If You Are Happy and You Know It, Say “I’m Here”: Investigating Parents’ Location-Sharing Preferences

  • Paolo MassaEmail author
  • Chiara Leonardi
  • Bruno Lepri
  • Fabio Pianesi
  • Massimo Zancanaro
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9298)


A diary approach was used to explore location-sharing preferences of 126 parents with young children with the goal of investigating which elements play a role in their decision to share their location. During a 3-week user study, we daily collected parents’ preferences of location sharing along with data related to the physical and social context, their interest in socializing with other parents and their emotional states. Our analysis points out several insights for this previously underexplored user group. In particular, our results suggest a relative greater importance of the context, both physical and social, with respect to individual traits such as personality, trust dispositions, and demographic characteristics. Moreover positive and negative emotions seem to influence the intention to share location information in a peculiar way: positive moods like happiness seem to encourage private sharing with selected people such as partner, relatives, friends and nearby parents, yet, when parents experience a negative mood, such as being worried, angry or sad, their intention to share publicly on the web is higher.


Parents Location sharing Day reconstruction method 



We thank all the participants in the study and all the reviewers for their helpful comments and suggestions. We thank the Mobile Territorial Lab for providing us support for conducting our research.


  1. 1.
    Amichai-Burger, Y., Vinitzky, G.: Social network use and personality. J. Comput. Hum. Behav. 26(6), 1289–1295 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anthony, D., Kotz, D.: Privacy in location-aware computing environments. IEEE Pervasive Comput. 4(6), 64–72 (2007)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barkhuus, L., Brown, B., Bell, M., Sherwood, S., Hall, M., Chalmers, M.: From awareness to repartee: sharing location within social groups. In: Proceedings of CHI, pp. 497−506. ACM (2008)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Benisch, M., Kelley, P.G., Sadeh, N., Cranor, L.F.: Capturing location-sharing preferences: quantifying accuracy and user-burden tradeoffs. Pers. Ubiquit. Comput. 15(7), 679–694 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cohen, S., Hoberman, H.: Positive events and social supports as buffers of life change stress. J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. 13, 99–125 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Consolvo, S., Smith, I.E., Matthews, T., LaMarca, A., Tabert, J., Powledge, P.: Location disclosure to social relations: why, when, and what people want to share. In: Proceedings of CHI 2005 (2005)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Davidoff, S., Ziebart, B.D., Zimmerman J., Dey, A.K.: Learning patterns of pick-ups and drop-offs to support busy family coordination. In: Proceedings of CHI 2011, pp. 1175–1184. ACM, New York (2011)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Devault, M.: Producing family time: practices of leisure activity beyond the home. Qual. Sociol. 23(4), 485–503 (2000)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Garbarino, G., Vorrasi, J.A., Kostelny, K.: Parenting and public policy. In: Bornstein, M.H. (ed.) Handbook of Parenting Vol. 5 Practical Issues in Parenting, pp. 487–507. Laurence Erlbaum Associates, New Jersey (2002)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gelman, A., Hill, J.: Data Analysis Using Regression and Multilevel/Hierarchical Models. Cambridge University Press, New York (2007)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gibson L., Hanson V.L.: Digital motherhood: how does technology help new mothers?. In: Proceedings of CHI 2013, pp. 313–322. ACM, New York (2013)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    John, O.P., Srivastava, S.: The big five trait taxonomy: history, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. In: Pervin, L.A., John, O.P. (eds.) Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research, 2nd edn, pp. 102–138. Guilford, New York (1999)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Junglas, I.A., Johnson, N.A., Spitzmuller, C.: Personality traits and concern for privacy: an empirical study in the context of location-based services. Eur. J. Inf. Syst. 17(4), 387–402 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kahneman, D., Krueger, A.B., Schkade, D.A., Schwarz, N., Stone, A.A.: A survey method for characterizing daily life experience: the day reconstruction method. Science 306(5702), 1776–1780 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Korzaan, M., Brooks, N., Greer, T.: Demystifying personality and privacy: an empirical investigation into antecedents of concerns for information privacy. J. Behav. Stud. Bus. 1, 1–17 (2009)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Leonardi, C., Massa, P., Zancanaro, M.: I’m here with my kids: investigating location sharing preferences of parents with young children. In: Extended Abstracts CHI. ACM (2014)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lin, J., Benisch, M., Sadeh, N., Niu, J., Hong, J., Lu, B., Guo, S.: A comparative study of location-sharing privacy preferences in the United States and China. Pers. Ubiquit. Comput. 17(4), 697–711 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lindqvist, J., Cranshaw, J., Wiese, J., Hong, J., Zimmerman, J.: I’m the mayor of my house: examining why people use foursquare - a social-driven location sharing application. In: Proceedings of CHI 2011. ACM, New York (2011)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lo, J.: Privacy concern, locus of control, and salience in a trust- risk model of information disclosure on social networking sites. In: Proceedings of Americas Conference on Information Systems (2010)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mayer, R.C., Davis, J.H.: The effect of the performance appraisal system on trust for management: a field quasi-experiment. J. Appl. Psychol. 84, 123–136 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Meadows, S.: The association between perceptions of social support and maternal mental health: a cumulative perspective. J. Fam. Issues 32, 181–208 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Morris, M.R., Teevan, J., Panovich, K.: What do people ask their social networks, and why? a survey study of status message Q&A behavior. In: Proceedings of CHI (2010)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Page, X., Knijnenburg, B.P., Kobsa, A.: FYI: communication style preferences underlie differences in location-sharing adoption and usage. In: Proceedings of UbiComp 2013. ACM (2013)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Perugini, M., Di Blas, L.: The Big Five Marker Scales (BFMS) and the italian AB5C taxonomy: analyses from an emic-etic perspective. In: de Raad, B., Perugini, M. (eds.) Big Five Assessment. Hogrefe & Huber Publishers, Gottingen (2002)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Peterson, N., Speer, P.W., McMillan, D.W.: Validation of a brief sense of community scale: confirmation of the principal theory of sense of community. J. Commun. Psychol. 36(1), 61–73 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Quercia, D., Las Casas, D., Pesce, J.P., Stillwell, D., Kosinski, M., Almeida, V., Crowcroft, J.: Facebook and privacy: the balancing act of personality, gender, and relationship currency. In: Proceedings of the 6th AAAI Conference on ICWSM (2012)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rotter, J.B.: A new scale for the measurement of interpersonal trust. J. Pers. 35(4), 651–665 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Schrammel, J., Koffel, C., Tscheligi, M.: Personality traits usage patterns and information disclosure in online communities. In: Proceedings of the 23rd ACM BCS-HCI (2009)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shklovski, I., de Souza e Silva, A.: An urban encounter: realizing online connectedness through local urban play. Inf. Commun. Soc. 16, 3 (2012)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Staiano, J., Oliver, N., Lepri, B., de Oliveira, R., Caraviello, M., Sebe, N.: Money walks: a human-centric study on the economics of personal mobile data. In: Proceedings of UbiComp 2014. ACM (2014)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tang, K.P., Lin, J., Hong, J.I., Siewiorek, D.P., Sadeh, N.: Rethinking location sharing: exploring the implications of social-driven vs. purpose-driven location sharing. In: Proceedings of UbiComp 2010. ACM (2010)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Toch, E., Levi, I.: UbiComp locality and privacy in people-nearby application. In: Proceedings of UbiComp, 8–12 September 2013, ACM, Zurich (2013)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wiese, J., Kelley, P.G., Cranor, L.F., Dabbish, L., Hong, J.I., Zimmerman, J.: Are you close with me? are you nearby? Investigating social groups, closeness, and willingness to share. In: Proceedings of UbiComp 2011, pp. 197–206. ACM (2011)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Xie, J., Knijnenburg, B.P., Jin, H.: Location sharing privacy preference: analysis and personalized recommendation. In: Proceedings of IUI 2014. ACM (2014)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Veitch, J., Bagley, S., Ball, K., Salmon, J.: Where do children usually play? a qualitative study of parents’ perceptions of influences on children’s active free-play. Health Place. 12(4), 383–393 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Savin-Williams, R.C., Small, S.A.: The timing of puberty and its relationship to adolescent and parent perceptions of family interactions. Dev. Psychol. 22, 342–347 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paolo Massa
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chiara Leonardi
    • 1
  • Bruno Lepri
    • 1
  • Fabio Pianesi
    • 1
  • Massimo Zancanaro
    • 1
  1. 1.Fondazione Bruno KesslerTrentoItaly

Personalised recommendations