Human-Computer Interaction

INTERACT 2015: Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2015 pp 183-200 | Cite as

Emotion Detection in Non-native English Speakers’ Text-Only Messages by Native and Non-native Speakers

Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9296)

Abstract

When people from different language backgrounds communicate, they need to adopt a common shared language, such as English, to set up the conversation. In conversations conducted over text-only computer-mediated communication (CMC) mediums, mutual exchange of socio-emotional information is limited to the use of words, symbols and emoticons. Previous research suggests that when message receivers share the same native language with the authors, they are more accurate at detecting the emotional valence of messages based on these cues compared to non-native speaking receivers. But is this still true when the messages are written by non-native speakers? Moreover, what message properties influence the accuracy of emotional valence detection? In this paper, we report on an experiment where native English speakers and Japanese non-native English speakers rate the emotional valence of text-only messages written by Japanese non-native English speaking authors. We analyze how three message properties, grammatical correctness, fluency of language and use of symbols and emoticons, influence emotional valence detection for native and non-native speakers. Based on our results, we propose theoretical and practical implications for supporting multilingual socio-emotional communication in text-only CMC.

Keywords

Computer-mediated communication Text-only message Non-native speaker Emotion detection 

References

  1. 1.
    Buchanan, T.W., Lutz, K., Mirzazade, S., Specht, K., Shah, N.J., Zilles, K., Jäncke, L.: Recognition of emotional prosody and verbal components of spoken language: an fMRI study. Cogn. Brain. Res. 9(3), 227–238 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ekman, P.: Emotion in the Human Face, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, New York (1982)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Harzing, A.-W., Köster, K., Magner, U.: Babel in business: the language barrier and its solutions in the HQ-subsidiary relationship. J. World Bus. 46(3), 279–287 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mok, D., Carrasco, J.A., Wellman, B.: Does distance still matter in the age of the internet? Urban Stud. 46(13), 2747–2783 (2009)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Olson, G.M., Olson, J.S.: Distance matters. Hum. Comput. Interact. 15(2), 139–178 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Setlock, L.D., Fussell, S.R.: What’s it worth to you? the costs and affordances of CMC tools to Asian and American users. In: Proceedings of 2010 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, pp. 341–349. ACM (2010)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dennis, A.R., Kinney, S.T.: Testing media richness theory in the new media: the effects of cues, feedback, and task equivocality. Inf. Syst. Res. 9(3), 256–274 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hancock, J.T., Gee, K., Ciaccio, K., Lin, J.M-H.: I’m sad you’re sad: emotional contagion in CMC. In: Proceedings of the 2008 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, pp. 295–298. ACM, New York (2008)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Short, J., Williams, E., Christie, B.: The Social Psychology of Telecommunications. Wiley, New York (1976)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Walther, J.B.: Interpersonal effects in computer-mediated interaction: a relational perspective. Commun. Res. 19, 52–90 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Walther, J.B., Loh, T., Granka, L.: Let me count the ways: the interchange of verbal and nonverbal cues in computer-mediated and face-to-face affinity. J. Lang. Soc. Psychol. 24(1), 36–65 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Murphy, K.L., Collins, M.P.: Development of communication conventions in instructional electronic chats. J. Distance Educ. 12(1–2), 177–200 (1997)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Herring, S.: Interactional coherence in CMC. J. Comput. Mediated Commun. 4(4) (1999)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hancock, J.T., Landrigan, C., Silver, C.: Expressing emotion in text-only communication. In: Proceedings of 2007 ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 929–923. ACM (2007)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Aman, S., Szpakowicz, S.: Identifying expressions of emotion in text. In: Matoušek, V., Mautner, P. (eds.) TSD 2007. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 4629, pp. 196–205. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Walther, J.B., D’Addario, K.P.: The impacts of emoticons on message interpretation in computer-mediated communication. Soc. Sci. Comput. Rev. 19, 324–347 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gill, A.J., Gergle, D., French, R.M., Oberlander, J.: Emotion rating from short blog texts. In: Proceedings of 2008 ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 1121–1124. ACM (2008)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hautasaari, A., Yamashita, N., Gao, G.: “Maybe it was a joke”: emotion detection in text-only communication by non-native english speakers. In: Proceedings of 2014 ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 3715–3724. ACM (2014)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Medgyes, P.: Native or non-native: who’s worth more? ELT J. 46(4), 340–349 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Benson, M.J.: Attitudes and motivation towards english: a survey of Japanese freshmen. RELC J. 22(1), 34–48 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hyland, F.: Learning autonomously: contextualising out-of-class english language learning. Lang. Awareness 13(3), 180–202 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nishimura, Y.: Linguistic innovations and interactional features of casual online communication in Japanese. J. Comput. Mediated Commun. 9(1) (2006)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Park, J., Barash, V., Fink, C., Cha, M.: Emoticon style: interpreting differences in emoticons across cultures. In: Proceedings of the 7th International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media (ICWSM 2013), pp. 466–475. AAAI Press (2013)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gill, A.J., French, R.M., Gergle, D., Oberlander, J.: The language of emotion in short blog texts. In: Proceedings of 2008 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, pp. 299–302. ACM (2008)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kato, S., Kato. Y., Akahori, K.: Study on emotional transmissions in communication using a bulletin board system. In: Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education (ELEARN) 2006, pp. 2576–2584. AACE, Chesapeake (2006)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Provine, R.R., Spencer, R.J., Mandell, D.L.: Emotional expression online: emoticons punctuate website text messages. J. Lang. Soc. Psychol. 26(3), 299–307 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Derks, D., Bos, A.E.R., von Grumbkow, J.: Emoticons and online message interpretation. Soc. Sci. Comput. Rev. 26(3), 379–388 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Harzing, A.-W., Köster, K., Magner, U.: Babel in business: the language barrier and its solutions in the HQ-subsidiary relationship. J. World Bus. 46(3), 279–287 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Meierkord, C.: Interpreting successful Lingua franca interaction: an analysis of non-native-/non-native small talk conversations in English. Linguistik Online 5(1) (2000)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Seidlhofer, B.: closing a conceptual gap: the case for a description of English as a Lingua Franca. Int. J. Appl. Linguist. 11(2), 133–158 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Byron, K.: Carrying too heavy a load? the communication and miscommunication of emotion by email. Acad. Manag. Rev. 33(2), 309–327 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dewaele, J.-M.: The emotional weight of I love you in multilinguals’ languages. J. Pragmat. 40(10), 1753–1780 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Harris, C.L., Gleason, J.B., Aycicegi, A.: When is a first language more emotional? psychophysiological evidence from bilingual speakers. In: Pavlenko, A. (ed.) Bilingual Minds: Emotional Experience, Expression, and Representation, pp. 257–283. Multilingual Matters, Clevedon (2006)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Schumann, J.: The Neurobiology of Affect in Language. Blackwell, Malden (1997)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Russell, J.A.: Pancultural aspects of the human conceptual organization of emotions. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 45(6), 1281–1288 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Romney, A.K., Moore, C.C., Rusch, C.D.: Cultural universals: measuring the semantic structure of emotion terms in English and Japanese. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94(10), 5489–5494 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Moore, C.C., Romney, A.K., Hsia, T.-L., Rusch, G.D.: The universality of the semantic structure of emotion terms: methods for the study of inter- and intra-cultural variability. Am. Anthropol. 101(3), 529–546 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kayan, S., Fussell, S.R., Setlock, L.D.: Cultural differences in the use of instant messaging in Asia and North America. In: Proceedings of the 2006 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, pp. 525–528. ACM (2006)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lee, C.K.M.: Text-making practices beyond the classroom context: private instant messaging in Hong Kong. Comput. Compos. 24, 285–301 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zakura, N.: Focus on the form versus focus on the message in Lingua Franca conversations. Eesti Rakenduslilingvistika Uhingu Astaraamat 8, 275–287 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Coppieters, R.: Competence differences between native and near-native speakers. Language 63(3) (1987)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Dabrowska, E.: Different speakers, different grammars individual differences in native language attainment. Linguist. Approach Biling 2, 219–253 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Housen, A., Kuiken, F.: Complexity, accuracy and fluency in second language acquisition. Appl. Linguist. 30(4), 461–473 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NTT Communication Science LaboratoriesKyotoJapan

Personalised recommendations