Errors or Inherent Attributes for the Sustenance of Unicellular Life

  • Joseph G. SinkovicsEmail author


The ancient “cell survival pathways” of unicellular life forms become oncogenes in multicellular hosts. Proto-oncogenes are installed. The primordial physiological “cell survival pathways” PI3K; Wnt/catenin; Notch, as a “destabilizer” of catenin; NFκB; TGFβ, discovered as decapentaplegic, Dpp; Hedgehog, JAK/STAT were already operational in the cnidaria (a non-bilaterian). The hoglet gene of the choanoflagellate, Monosiga ovata, may be the ancestor of the Hh gene family.


Vide Supra Class Switch Recombination Light Chain Gene Cell Survival Pathway PRDM Gene 
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.M.D. Anderson Hospital Comprehensive Cancer CenterThe University of TexasHoustonUSA
  2. 2.H.L. Moffitt Comprehensive Cancer CenterThe University of South FloridaTampaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Molecular MedicineThe University of South Florida Morsani College of MedicineTampaUSA
  4. 4.The Cancer InstituteSt. Joseph’s HospitalTampaUSA

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