogen MA, Orlando MA, Bacon SL, Joober R (2013) Intranasal oxytocin attenuates the cortisol response to physical stress: a dose–response study. Psychoneuroendocrinology 38(3):399–407PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Churchland PS, Winkielman P (2012) Modulating social behavior with oxytocin: how does it work? what does it mean? Horm Behav 61(3):392–399PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cicero V, Lo Coco G, Gullo S, Lo Verso G (2009) The role of attachment dimensions and perceived social support in predicting adjustment to cancer. Psychooncology 18(10):1045–1052PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ciechanowski P, Katon WJ, Russo JE, Walker EA (2001) The patient-provider relationship: attachment theory and adherence to treatment in diabetes. Am J Psychiat 158(1):29–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ciechanowski P, Katon WJ, Russo JE, Dwight-Johnson MM (2002) Association of attachment style to lifetime medically unexplained symptoms in patients with hepatitis C. Psychosomatics 43(3):206–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ciechanowski P, Sullivan M, Jensen M, Romano J, Summers H (2003) The relationship of attachment style to depression, catastrophizing and health care utilization in patients with chronic pain. Pain 104:627–637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ciechanowski P, Russo JE, Katon WJ, Korff MV, Ludman E, Lin E et al (2004) Influence of patient attachment style on self-care and outcome in diabetes. Psychosom Med 66:720–728PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ciechanowski P, Walker EA, Katon WJ, Russo JE (2002) Attachment theory: a model for health care utilization and somatization. Psychosom Med 64(4):660–667Google Scholar
  21. Conde A, Figueiredo B, Bifulco A (2011) Attachment style and psychological adjustment in couples. Attach Hum Dev 13(3):271–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Consedine NS, Magai C, Bonanno GA (2002) Moderators of emotion inhibition-health relationship: a review and research agenda. Rev Gen Psychol 6(2):204–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Coyne JC, Lepore SJ (2006) Rebuttal: the black swan fallacy in evaluating psychological interventions for distress in cancer patients. Ann Behav Med 32:115–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Coyne JC, Racioppo MW (2000) Never the twain shall meet?: closing the gap between coping research and clinical interventions. Am Psychol 55(6):655–664PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Coyne JC, Palmer SC, Shapiro PJ, Thompson R, DeMichele A (2004) Distress, psychiatric morbidity, and prescriptions for psychotropic medication in a breast cancer waiting room sample. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 26:121–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ditzen B, Schaer M, Gabriel B, Bodenmann G, Ehlert U, Heinrichs M (2009) Intranasal oxytocin increases positive communication and reduces cortisol levels during couple conflict. Biol Psychiatry 65(9):728–731PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Facione NC, Facione PA (2006) The cognitive structuring of patient delay in breast cancer. Soc Sci Med 63(12):3137–3149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fechner-Bates S, Coyne JC, Schwenk TL (1994) The relationship of self-reported distress to psychopathology. J Consult Clin Psychol 62:550–559PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Feely MA, Havyer RDA, Lapid MI, Swetz KM (2013) Management of end-of-life care and of difficult behaviors associated with borderline personality disorder. J Pain Symptom Manage 45(5):934–938PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Figueiredo MI, Fries E, Ingram KM (2004) The role of disclosure patterns and unsupportive social interactions in the well-being of breast cancer patients. Psychooncology 13:96–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fitzgibbon M, Barbuto J (1989) Approach to the medically ill borderline patient – a case-study. Psychol Rep 65(3):1091–1096PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Florian V, Mikulincer M, Bucholtz I (1995) Effects of adult attachment style on the perception and search for social support. J Psychol 129(6):665–676PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fonagy P, Gergely G, Jurist E, Target M (2002) Affect regulation, mentalization and the development of the self. Other Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Fraley RC, Shaver PR (1997) Adult attachment and the suppression of unwanted thoughts. J Pers Soc Psychol 73(5):1080–1091PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fraley RC, Shaver PR (1998) Airport separations: a naturalistic study of adult attachment dynamics in separating couples. J Pers Soc Psychol 75(5):1198–1212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fraley RC, Shaver PR (1999) Loss and bereavement: attachment theory and recent controversies concerning “grief work” and the nature of detachment. In: Cassidy J, Shaver PR (eds) Handbook of attachment. Theory, research, and clinical applications. The Guilford Press, New York, pp 735–759Google Scholar
  37. Gao W, Bennett MI, Stark D, Murray S, Higginson IJ (2010) Psychological distress in cancer from survivorship to end of life care: prevalence, associated factors and clinical implications. Eur J Cancer 46(11):2036–2044PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Giese-Davis J, Spiegel D (2002) Emotion regulation and metastatic breast cancer. Int Congr Series 1241:31–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Groenvold M, Fayers PM, Sprangers MAG, Bjorner JB, Klee MC, Aaronson NK et al (1999) Anxiety and depression in breast cancer patients at low risk of recurrence compared with the general population: a valid comparison? J Clin Epidemiol 52(6):523–530PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hagedoorn M, Puterman E, Sanderman R, Wiggers T, Baas PC, van Haastert M et al (2011) Is self-disclosure in couples coping with cancer associated with improvement in depressive symptoms? Health Psychol 30(6):753–762PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hann D, Baker F, Denniston M, Gesme D, Reding D, Flynn T et al (2002) The influence of social support on depressive symptoms in cancer patients – age and gender differences. J Psychosom Res 52(5):279–283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hay J, Passik S (2000) The cancer patient with borderline personality disorder: suggestions for symptom-focused management in the medical setting. Psychooncology 9(2):91–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Helgeson VS, Cohen S (1996) Social support and adjustment to cancer: reconciling descriptive, correlational and intervention research. Health Psychol 15(2):135–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Helgeson VS, Snyder P, Seltman H (2004) Psychological and physical adjustment to breast cancer over 4 years: identifying distinct trajectories of change. Health Psychol 23(1):3–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Henselmans I, Helgeson VS, Seltman H, de Vries J, Sanderman R, Ranchor AV (2010) Identification and prediction of distress trajectories in the first year after a breast cancer diagnosis. Health Psychol 29(2):160–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hill EM, Gick ML (2013) Attachment and barriers to cervical screening. J Health Psychol 18(5):648–657PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hillen MA, de Haes HCJM, Smets EMA (2011) Cancer patients’ trust in their physician-a review. Psychooncology 20(3):227–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hillen MA, de Haes HCJM, Stalpers LJA, Klinkenbijl JHG, Eddes E, Verdam MGE et al (2014) How attachment style and locus of control influence patients’ trust in their oncologist. J Psychosom Res 76(3):221–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hinnen C, Ranchor AV, Sanderman R, Snijders TAB, Hagedoorn M, Coyne JC (2008) Course of distress in breast cancer patients, their partners, and matched control couples. Ann Behav Med 36(2):141–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hinnen C, Schreuder I, Jong E, van Duijn M, Dahmen R, van Gorp ECM (2012) The contribution of adult attachment and perceived social support to depressive symptoms in patients with HIV. AIDS Care 24(12):1535–1542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hinnen C, Pool G, Holwerda N, Sprangers MAG, Sanderman R, Hagedoorn M (2014) Lower levels of trust in one’s physician is associated with more distress over time in more anxiously attached individuals with cancer. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 36(4):382–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Holwerda N, Sanderman R, Pool G, Hinnen C, Langendijk JA, Bemelman WA et al (2013) Do patients trust their physician? the role of attachment style in the patient-physician relationship within one year after a cancer diagnosis. Acta Oncol 52(1):110–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hunter JJ, Maunder RG (2001) Using attachment theory to understand illness behavior. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 23:177–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hunter MJ, Davis PJ, Tunstall JR (2006) The influence of attachment and emotional support in end-stage cancer. Psychooncology 15(5):431–444PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Koch SBJ, van Zuiden M, Nawijn L, Frijling JL, Veltman DJ, Olff M (2014) Intranasal oxytocin as strategy for medication-enhanced psychotherapy of PTSD: salience processing and fear inhibition processes. Psychoneuroendocrinology 40:242–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kosfeld M, Heinrichs M, Zak P, Fischbacher U, Fehr E (2005) Oxytocin increases trust in humans. Nature 435(7042):673–676PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lam WWT, Shing YT, Bonanno GA, Mancini AD, Fielding R (2012) Distress trajectories at the first year diagnosis of breast cancer in relation to 6 years survivorship. Psychooncology 21(1):90–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lane A, Luminet O, Rime B, Gross JJ, de Timary P, Mikolajczak M (2013) Oxytocin increases willingness to socially share one’s emotions. Int J Psychol 48(4):676–681PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Levinson P (1975) Obstacles in treatment of dying patients. Am J Psychiat 132(1):28–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lewis J, Manne S, DuHamel K, Vickburg S, Bovbjerg D, Currie V et al (2001) Social support, intrusive thoughts, and quality of life in breast cancer survivors. J Behav Med 24(3):231–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lo C, Zimmermann C, Rydall A, Walsh A, Jones JM, Moore MJ et al (2010) Longitudinal study of depressive symptoms in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal and lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 28(18):3084–3089PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lyubomirsky S, Kasri F, Chang O, Chung I (2006) Ruminative response styles and delay of seeking diagnosis for breast cancer symptoms. J Soc Clin Psychol 25(3):276–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Magai C, Consedine NS, Gillespie M, O’Neal C, Vilker R (2004) The differential roles of early emotion socialization and adult attachment in adult emotional experience: testing a mediator hypothesis. Attach Hum Dev 6(4):389–417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Magai C, Consedine N, Neugut AI, Hershman DL (2007) Common psychosocial factors underlying breast cancer screening and breast cancer treatment adherence: a conceptual review and synthesis. J Womens Health 16(1):11–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Manne S, Glassman M, Du Hamel K (2001) Intrusion, avoidance, and psychological distress among individuals with cancer. Psychosom Med 63(4):658–667PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Maunder R, Hunter J (2001) An attachment-based model of stress-vulnerability and disease. Psychosom Med 63(1):154Google Scholar
  67. Maunder RG, Panzer A, Viljoen M, Owen J, Human S, Hunter JJ (2006a) Physicians’ difficulty with emergency department patients is related to patients’ attachment style. Soc Sci Med 63(2):552–562PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Maunder R, Lancee W, Nolan R, Hunter J, Tannenbaum D (2006b) The relationship of attachment insecurity to subjective stress and autonomic function during standardized acute stress in healthy adults. J Psychosom Res 60(3):283–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mikail SF, Henderson PR, Tasca GA (1994) An interpersonally based model of chronic pain: an application of attachment theory. Clin Psychol Rev 14(1):1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mikulincer M, Florian V, Tolmacz R (1990) Attachment styles and fear of personal death: a case study of affect regulation. J Pers Soc Psychol 58(2):273–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mikulincer M, Florian V, Weller A (1993) Attachment styles, coping strategies, and posttraumatic psychological distress: the impact of the gulf war in Israel. J Pers Soc Psychol 64(5):817–826PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mikulincer M, Horesh N, Eilati I, Kotler M (1999) The association between adult attachment style and mental health in extreme life-endangering conditions. Pers Indiv Differ 27:831–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mikulincer M, Shaver PR, Pereg D (2003) Attachment theory and affect regulation: the dynamics, development, and cognitive consequences of attachment-related strategies. Motiv Emotion 27(2):77–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mitchell AJ, Chan M, Bhatti H, Halton M, Grassi L, Johansen C et al (2011) Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and adjustment disorder in oncological, haematological, and palliative-care settings: a meta-analysis of 94 interview-based studies. Lancet Onco 12(2):160–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Nausheen B, Gidron Y, Peveler R, Moss-Morris R (2009) Social support and cancer progression: a systematic review. J Psychosom Res 67(5):403–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Nienhuis FJ, van de Willige G, Rijnders CAT, de Jonge P, Wiersma D (2010) Validity of a short clinical interview for psychiatric diagnosis: the mini-SCAN. Brit J Psychiat 196(1):64–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Nolen-Hoeksema S (2000) The role of rumination in depressive disorders and mixed anxiety/depressive symptoms. J Abnorm Psychol 109(3):504–511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Nolen-Hoeksema S, Davis CG (1999) “Thanks for sharing that”: ruminators and their social support networks. J Pers Soc Psychol 77(4):801–814PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Nolen-Hoeksema S, Parker LE, Larson J (1994) Ruminative coping with depressed mood following loss. J Pers Soc Psychol 67(1):92–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Nolen-Hoeksema S, McBride A, Larson J (1997) Rumination and psychological distress among bereaved partners. J Pers Soc Psychol 72(4):855–862PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Osborne RH, Elsworth GR, Sprangers MAG, Oort FJ, Hopper JL (2004) The value of the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) for comparing women with early onset breast cancer with population-based reference women. Qual Life Res 13:191–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Porter L, Keefe F, Hurwitz H, Faber M (2005) Disclosure between patients with gastrointestinal cancer and their spouses. Psychooncology 14(12):1030–1042PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Priel B, Shamai D (1995) Attachment style and perceived social support: effects on affect regulation. Pers Indiv Differ 19(2):235–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Primo K, Compas BE, Oppedisano G, Howell DC, Epping-Jordan JE, Krag DN (2000) Intrusive thoughts and avoidance in breast cancer: individual differences and association with psychological distress. Psychol Health 14(6):1141–1153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rando TA (2002) The “curse” of too good a childhood. In: Kauffman J (ed) Loss of the assumptive world. A theory of traumatic loss. Brunner-Routledge, New York, pp 171–192Google Scholar
  86. Rodin G, Walsh A, Zimmermann C, Gagliese L, Jones J, Shepherd FA et al (2007) The contribution of attachment security and social support to depressive symptoms in patients with metastatic cancer. Psychooncology 16(12):1080–1091PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rodin G, Lo C, Mikulincer M, Donner A, Gagliese L, Zimmermann C (2009) Pathways to distress: the multiple determinants of depression, hopelessness, and the desire for hastened death in metastatic cancer patients. Soc Sci Med 68(3):562–569PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sandgren AK, Mccaul KD (2007) Long-term telephone therapy outcomes for breast cancer patients. Psychooncology 16(1):38–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Scheier MF, Helgeson VS (2006) Really, disease doesn’t matter? a commentary on correlates of depressive symptoms in women treated for early-stage breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 24(16):2407–2408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Schmidt SD, Blank TO, Bellizzi KM, Park CL (2012) The relationship of coping strategies, social support, and attachment style with posttraumatic growth in cancer survivors. J Health Psychol 17(7):1033–1040PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Shaver PR, Mikulincer M (2002) Attachment related psychodynamics. Attach Hum Dev 4:133–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Silver RC, Wortman CB, Crofton C (1990) The role of caregiving in support provision: the self-presentational dilemma of victims of life crisis. In: Sarason BR, Sarason IG, Pierce GR (eds) Social support: an interactional view. Wiley, New York, pp 397–426Google Scholar
  93. Simpson JA, Rholes WS, Nelligan JS (1992) Support seeking and support giving within couples in an anxiety-provoking situation: the role of attachment styles. J Pers Soc Psychol 62(3):434–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Somerfield MR, McCrae RR (2000) Stress and coping research. Methodological challenges, theoretical advances and clinical applications. Am Psychol 55(6):620–625PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Spiegel D (2012) Mind matters in cancer survival. Psychooncology 21(6):588–593PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Stanton AL, Danoff-Burg S, Cameron CL, Bishop M, Collins CA, Kirk SB et al (2000) Emotionally expressive coping predicts psychological and physical adjustment to breast cancer. J Consult Clin Psychol 68(5):875–882PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Stiefel F (2006) Understanding why women delay in seeking help for breast cancer symptoms. J Psychosom Res 60(3):309–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Tan A, Zimmermann C, Rodin G (2005) Interpersonal processes in palliative care: an attachment perspective on the patient-clinician relationship. Palliat Med 19(2):143–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Taylor S, Klein L, Lewis B, Gruenewald T, Gurung R, Updegraff J (2000) Biobehavioral responses to stress in females: tend-and-befriend, not fight-or-flight. Psychol Rev 107(3):411–429PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Theodoridou A, Rowe AC, Penton-Voak IS, Rogers PJ (2009) Oxytocin and social perception: oxytocin increases perceived facial trustworthiness and attractiveness. Horm Behav 56(1):128–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Thompson D, Ciechanowski P (2003) Attaching a new understanding to the patient-physician relationship in family practice. J Am Board Fam Pract 16(3):219–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Tops M, van Peer JM, Korf J (2007) Individual differences in emotional expressivity predict oxytocin responses to cortisol administration: relevance to breast cancer? Biol Psychol 75(2):119–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Turner-Cobb JM, Sephton SE, Koopman C, Blake-Mortimer J, Spiegel D (2000) Social support and salivary cortisol in women with metastatic breast cancer. Psychosom Med 62(3):337–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Turner-Cobb JM, Gore-Felton C, Marouf F, Koopman C, Kim P, Israelski D et al (2002) Coping, social support, and attachment style as psychosocial correlates of adjustment in men and women with HIV/AIDS. J Behav Med 25(4):337–353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wearden A, Cook L, Vaughan-Jones J (2003) Adult attachment, alexithymia, symptom reporting, and health-related coping. J Psychosom Res 55:341–347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wilkinson SR (2003) Coping and complaining: attachment and the language of disease. Brunner-Routledge, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Winkeler M, Filipp SH, Aymanns P (2006) Direct and indirect strategies of mobilization as determinants of social support provided for cancer patients. J Appl Soc Psychol 36(1):248–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Zigmond AS, Snaith RP (1983) The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatr Scand 67:361–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medical Psychology and Hospital PsychiatryMC Slotervaart HospitalAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Health Psychology Section, Department of Health SciencesUniversity Medical Centre GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations