Usability Aspects of the Inside-in Approach for Ancillary Search Tasks on the Web

  • Marco Winckler
  • Ricardo Cava
  • Eric Barboni
  • Philippe Palanque
  • Carla Freitas
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9297)


Given the huge amount of data available over the Web nowadays, search engines become essential tools helping users to find the information they are looking for. Nonetheless, search engines often return large sets of results which must be filtered by the users to find the suitable information items. However, in many cases, filtering is not enough, as the results returned by the engine require users to perform a secondary search to complement the current information thus featuring ancillary search tasks. Such ancillary search tasks create a nested context for user tasks that increases the articulatory distance between the users and their ultimate goal. In this paper, we analyze the interplay between such ancillary searches and other primary search tasks on the Web. Moreover, we describe the inside-in approach, which aims at reducing the articulatory distance between interleaved tasks by allowing users to perform ancillary search tasks without losing the context. The inside-in approach is illustrated by means of a case study based on ancillary searches of coauthors in a digital library, using an information visualization technique.


Interaction gulfs Web search Ancillary queries Nested user tasks 



We acknowledge the financial support from the following Brazilian research funding agencies: CAPES/COFECUB, FAPERGS and CNPq. We are also deeply grateful to the anonymous users who willingly served as subjects in our remote study.


  1. 1.
    Capra, R., Arguello, J., Scholer, F.: Augmenting web search surrogates with images. In: Proceedings of the 22nd ACM International Conference on Conference on Information & Knowledge Management (CIKM 2013), pp. 399–408. ACM, New York (2013)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Card, S.K., Mackinlay, J.D., Shneiderman, B.: Focus + Context. In: Card, S.K., Mackinlay, J.D., Shneiderman, B. (eds.) Readings in Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think, pp. 307–309. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Francisco (1999)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dorneles, C.F., Gonçalves, R., dos Santos Mello, R.: Approximate data instance matching: a survey. Know. Inf. Syst. 27(1), 1–21 (2011)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Firmenich, S., Winckler, M., Rossi, G., Gordillo, S.: A framework for concern-sensitive, client-side adaptation. In: Auer, S., Díaz, O., Papadopoulos, G.A. (eds.) ICWE 2011. LNCS, vol. 6757, pp. 198–213. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fleming, J.: Web Navigation: Designing the User Experience, p. 264. O’Reilly, Sebastopol (1998)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hassan, A., White, R.W., Dumais, S.T., Wang, Y.-M.: Struggling or exploring?: disambiguating long search sessions. In: Proceedings of PWSDM 2014, pp. 53–62 (2014)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hearst, M.: User interfaces for search, chapter 2. In: Baeza-Yates, R., Ribeiro-Neto, B. (eds.) Modern Information Retrieval: The Concepts and Technology behind Search, 2nd edn. Addison Wesley, New york (2011)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hilbert, M., López, P.: The world’s technological capacity to store, communicate, and compute information. Science 332(6025), 60–65 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Marchionini, G.: Interfaces for end-user information seeking. J. Am. Soc. Inf. Sci 43(2), 156–163 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Marchionini, G.: Exploratory search: from finding to understanding. Comm. ACM 49(4), 41–49 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Martinie, C., Palanque, P., Winckler, M.: Structuring and composition mechanisms to address scalability issues in task models. In: Campos, P., Graham, N., Jorge, J., Nunes, N., Palanque, P., Winckler, M. (eds.) INTERACT 2011, Part III. LNCS, vol. 6948, pp. 589–609. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Martinie, C.: A Synergistic Models-Based Approach to Develop Usable, Reliable and Operable Interactive Critical Systems. Ph.D. thesis presented on December 25th 2011. Université Paul Sabatier (2011).
  13. 13.
    Norman, D.: The Psychology Of Everyday Things. Basic Books; 1 edition (June 13, 1988). Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-06710-7 (1988)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Norman, D.A., Draper, S.W. (eds.): User Centered System Design: New Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale (1986)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Paternò, F., Mancini, C., Meniconi, S.: ConcurTaskTrees: a diagrammatic notation for specifying task models. In: Proceedings of Interact 1997, pp. 362–369. Chapman & Hall (1997)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Schwarz, J., Morris, M.R.: Augmenting web pages and search results to support credibility assessment. CHI 2011, pp. 1245–1254Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sebrechts, M., Vasilakis, J., Miller, M., Cugini, J., Laskowski, S.: Visualization of search results: a comparative evaluation of text, 2d and 3d interfaces. Proceedings of the 22nd ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, pp 3–10 (1999)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sutcliffe, A.G., Ennis, M.: Towards a cognitive theory of information retrieval. Interact. Comput. 10, 321–351 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Suzuki, E., Ando, S., Hirose, M., Jumi, M.: Intuitive display for search engines toward fast detection of peculiar WWW pages. In: Zhong, N., Liu, J., Yao, Y., Wu, J., Lu, S., Li, K. (eds.) Web Intelligence Meets Brain Informatics. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 4845, pp. 341–352. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    ter Beek, M.H., Faconti, G.P., Massink, M., Palanque, P.A., Winckler, M.: Resilience of interaction techniques to interrupts: a formal model-based approach. In: Gross, T., Gulliksen, J., Kotzé, P., Oestreicher, L., Palanque, P., Prates, R.O., Winckler, M. (eds.) INTERACT 2009. LNCS, vol. 5726, pp. 494–509. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yates, R.B., Neto, B.R.: Modern Information Retrieval: The Concepts and Technology behind Search, 2nd edn, p. 944. ACM Press Books / Addison-Wesley Professional, New York (2011)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wilson, M.L. Evaluating the cognitive impact of search user interface design decisions. In: EuroHCIR 2011, pp. 27–30 (2011)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Winckler, M., Gaits, V., Vo, D.-B., Firmenich, S., Rossi, G.: An approach and tool support for assisting users to fill-in web forms with personal information. In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGDOC 2011, Pisa, Italy, pp. 195–202. ACM, New York (2011)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marco Winckler
    • 2
  • Ricardo Cava
    • 1
  • Eric Barboni
    • 2
  • Philippe Palanque
    • 2
  • Carla Freitas
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of InformaticsFederal University of Rio Grande do SulPorto AlegreBrazil
  2. 2.ICS-IRITUniversity of Toulouse 3Toulouse Cedex 9France

Personalised recommendations