Communication networks have rapidly become one of the key elements of a critical infrastructure essential for everyday operation of our society. In particular, the Internet – a global communication network – is expected to be always available. Any disruption of end-to-end routing, even lasting for a short time, commonly results in serious economic losses, as well as remarkably affects reputation of the network provider.

In this chapter, we highlight the main reasons for failures of network nodes/links, as well as discuss their negative outcomes for the society. Later part of this chapter is to characterize the objectives of this book concerning network resilience, in particular referring to the analysis of challenges responsible for faults of network elements, classification of resilience disciplines, and presentation of new solutions to provide resilience of three emerging network architectures, including: (1) the Internet of the Future, (2) Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) especially vulnerable to weather-based disruptions of high-frequency wireless links, and (3) Vehicular Ad-hoc NETworks (VANETs) encountering link availability problems due to high mobility of vehicles.


Resilient routing Network resilience Resilience differentiation Network availability Random failures Disaster-based failures Quality of resilience Fault tolerance Disruption tolerance Dependability Survivability Reliability 


  1. 1.
    Agarwal, P.K., Efrat, A., Ganjugunte, S.K., Hay, D., Sankararaman, S., Zussman, G.: The resilience of WDM networks to probabilistic geographical failures. IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking 21(5), 1525–1538 (2013)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alicherry, M., Bhatia, R.: Simple pre-provisioning scheme to enable fast restoration. IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking 15(2), 400–412 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Autenrieth, A., Kirstadter, A.: Engineering end-to-end IP resilience using resilience-differentiated QoS. IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(1), 50–57 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Azodolmolky, S., Klinkowski, M., Pointurier, Y., Angelou, M., Careglio, D., Sole-Pareta, J., Tomkos, I.: A novel offline physical layer impairments aware RWA algorithm with dedicated path protection consideration. IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 28(20), 3029–3040 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bonaventure, O., Filsfils, C., Francois, P.: Achieving sub-50 milliseconds recovery upon BGP peering link failures. IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking 15(5), 1123–1135 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chołda, P., Mykkeltveit, A., Helvik, B.E., Wittner, O.J.: A survey of resilience differentiation frameworks in communication networks. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 9(4), 32–55 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chołda, P., Tapolcai, J., Cinkler, T., Wajda, K., Jajszczyk, A.: Quality of Resilience as a network reliability characterization tool. IEEE Netw. 23(2), 11–19 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dikbiyik, F., Tornatore, M., Mukherjee, B.: Minimizing the risk from disaster failures in optical backbone networks. IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 32(18), 3175–3183 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dinh, T.N., Thai, M.T.: Network under joint node and link attacks: vulnerability assessment method and analysis. IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking 23(3), 1001–1011 (2014)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Goścień, R., Walkowiak, K., Klinkowski, M., Rak, J.: Protection in elastic optical networks. IEEE Network, 1–15 (to appear in 2016)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gunkel, M., Autenrieth, A., Neugirg, M., Elbers, J.: Advanced multilayer resilience scheme with optical restoration for IP-over-DWDM core networks. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Congress on Ultra Modern Telecommunications and Control Systems and Workshops (ICUMT’12), pp. 657–662 (2012)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Guo, L., Cao, J., Yu, H., Li, L.: Path-based routing provisioning with mixed shared protection in WDM mesh networks. IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 24(3), 1129–1141 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Habib, M.F., Tornatore, M., De Leenheer, M., Dikbiyik, F., Mukherjee, B.: Design of disaster-resilient optical datacenter networks. IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 30(16), 2563–2573 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Harter, I.B.B., Hoffmann, M., Schupke, D.A., Carle, G.: Scalable resilient virtual network design algorithms for cloud services. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Reliable Networks Design and Modeling (RNDM’14), pp. 123–130 (2014)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jabbar, A., Rohrer, J.P., Oberthaler, A., Cetinkaya, E.K., Frost, V., Sterbenz, J.P.G.: Performance comparison of weather disruption-tolerant cross-layer routing algorithms. In: Proc. 28th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE INFOCOM’09), pp. 1143–1151 (2009)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Karagiannis, G., Altintas, O., Ekici, E., Heijenk, G., Jarupan, B., Lin, K., Weil, T.: Vehicular networking: a survey and tutorial on requirements, architectures, challenges, standards, and solutions. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 13(4), 584–616 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Khair, M., Kantarci, B., Zheng, J., Mouftah, H.T.: Performance optimization for fault localization in all-optical networks. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Broadband Communications, Networks and Systems (BROADNETS’08), pp. 531–535 (2008)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kini, S., Ramasubramanian, S., Kvalbein, A., Hansen, A.F.: Fast recovery from dual-link or single-node failures in IP networks using tunneling. IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking 18(6), 1988–1999 (2010)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kodialam, M., Lakshman, T.V., Sengupta, S.: Guaranteed performance routing of unpredictable traffic with fast path restoration. IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking 17(5), 1427–1438 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kreutz, D., Ramos, F.M.V., Esteves Verissimo, P., Esteve Rothenberg, C., Azodolmolky, S., Uhlig, S.: Software-defined networking: a comprehensive survey. Proc. IEEE 103(1), 14–76 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Li, F., Wang, Y.: Routing in vehicular ad hoc networks: a survey. IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag. 2(2), 12–22 (2007)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mas, C., Tomkos, I., Tonguz, O.K.: Failure location algorithm for transparent optical networks. IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23(8), 1508–1519 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Menth, M., Martin, R.: Network resilience through multi-topology routing. In: Proc. of the 5th International Workshop on Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN’05), pp. 271–277 (2005)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mukherjee, B., Habib, M.F., Dikbiyik, F.: Network adaptability from disaster disruptions and cascading failures. IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(5), 230–238 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nelakuditi, S., Lee, S., Yu, Y., Zhang, Z.-L., Chuah, C.-N.: Fast local rerouting for handling transient link failures. IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking 15(2), 359–372 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pandi, A., Tacca, M., Fumagalli, A.: A threshold based on-line RWA algorithm with end-to-end reliability guarantees. In: Proc. International Conference on Optical Networks Design and Modeling (ONDM’05), pp. 447–453 (2005)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schupke, D.A.: Multilayer and multidomain resilience in optical networks. Proc. IEEE 100(5), 1140–1148 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Soproni, P., Babarczi, P., Tapolcai, J., Cinkler, T., Ho, P.H.: A meta-heuristic approach for non-bifurcated dedicated protection in WDM optical networks. In: Proc. 8th International Workshop on Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN’11), pp. 110–117 (2011)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Stankiewicz, R., Chołda, P., Jajszczyk, A.: QoX: what is it really? IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(4), 148–158 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sterbenz, J.P.G., Hutchison, D., Çetinkaya, E.K., Jabbar, A., Rohrer, J.P., Schoeller, M., Smith, P.: Resilience and survivability in communication networks: strategies, principles, and survey of disciplines. Comput. Netw. 54(8), 1245–1265 (2010). ElsevierzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tapolcai, J., Ho, P.-H., Verchere, D., Cinkler, T., Haque, A.: A new shared segment protection method for survivable networks with guaranteed recovery time. IEEE Trans. Reliab. 57(2), 272–282 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Vasseur, J.P., Pickavet, M., Demeester, P.: Network Recovery: Protection and Restoration of Optical, SONET-SDH, and MPLS. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco (2004)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wang, Y., Ma, Ch., Li, X., Zhao, Y., Zhang, Y.: Node protection method with content-connectivity against disaster in disaster recovery center networks. In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (ICOCN’14), pp. 1–4 (2014)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wu, B., Ho, P.-H., Yeung, K.L., Tapolcai, J., Mouftah, H.T.: Optical layer monitoring schemes for fast link failure localization in all-optical networks. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 13(1), 114–125 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacek Rak
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications, and InformaticsGdansk University of TechnologyGdanskPoland

Personalised recommendations