International Conference on Database and Expert Systems Applications

DEXA 2015: Database and Expert Systems Applications pp 285-294 | Cite as

Grid-File: Towards to a Flash Efficient Multi-dimensional Index

Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9262)

Abstract

Spatial indexes are of great importance for multidimensional query processing. Traditional data structures have been optimized for magnetic disks in the storage layer. In the recent years flash solid disks are widely utilized, as a result of their exceptional features. However, the specifics of flash memory (asymmetric read/write speeds erase before update, wear out) introduce new challenges. Algorithms and data structures designed for magnetic disks experience reduced performance in flash. Most research efforts for flash-aware spatial indexes concern R-tree and its variants. Distinguishing from previous works we investigate the performance of Grid File in flash and enlighten constrains and opportunities towards a flash efficient Grid File. We conducted experiments on mainstream and high performance SSD devices and Grid File outperforms R\(^*\)-tree in all cases.

References

  1. 1.
    Bouganim, L., Jónsson, B., Bonnet, P.: uFLIP: understanding flash IO patterns (2009). arXiv preprint arXiv:0909.1780
  2. 2.
    Wu, C.H., Chang, L.P., Kuo, T.W.: An efficient R-tree implementation over flash-memory storage systems. In: Proceedings of the 11th ACM International Symposium on Advances in Geographic Information Systems, GIS 2003, pp. 17–24. ACM, New York (2003)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wu, C.H., Kuo, T.W., Chang, L.P.: An efficient B-tree layer implementation for flash-memory storage systems. ACM Trans. Embed. Comput. Syst. (TECS) 6(3), 19 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pawlik, M., Macyna, W.: Implementation of the aggregated R-tree over flash memory. In: Yu, H., Yu, G., Hsu, W., Moon, Y.-S., Unland, R., Yoo, J. (eds.) DASFAA Workshops 2012. LNCS, vol. 7240, pp. 65–72. Springer, Heidelberg (2012) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Roh, H., Kim, S., Lee, D., Park, S.: As B-tree: a study of an efficient B+-tree for SSDs. J. Inf. Sci. Eng. 30(1), 85–106 (2014)MATHGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Agrawal, D., Ganesan, D., Sitaraman, R., Diao, Y., Singh, S.: Lazy-adaptive tree: an optimized index structure for flash devices. Proc. VLDB Endow. 2(1), 361–372 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Roh, H., Park, S., Kim, S., Shin, M., Lee, S.W.: B+-tree index optimization by exploiting internal parallelism of flash-based solid state drives. Proc. VLDB Endow. 5(4), 286–297 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wang, N., Jin, P., Wan, S., Zhang, Y., Yue, L.: OR-tree: an optimized spatial tree index for flash-memory storage systems. In: Xiang, Y., Pathan, M., Tao, X., Wang, H. (eds.) ICDKE 2012. LNCS, vol. 7696, pp. 1–14. Springer, Heidelberg (2012) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jin, P., Xie, X., Wang, N., Yue, L.: Optimizing R-tree for flash memory. Expert Syst. Appl. 42, 4676–4686 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lv, Y., Li, J., Cui, B., Chen, X.: Log-compact R-tree: an efficient spatial index for SSD. In: Xu, J., Yu, G., Zhou, S., Unland, R. (eds.) DASFAA Workshops 2011. LNCS, vol. 6637, pp. 202–213. Springer, Heidelberg (2011) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Li, G., Zhao, P., Yuan, L., Gao, S.: Efficient implementation of a multi-dimensional index structure over flash memory storage systems. J. Supercomput. 64(3), 1055–1074 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Athanassoulis, M., Ailamaki, A.: BF-tree: approximate tree indexing. In: Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Very Large Databases. Number EPFL-CONF-201942 (2014)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Guttman, A.: R-trees: a dynamic index structure for spatial searching, vol. 14. ACM (1984)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nievergelt, J., Hinterberger, H., Sevcik, K.C.: The grid file: an adaptable, symmetric multikey file structure. ACM Trans. Database Syst. (TODS) 9(1), 38–71 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Papadopoulos, A.N., Manolopoulos, Y., Theodoridis, Y., Tsotras, V.: Grid file (and family). In: Liu, L., Özsu, M.T. (eds.) Encyclopedia of Database Systems, pp. 1279–1282. Springer, New York (2009)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Eldawy, A., Mokbel, M.F.: A demonstration of spatialhadoop: an efficient mapreduce framework for spatial data. Proc. VLDB Endow. 6(12), 1230–1233 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Liu, Y., Hu, S., Rabl, T., Liu, W., Jacobsen, H.A., Wu, K., Chen, J.: DGFindex for smart grid: enhancing hive with a cost-effective multidimensional range index (2014). arXiv preprint arXiv:1404.5686
  18. 18.
    Park, K.: Location-based grid-index for spatial query processing. Expert Syst. Appl. 41(4), 1294–1300 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Robinson, J.T.: The KDB-tree: a search structure for large multidimensional dynamic indexes. In: Proceedings of the 1981 ACM SIGMOD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE on Management of DATA, pp. 10–18. ACM (1981)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sarwat, M., Mokbel, M.F., Zhou, X., Nath, S.: FAST: a generic framework for flash-aware spatial trees. In: Pfoser, D., Tao, Y., Mouratidis, K., Nascimento, M.A., Mokbel, M., Shekhar, S., Huang, Y. (eds.) SSTD 2011. LNCS, vol. 6849, pp. 149–167. Springer, Heidelberg (2011) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Koltsidas, I., Viglas, S.D.: Spatial Data management over flash memory. In: Pfoser, D., Tao, Y., Mouratidis, K., Nascimento, M.A., Mokbel, M., Shekhar, S., Huang, Y. (eds.) SSTD 2011. LNCS, vol. 6849, pp. 449–453. Springer, Heidelberg (2011) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Park, S.y., Jung, D., Kang, J.u., Kim, J.s., Lee, J.: CFLRU: a replacement algorithm for flash memory. In: Proceedings of the 2006 International Conference on Compilers, Architecture and Synthesis for Embedded Systems, pp. 234–241. ACM (2006)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jin, P., Ou, Y., Harder, T., Li, Z.: AD-LRU: an efficient buffer replacement algorithm for flash-based databases. Data Knowl. Eng. 72, 83–102 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hinrichs, K.: Implementation of the grid file: design concepts and experience. BIT Numer. Math. 25(4), 569–592 (1985)MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Beckmann, N., Kriegel, H.P., Schneider, R., Seeger, B.: The R*-tree: an efficient and robust access method for points and rectangles, vol. 19. ACM (1990)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hadjieleftheriou, M.: libspatialindex 1.8.5 (2015). http://libspatialindex.github.io/. Accessed 20 Feb 2015

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Electrical and Computer Engineering DepartmentUniversity of ThessalyVolosGreece

Personalised recommendations