Impact of Organic Amendments on the Suppression of Fusarium Wilt
Fusarium wilts are important diseases for diverse agricultural and horticultural crop plants. They are caused by crop-specific pathogenic formae speciales of the soilborne fungus Fusarium oxysporum, which is a common species of soil fungi in a broad spectrum of soil properties. Organic amendments to the soil can significantly contribute to suppress Fusarium wilt; however, significant differences between different qualities and quantities of organic amendment and in interaction with different sites or substrates can be assumed and their reviewed in the following chapter. Composts in general and complex organic amendments, including combinations of composts with microbial antagonists of Fusarium and/or animal wastes, were especially promising organic amendments for this reason. The advantage of compost and complex organic amendments to single microbial inoculations to induce suppression of Fusarium wilt was a combination of chemical and microbial effects on F. oxysporum. Indicated environmental controls of the efficiency of organic amendments to suppress Fusarium wilt were especially the temperature, the soil pH, and the nutrient concentrations and the ammonium/nitrate ratio. Yet, concerted research activities are required to develop fast and efficient selection schemes for case-specific optimized organic amendments for an efficient suppression of Fusarium wilt, considering the production system (e.g., greenhouse vs. field), the initial soil or substrate conditions, and the host plant and pathogen genotype combination.
KeywordsFusarium Wilt Organic Amendment Soilborne Pathogen Hairy Vetch Compost Amendment
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