Reassembling Humpty Dumpty: Putting George Washington’s Cyphering Manuscript Back Together Again

  • Theodore J. Crackel
  • V. Frederick RickeyEmail author
  • Joel S. Silverberg
Conference paper
Part of the Proceedings of the Canadian Society for History and Philosophy of Mathematics/La Société Canadienne d’Histoire et de Philosophie des Mathématiques book series (PCSHPM)


Soon after we began the study of George Washington’s cyphering manuscript we realized that some of the pages were missing. To understand how this happened, we shall first discuss the provenance of the cyphering books. Then we present some “missing” pages that we have located, provide evidence that there are still more missing pages, and describe the detective work involved in situating these pages in the manuscript.


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The authors would like to thank Florence Fasanelli, Julie Miller, David Zitarelli, and several referees for helpful comments.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Theodore J. Crackel
    • 1
    • 2
  • V. Frederick Rickey
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  • Joel S. Silverberg
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.The Papers of George WashingtonUniversity of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA
  2. 2.RuckersvilleUSA
  3. 3.US Military AcademyNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.CornwallUSA
  5. 5.Roger Williams UniversityBristolUSA
  6. 6.ProvidenceUSA

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