Mindfulness for the Treatment of Stress Disorders

  • Karen Johanne PallesenEmail author
  • Jesper Dahlgaard
  • Lone Fjorback
Part of the Advances in Mental Health and Addiction book series (AMHA)


Long-term stress can lead to mental and bodily dysfunctions and diseases. Stress also appears as a companion that worsens the course of existing diseases. Although the evolutionary perspective on stress offers a compelling framework for the increasing occurrence of stress-related disorders in modern societies, the underlying biological mechanisms are not completely understood. In this chapter, we describe the physiological response to stressors (allostasis) and how stress may cause harm to the body (allostatic load). We follow the explanatory track from epigenetic influences via altered gene expression to pathological changes. We finally discuss the effects of mindfulness-based interventions on these changes. Can the damage be reversed?

Stress-induced modulation of physiological processes may account for a group of poorly understood “functional” disorders, commonly labelled as “medically unexplained symptoms”, “functional somatic syndromes”, or “bodily distress syndrome”. In our research clinic, we use mindfulness-based stress reduction to treat patients with these disorders. The beneficial effects of the treatment have received increasing support from empirical studies, which indicate that mindfulness-based therapies mediate neuroplastic changes and changes in physiological stress mechanisms. We describe some of the experiences gained and results obtained using mindfulness-based stress reduction in clinical treatment.


Long-term stress Stress response Allostasis Allostatic load Evolution Stress mechanisms Stress disorders Genes Mindfulness treatment MBSR Self-empowerment 


  1. Afari, N., Ahumada, S. M., Wright, L. J., Mostoufi, S., Golnari, G., Reis, V., et al. (2014). Psychological trauma and functional somatic syndromes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychosomatic Medicine, 76(1), 2–11.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Agargun, M. Y., Tekeoglu, I., Gunes, A., Adak, B., Kara, H., & Ercan, M. (1999). Sleep quality and pain threshold in patients with fibromyalgia. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 40(3), 226–228. doi: S0010-440X(99)90008-1 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Akehurst, R. L., Brazier, J. E., Mathers, N., O’Keefe, C., Kaltenthaler, E., Morgan, A., et al. (2002). Health-related quality of life and cost impact of irritable bowel syndrome in a UK primary care setting. PharmacoEconomics, 20(7), 455–462. doi: 200703 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Amin, S. N., El-Aidi, A. A., Ali, M. M., Attia, Y. M., & Rashed, L. A. (2015). Modification of hippocampal markers of synaptic plasticity by memantine in animal models of acute and repeated restraint stress: implications for memory and behavior. Neuromolecular Med. doi: 10.1007/s12017-015-8343-0.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ancelin, M. L., Carriere, I., Helmer, C., Rouaud, O., Pasquier, F., Berr, C., et al. (2012). Steroid and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cognitive decline, and dementia. Neurobiology of Aging, 33(9), 2082–2090. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2011.09.038. S0197-4580(11)00392-7 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Armanini, M. P., Hutchins, C., Stein, B. A., & Sapolsky, R. M. (1990). Glucocorticoid endangerment of hippocampal neurons is NMDA-receptor dependent. Brain Research, 532(1–2), 7–12. doi: 0006-8993(90)91734-X [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Barrett, B., Hayney, M. S., Muller, D., Rakel, D., Ward, A., Obasi, C. N., et al. (2012). Meditation or exercise for preventing acute respiratory infection: a randomized. Annals of Family Medicine, 10, 337–346. doi: 10.1370/afm.1376.INTRODUCTION.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Barsky, A. J., Ettner, S. L., Horsky, J., & Bates, D. W. (2001). Resource utilization of patients with hypochondriacal health anxiety and somatization. Medical Care, 39(7), 705–715.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bender, B. G., Lerner, J. A., & Kollasch, E. (1988). Mood and memory changes in asthmatic children receiving corticosteroids. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27(6), 720–725. doi: 10.1097/00004583-198811000-00010. S0890-8567(09)65853-6 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Berk, M., Williams, L., Jacka, F., O’Neil, A., Pasco, J., Moylan, S., et al. (2013). So depression is an inflammatory disease, but where does the inflammation come from? BMC Medicine, 11.Google Scholar
  11. Bhikkhu, A. (2010). The earliest recorded discourses of the Buddha (translated) (from Lalitavistara, Mahākhandhaka & Mahāvastu. Kuala Lumpur: Sukhi Hotu.Google Scholar
  12. Black, D. S., Cole, S. W., Irwin, M. R., Breen, E., Cyr, S., Nazarian, N. M., et al. (2013). Yogic meditation reverses NF-kappaB and IRF-related transcriptome dynamics in leukocytes of family dementia caregivers in a randomized controlled trial. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38(3), 348–355. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2012.06.011. S0306-4530(12)00226-0 [pii].PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bohmelt, A. H., Nater, U. M., Franke, S., Hellhammer, D. H., & Ehlert, U. (2005). Basal and stimulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders and healthy controls. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67(2), 288–294. doi: 10.1097/ 67/2/288 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bremner, J. D., Randall, P., Scott, T. M., Bronen, R. A., Seibyl, J. P., Southwick, S. M., et al. (1995). MRI-based measurement of hippocampal volume in patients with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 152(7), 973–981.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Brown, E. S., Jeon-Slaughter, H., Lu, H., Jamadar, R., Issac, S., Shad, M., et al. (2014). Hippocampal volume in healthy controls given 3-day stress doses of hydrocortisone. Neuropsychopharmacology, 40, 1216–1221. doi: 10.1038/npp.2014.307. npp2014307 [pii].Google Scholar
  16. Browning, M., Fletcher, P., & Sharpe, M. (2011). Can neuroimaging help us to understand and classify somatoform disorders? A systematic and critical review. Psychosomatic Medicine, 73(2), 173–184. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e31820824f6. PSY.0b013e31820824f6 [pii].PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cahill, L., & McGaugh, J. L. (1998). Mechanisms of emotional arousal and lasting declarative memory. Trends in Neurosciences, 21(7), 294–299. doi: S0166-2236(97)01214-9 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Carson, A. J., Stone, J., Warlow, C., & Sharpe, M. (2004). Patients whom neurologists find difficult to help. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 75(12), 1776–1778. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.2003.032169. 75/12/1776 [pii].PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Carstensen, T. B., Frostholm, L., Oernboel, E., Kongsted, A., Kasch, H., Jensen, T. S., et al. (2008). Post-trauma ratings of pre-collision pain and psychological distress predict poor outcome following acute whiplash trauma: A 12-month follow-up study. Pain, 139(2), 248–259. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2008.04.008. S0304-3959(08)00196-6 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Chang, L., Sundaresh, S., Elliott, J., Anton, P. A., Baldi, P., Licudine, A., et al. (2009). Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in irritable bowel syndrome. Neurogastroenterology and Motility, 21(2), 149–159. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2982.2008.01171.x. NMO1171 [pii].PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Chaturvedi, R. K., & Beal, M. F. (2013). Molecular and cellular neuroscience mitochondria targeted therapeutic approaches in Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases. Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences, 55, 101–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Chew-Graham, C., & May, C. (1999). Chronic low back pain in general practice: The challenge of the consultation. Family Practice, 16(1), 46–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Choi, D. W. (1988). Calcium-mediated neurotoxicity: Relationship to specific channel types and role in ischemic damage. Trends in Neurosciences, 11(10), 465–469. doi: 0166-2236(88)90200-7 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Clauw, D. J. (2001). Potential mechanisms in chemical intolerance and related conditions. The Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 933, 235–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Cockshella, S. J., & Mathiasa, J. L. (2010). Cognitive functioning in chronic fatigue syndrome: A meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine, 40, 1253–1267.Google Scholar
  26. Cohen, S., Janicki-Deverts, D., Doyle, W. J., Miller, G. E., Frank, E., Rabin, B. S., et al. (2012). Chronic stress, glucocorticoid receptor resistance, inflammation, and disease risk. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(16), 5995–5999. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1118355109. 1118355109 [pii].PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cole, S. W. (2013). Social regulation of human gene expression: Mechanisms and implications for public health. American Journal of Public Health, 103, 84–93. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2012.301183.Google Scholar
  28. Cook, D. B., O’Connor, P. J., Lange, G., & Steffener, J. (2007). Functional neuroimaging correlates of mental fatigue induced by cognition among chronic fatigue syndrome patients and controls. NeuroImage, 36(1), 108–122. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.02.033. S1053-8119(07)00127-9 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Coplan, J. D., Fulton, S. L., Reiner, W., Jackowski, A., Panthangi, V., Perera, T. D., et al. (2014). Elevated cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in macaques following early life stress and inverse association with hippocampal volume: Preliminary implications for serotonin-related function in mood and anxiety disorders. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 8, 440. doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00440.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Creed, F., Barsky, A. J., & Leiknes, K. A. (2011). Epidemiology: Prevalence, causes and consequences. In F. Creed, P. Henningsen, & P. Fink (Eds.), Medically unexplained symptoms, somatization and bodily distress. Developing better clinical services (pp. 1–42). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Creswell, J. D., Irwin, M. R., Burklund, L. J., Lieberman, M. D., Arevalo, J. M. G., Ma, J., et al. (2012). Mindfulness-based stress reduction training reduces loneliness and pro-inflammatory gene expression in older adults: A small randomized controlled trial. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 26, 1095–1101. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2012.07.006.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Creswell, J. D., Myers, H. F., Cole, S. W., & Irwin, M. R. (2009). Mindfulness meditation training effects on CD4+ T lymphocytes in HIV-1 infected adults: A small randomized controlled trial. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 23, 184–188. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2008.07.004.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Dahlgaard, J., & Zachariae, R. (2014). Gene expression anti-stress effects following a mind-body intervention. Paper presented at the 72nd annual scientific meeting of the American Psychosomatic Society, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  34. Davidson, R. J. (2000). Affective style, psychopathology, and resilience: Brain mechanisms and plasticity. The American Psychologist, 55(11), 1196–1214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Davidson, R. J. (2004). Well-being and affective style: Neural substrates and biobehavioural correlates. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 359(1449), 1395–1411. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2004.1510 MCADFWA2B7X1KJAW [pii].PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Davidson, R., Kabat-Zinn, J., Schumacher, J., Rosenkranz, M., Muller, D., Santorelli, S., et al. (2003). Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 564–570. doi: 10.1097/01.PSY.0000077505.67574.E3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. de Lange, F. P., Kalkman, J. S., Bleijenberg, G., Hagoort, P., van der Meer, J. W., & Toni, I. (2005). Gray matter volume reduction in the chronic fatigue syndrome. NeuroImage, 26(3), 777–781. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.02.037. S1053-8119(05)00139-4 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. de Quervain, D. J., Roozendaal, B., Nitsch, R. M., McGaugh, J. L., & Hock, C. (2000). Acute cortisone administration impairs retrieval of long-term declarative memory in humans. Nature Neuroscience, 3(4), 313–314. doi: 10.1038/73873.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. de Quervain, D. J., Roozendaal, B., & McGaugh, J. L. (1998). Stress and glucocorticoids impair retrieval of long-term spatial memory. Nature, 394(6695), 787–790. doi: 10.1038/29542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. de Waal, M. W., Arnold, I. A., Eekhof, J. A., & van Hemert, A. M. (2004). Somatoform disorders in general practice: Prevalence, functional impairment and comorbidity with anxiety and depressive disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 184, 470–476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Dinan, T. G., Quigley, E. M., Ahmed, S. M., Scully, P., O’Brien, S., O’Mahony, L., et al. (2006). Hypothalamic-pituitary-gut axis dysregulation in irritable bowel syndrome: Plasma cytokines as a potential biomarker? Gastroenterology, 130(2), 304–311. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2005.11.033. S0016-5085(05)02394-2 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Drevets, W. C., & Raichle, M. E. (1992). Neuroanatomical circuits in depression: Implications for treatment mechanisms. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 28(3), 261–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Dunlop, S. P., Jenkins, D., & Spiller, R. C. (2003). Distinctive clinical, psychological, and histological features of postinfective irritable bowel syndrome. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 98(7), 1578–1583. doi: 10.1111/j.1572-0241.2003.07542.x. S0002927003003757 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Engel, G. L. (1980). The clinical application of the biopsychosocial model. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 137(5), 535–544. doi: 10.1176/ajp.137.5.535.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Epel, E. S., Blackburn, E. H., Lin, J., Dhabhar, F. S., Adler, N. E., Morrow, J. D., et al. (2004). Accelerated telomere shortening in response to life stress. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(49), 17312–17315. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0407162101. 0407162101 [pii].PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Escolas, S. M., & Escolas, H. D. (2015). Temperament dimensions and posttraumatic stress symptoms in a previously deployed military sample. US Army Medical Department Journal, Jan-Mar, 79–85.Google Scholar
  47. Fardet, L., Petersen, I., & Nazareth, I. (2012). Suicidal behavior and severe neuropsychiatric disorders following glucocorticoid therapy in primary care. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 169(5), 491–497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., et al. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14(4), 245–258. doi: S0749379798000178 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Fink, P., Rosendal, M., & Toft, T. (2002). Assessment and treatment of functional disorders in general practice: The extended reattribution and management model--an advanced educational program for nonpsychiatric doctors. Psychosomatics, 43(2), 93–131. doi: 10.1176/appi.psy.43.2.93. S0033-3182(02)70423-4 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Fink, P., & Schroder, A. (2010). One single diagnosis, bodily distress syndrome, succeeded to capture 10 diagnostic categories of functional somatic syndromes and somatoform disorders. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 68(5), 415–426. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2010.02.004. S0022-3999(10)00075-9 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Fink, P., Sorensen, L., Engberg, M., Holm, M., & Munk-Jorgensen, P. (1999). Somatization in primary care. Prevalence, health care utilization, and general practitioner recognition. Psychosomatics, 40(4), 330–338. doi: 10.1016/S0033-3182(99)71228-4. S0033-3182(99)71228-4 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Fink, P., Toft, T., Hansen, M. S., Ornbol, E., & Olesen, F. (2007). Symptoms and syndromes of bodily distress: An exploratory study of 978 internal medical, neurological, and primary care patients. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69(1), 30–39. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e31802e46eb. 69/1/30 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Fjorback, L. O. (2012). Mindfulness and Bodily Distress. Ph.D. dissertation, Aarhus University, Aarhus.Google Scholar
  54. Fjorback, L. O., Arendt, M., Ornbol, E., Walach, H., Rehfeld, E., Schroder, A., et al. (2013). Mindfulness therapy for somatization disorder and functional somatic syndromes: Randomized trial with one-year follow-up. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 74(1), 31–40. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2012.09.006. S0022-3999(12)00244-9 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Ford, A. C., & Talley, N. J. (2011). Mucosal inflammation as a potential etiological factor in irritable bowel syndrome: A systematic review. Journal of Gastroenterology, 46(4), 421–431. doi: 10.1007/s00535-011-0379-9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Frostholm, L., Petrie, K. J., Ornbol, E., & Fink, P. (2014). Are illness perceptions related to future healthcare expenditure in patients with somatoform disorders? Psychological Medicine, 44(13), 2903–2911. doi: 10.1017/S003329171400035X. S003329171400035X [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Gagliardi, L., Ho, J. T., & Torpy, D. J. (2010). Corticosteroid-binding globulin: The clinical significance of altered levels and heritable mutations. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 316(1), 24–34. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2009.07.015. S0303-7207(09)00375-X [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Geiss, A., Rohleder, N., & Anton, F. (2012). Evidence for an association between an enhanced reactivity of interleukin-6 levels and reduced glucocorticoid sensitivity in patients with fibromyalgia. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37(5), 671–684. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2011.07.021. S0306-4530(11)00263-0 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Gold, S. M., Dziobek, I., Sweat, V., Tirsi, A., Rogers, K., Bruehl, H., et al. (2007). Hippocampal damage and memory impairments as possible early brain complications of type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia, 50(4), 711–719. doi: 10.1007/s00125-007-0602-7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Goleman, D. (2003). Destructive emotions: How can we overcome them? A scientific dialogue with the Dalai Lama. New York: Bantam Dell. A Division of the Random House, Inc.Google Scholar
  61. Hanson, J. L., Nacewicz, B. M., Sutterer, M. J., Cayo, A. A., Schaefer, S. M., Rudolph, K. D., et al. (2015). Behavioral problems after early life stress: Contributions of the hippocampus and amygdala. Biological Psychiatry, 77(4), 314–323. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2014.04.020. S0006-3223(14)00351-5 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Hatcher, S., & House, A. (2003). Life events, difficulties and dilemmas in the onset of chronic fatigue syndrome: A case–control study. Psychological Medicine, 33(7), 1185–1192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Heim, C., & Nemeroff, C. B. (2001). The role of childhood trauma in the neurobiology of mood and anxiety disorders: Preclinical and clinical studies. Biological Psychiatry, 49(12), 1023–1039. doi: S000632230101157X [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Henningsen, P., Zipfel, S., & Herzog, W. (2007). Management of functional somatic syndromes. Lancet, 369(9565), 946–955. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60159-7. S0140-6736(07)60159-7 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Hölzel, B. K., Carmody, J., Evans, K. C., Hoge, E. A., Dusek, J. A., Morgan, L., et al. (2010). Stress reduction correlates with structural changes in the amygdala. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 5, 11–17. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsp034.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Holzel, B. K., Carmody, J., Vangel, M., Congleton, C., Yerramsetti, S. M., Gard, T., et al. (2011). Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density. Psychiatry Research, 191(1), 36–43. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2010.08.006. S0925-4927(10)00288-X [pii].PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Hunter, R. G., Gagnidze, K., McEwen, B. S., & Pfaff, D. W. (2014). Stress and the dynamic genome: Steroids, epigenetics, and the transposome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 11(22), 6828–6833. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1411260111. 1411260111 [pii].Google Scholar
  68. Iqbal, R., Mughal, M. S., Arshad, N., & Arshad, M. (2011). Pathophysiology and antioxidant status of patients with fibromyalgia. Rheumatology International, 31(2), 149–152. doi: 10.1007/s00296-010-1470-x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Irie, M., Asami, S., Nagata, S., Miyata, M., & Kasai, H. (2002). Psychological mediation of a type of oxidative DNA damage, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, in peripheral blood leukocytes of non-smoking and non-drinking workers. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 71(2), 90–96. doi: 49351 [pii] 49351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Irwin, M. R., & Cole, S. W. (2011). Reciprocal regulation of the neural and innate immune systems. Nature Reviews Immunology, 11, 625–632.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Irwin, M. R., & Olmstead, R. (2012). Mitigating cellular inflammation in older adults: A randomized controlled trial of Tai Chi Chih. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20(9), 764–772. doi: 10.1097/JGP.0b013e3182330fd3.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Jaremka, M., Fagundes, C., Peng, J., Bennett, J., Glaser, R., Malarkey, W., et al. (2013). Loneliness promotes inflammation during acute stress. Psychological Science, 24. doi:  10.1177/0956797612464059 Google Scholar
  73. Jensen, K. B., Kosek, E., Wicksell, R., Kemani, M., Olsson, G., Merle, J. V., et al. (2012). Cognitive behavioral therapy increases pain-evoked activation of the prefrontal cortex in patients with fibromyalgia. Pain, 153(7), 1495–1503. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2012.04.010. S0304-3959(12)00238-2 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living: Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness. New York: Delacorte.Google Scholar
  75. Kabat-Zinn, J., Wheeler, E., Light, T., Skillings, A., Scharf, M. J., Cropley, T. G., et al. (1998). Influence of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction intervention on rates of skin clearing in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis undergoing phototherapy (UVB) and photochemotherapy (PUVA). Psychosomatic Medicine, 60, 625–632.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Kelly, S. J., & Ismail, M. (2015). Stress and type 2 diabetes: A review of how stress contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes. Annual Review of Public Health. doi: 10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031914-122921.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Kemeny, M. E., & Laudenslager, M. L. (1999). Introduction beyond stress: The role of individual difference factors in psychoneuroimmunology. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 13(2), 73–75. doi: 10.1006/brbi.1999.0562. S0889-1591(99)90562-7 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Kennedy, P. J., Clarke, G., O’Neill, A., Groeger, J. A., Quigley, E. M., Shanahan, F., et al. (2014). Cognitive performance in irritable bowel syndrome: Evidence of a stress-related impairment in visuospatial memory. Psychological Medicine, 44(7), 1553–1566. doi: 10.1017/S0033291713002171. S0033291713002171 [pii].PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Kirmayer, L. J., & Robbins, J. M. (1991). Three forms of somatization in primary care: Prevalence, co-occurrence, and sociodemographic characteristics. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 179(11), 647–655.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Kolk, A. M., Schagen, S., & Hanewald, G. J. (2004). Multiple medically unexplained physical symptoms and health care utilization: Outcome of psychological intervention and patient-related predictors of change. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 57(4), 379–389. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2004.02.012. S0022399904000364 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Korte, S., Koolhaas, J., & Wingfield, J. (2005). The Darwinian concept of stress: Benefits of allostasis and costs of allostatic load and the trade-offs in health and disease. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 29, 3–38.Google Scholar
  82. Kringlen, E., Torgersen, S., & Cramer, V. (2006). Mental illness in a rural area: A Norwegian psychiatric epidemiological study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 41(9), 713–719. doi: 10.1007/s00127-006-0080-0.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Kroenke, K., & Price, R. K. (1993). Symptoms in the community. Prevalence, classification, and psychiatric comorbidity. Archives of Internal Medicine, 153(21), 2474–2480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Krusche, A., Cyhlarova, E., & Williams, J. M. G. (2013). Mindfulness online: An evaluation of the feasibility of a web-based mindfulness course for stress, anxiety and depression. BMJ Open, 3, e003498. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003498.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Kuzminskyte, R., Kupers, R., Videbech, P., Gjedde, A., & Fink, P. (2010). Increased sensitivity to supra-threshold painful stimuli in patients with multiple functional somatic symptoms (MFS). Brain Research Bulletin, 82(1–2), 135–140. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2010.03.002. S0361-9230(10)00062-6 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Lange, G., Steffener, J., Cook, D. B., Bly, B. M., Christodoulou, C., Liu, W. C., et al. (2005). Objective evidence of cognitive complaints in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A BOLD fMRI study of verbal working memory. NeuroImage, 26(2), 513–524. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.02.011. S1053-8119(05)00104-7 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Lapate, R. C., Lee, H., Salomons, T. V., van Reekum, C. M., Greischar, L. L., & Davidson, R. J. (2012). Amygdalar function reflects common individual differences in emotion and pain regulation success. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 24(1), 148–158. doi: 10.1162/jocn_a_00125.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Lavretsky, H., Altstein, L., Olmstead, R., Ercoli, L., Riparetti-Brown, M., Cyr, N., et al. (2011). Complementary use of tai chi chih augments escitalopram treatment of geriatric depression: A randomized controlled trial. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19, 839–850. doi: 10.1097/JGP.0b013e31820ee9ef.Complementary.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Lavretsky, H., Epel, E. S., Siddarth, P., Nazarian, N., Cyr, N. S., Khalsa, D. S., et al. (2013). A pilot study of yogic meditation for family dementia caregivers with depressive symptoms: Effects on mental health, cognition, and telomerase activity. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 28(1), 57–65. doi: 10.1002/gps.3790.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Lazar, S. W., Kerr, C. E., Wasserman, R. H., Gray, J. R., Greve, D. N., Treadway, M. T., et al. (2005). Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness. Neuroreport, 16(17), 1893–1897. doi: 00001756-200511280-00005 [pii].PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Lin, H. Y., Muller, Y. A., & Hammond, G. L. (2010). Molecular and structural basis of steroid hormone binding and release from corticosteroid-binding globulin. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 316(1), 3–12. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2009.06.015. S0303-7207(09)00374-8 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Lupien, S. J., Parent, S., Evans, A. C., Tremblay, R. E., Zelazo, P. D., Corbo, V., et al. (2011). Larger amygdala but no change in hippocampal volume in 10-year-old children exposed to maternal depressive symptomatology since birth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(34), 14324–14329. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1105371108. 1105371108 [pii].PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Lutz, J., Herwig, U., Opialla, S., Hittmeyer, A., Jäncke, L., Rufer, M., et al. (2014). Mindfulness and emotion regulation–an fMRI study. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 9, 776–785. doi: 10.1093/scan/nst043.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Macedo, J. A., Hesse, J., Turner, J. D., Meyer, J., Hellhammer, D. H., & Muller, C. P. (2008). Glucocorticoid sensitivity in fibromyalgia patients: Decreased expression of corticosteroid receptors and glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 33(6), 799–809. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2008.03.012. S0306-4530(08)00070-X [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Maeda, T., Guan, J. Z., Koyanagi, M., Higuchi, Y., & Makino, N. (2012). Aging-associated alteration of telomere length and subtelomeric status in female patients with Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Neurogenetics, 26, 245–251. doi: 10.3109/01677063.2011.651665.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Maes, M. (2009). Inflammatory and oxidative and nitrosative stress pathways underpinning chronic fatigue, somatization and psychosomatic symptoms. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 22(1), 75–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Maes, M., & Twisk, F. N. (2010). Chronic fatigue syndrome: Harvey and Wessely’s (bio)psychosocial model versus a bio(psychosocial) model based on inflammatory and oxidative and nitrosative stress pathways. BMC Medicine, 8, 35. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-8-35. 1741-7015-8-35 [pii].PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Magarinos, A. M., & McEwen, B. S. (1995). Stress-induced atrophy of apical dendrites of hippocampal CA3c neurons: Involvement of glucocorticoid secretion and excitatory amino acid receptors. Neuroscience, 69(1), 89–98. doi: 030645229500259L [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Manji, H., Kato, T., Di Prospero, N. A., Ness, S., Beal, M. F., Krams, M., et al. (2012). Impaired mitochondrial function in psychiatric disorders. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 13, 293–307. doi: 10.1038/nrn3229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. McEwen, B. S., Gray, J., & Nasca, C. (2015). Recognizing resilience: Learning from the effects of stress on the brain. Neurobiology Stress, 1, 1–11. doi: 10.1016/j.ynstr.2014.09.001.Google Scholar
  101. McEwen, B. S., & Stellar, E. (1993). Stress and the individual. Mechanisms leading to disease. Archives of Internal Medicine, 153(18), 2093–2101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. McEwen, B. S., & Wingfield, J. C. (2003). The concept of allostasis in biology and biomedicine. Hormones and Behavior, 43(1), 2–15. doi: S0018506X02000247 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. McGowan, P. O., Sasaki, A., D’Alessio, A. C., Dymov, S., Labonte, B., Szyf, M., et al. (2009). Epigenetic regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor in human brain associates with childhood abuse. Nature Neuroscience, 12(3), 342–348. doi: 10.1038/nn.2270. nn.2270 [pii].PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. McWhinney, I. R., Epstein, R. M., & Freeman, T. R. (2001). Rethinking somatization. Advances in Mind-Body Medicine, 17(4), 232–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Meaney, M. J. (2001). Maternal care, gene expression, and the transmission of individual differences in stress reactivity across generations. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 24, 1161–1192. doi: 10.1146/annurev.neuro.24.1.1161. 24/1/1161 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Meerding, W. J., Bonneux, L., Polder, J. J., Koopmanschap, M. A., & van der Maas, P. J. (1998). Demographic and epidemiological determinants of healthcare costs in Netherlands: Cost of illness study. BMJ, 317(7151), 111–115.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Meeus, M., Nijs, J., Hermans, L., Goubert, D., & Calders, P. (2013). The role of mitochondrial dysfunctions due to oxidative and nitrosative stress in the chronic pain or chronic fatigue syndromes and fibromyalgia patients: Peripheral and central mechanisms as therapeutic targets? Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets, 17(9), 1081–1089. doi: 10.1517/14728222.2013.818657.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Moldofsky, H. (1995). Sleep, neuroimmune and neuroendocrine functions in fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. Advances in Neuroimmunology, 5(1), 39–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Nicassio, P. M., Moxham, E. G., Schuman, C. E., & Gevirtz, R. N. (2002). The contribution of pain, reported sleep quality, and depressive symptoms to fatigue in fibromyalgia. Pain, 100(3), 271–279. doi: S0304395902003007 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Nijhof, S. L., Rutten, J. M., Uiterwaal, C. S., Bleijenberg, G., Kimpen, J. L., & Putte, E. M. (2014). The role of hypocortisolism in chronic fatigue syndrome. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 42, 199–206. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.01.017. S0306-4530(14)00042-0 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. O’Carroll, R. E., Drysdale, E., Cahill, L., Shajahan, P., & Ebmeier, K. P. (1999). Stimulation of the noradrenergic system enhances and blockade reduces memory for emotional material in man. Psychological Medicine, 29(5), 1083–1088.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. O’Donovan, A., Sun, B., Cole, S., Rempel, H., Lenoci, M., Pulliam, L., et al. (2011). Transcriptional control of monocyte gene expression in post-traumatic stress disorder. Disease Markers, 30(2–3), 123–132. doi: 10.3233/DMA-2011-0768. W1L2343430776467 [pii].PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Oran, M., Tulubas, F., Mete, R., Aydin, M., Sarikaya, H. G., & Gurel, A. (2014). Evaluation of paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, 64(7), 820–822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Oswald, L. M., Zandi, P., Nestadt, G., Potash, J. B., Kalaydjian, A. E., & Wand, G. S. (2006). Relationship between cortisol responses to stress and personality. Neuropsychopharmacology, 31(7), 1583–1591. doi: 10.1038/sj.npp.1301012. 1301012 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Pace, T. W., Negi, L. T., Adame, D. D., Cole, S. P., Sivilli, T. I., Brown, T. D., et al. (2009). Effect of compassion meditation on neuroendocrine, innate immune and behavioral responses to psychosocial stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34(1), 87–98. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2008.08.011. S0306-4530(08)00219-9 [pii].PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Papadopoulos, A. S., & Cleare, A. J. (2012). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction in chronic fatigue syndrome. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 8(1), 22–32. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2011.153. nrendo.2011.153 [pii].Google Scholar
  117. Paras, M. L., Murad, M. H., Chen, L. P., Goranson, E. N., Sattler, A. L., Colbenson, K. M., et al. (2009). Sexual abuse and lifetime diagnosis of somatic disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA, 302(5), 550–561. doi: 10.1001/jama.2009.1091. 302/5/550 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Pedersen, A. F., Zachariae, R., & Bovbjerg, D. H. (2009). Psychological stress and antibody response to influenza vaccination: A meta-analysis. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 23, 427–433. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2009.01.004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Pedersen, A., Zachariae, R., & Bovbjerg, D. H. (2010). Influence of psychological stress on upper respiratory infection–a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Psychosomatic Medicine, 72, 823–832. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181f1d003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Pham, K., Nacher, J., Hof, P. R., & McEwen, B. S. (2003). Repeated restraint stress suppresses neurogenesis and induces biphasic PSA-NCAM expression in the adult rat dentate gyrus. European Journal of Neuroscience, 17(4), 879–886. doi: 2513 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Picard, M., Juster, R. P., & McEwen, B. S. (2014). Mitochondrial allostatic load puts the ‘gluc’ back in glucocorticoids. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 10(5), 303–310. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2014.22. nrendo.2014.22 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Price, D. D. (2000). Psychological and neural mechanisms of the affective dimension of pain. Science, 288(5472), 1769–1772. doi: 8580 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Ramos, B. P., & Arnsten, A. F. (2007). Adrenergic pharmacology and cognition: Focus on the prefrontal cortex. Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 113(3), 523–536. doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2006.11.006. S0163-7258(06)00202-6 [pii].PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Rao, S. G., Williams, G. V., & Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (2000). Destruction and creation of spatial tuning by disinhibition: GABA(A) blockade of prefrontal cortical neurons engaged by working memory. Journal of Neuroscience, 20(1), 485–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Rask, C. U., Ornbol, E., Olsen, E. M., Fink, P., & Skovgaard, A. M. (2013). Infant behaviors are predictive of functional somatic symptoms at ages 5–7 years: Results from the Copenhagen Child Cohort CCC2000. Journal of Pediatrics, 162(2), 335–342. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.08.001. S0022-3476(12)00905-5 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Reynolds, K. J., Vernon, S. D., Bouchery, E., & Reeves, W. C. (2004). The economic impact of chronic fatigue syndrome. Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation, 2(1), 4. doi: 10.1186/1478-7547-2-4. 1478-7547-2-4 [pii].PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Rief, W., & Broadbent, E. (2007). Explaining medically unexplained symptoms-models and mechanisms. Clinical Psychology Review, 27(7), 821–841. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2007.07.005. S0272-7358(07)00126-2 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Robinson, R. L., Birnbaum, H. G., Morley, M. A., Sisitsky, T., Greenberg, P. E., & Claxton, A. J. (2003). Economic cost and epidemiological characteristics of patients with fibromyalgia claims. Journal of Rheumatology, 30(6), 1318–1325. doi: 0315162X-30-1318 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Robinson, O. J., Krimsky, M., Lieberman, L., Allen, P., Vytal, K., & Grillon, C. (2014). Towards a mechanistic understanding of pathological anxiety: The dorsal medial prefrontal-amygdala ‘aversive amplification’ circuit in unmedicated generalized and social anxiety disorders. Lancet Psychiatry, 1(4), 294–302. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(14)70305-0.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Roozendaal, B., Portillo-Marquez, G., & McGaugh, J. L. (1996). Basolateral amygdala lesions block glucocorticoid-induced modulation of memory for spatial learning. Behavioral Neuroscience, 110(5), 1074–1083.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Rosenkranz, M. A. (2007). Substance P at the nexus of mind and body in chronic inflammation and affective disorders. Psychological Bulletin, 133(6), 1007–1037. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.133.6.1007. 2007-15350-008 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Russell, I. J., Orr, M. D., Littman, B., Vipraio, G. A., Alboukrek, D., Michalek, J. E., et al. (1994). Elevated cerebrospinal fluid levels of substance P in patients with the fibromyalgia syndrome. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 37(11), 1593–1601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Sauer, S., Walach, H., & Kohls, N. (2011). Gray’s behavioural inhibition system as a mediator of mindfulness towards well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 506–511.Google Scholar
  134. Schnall, P. L., Pieper, C., Schwartz, J. E., Karasek, R. A., Schlussel, Y., Devereux, R. B., et al. (1990). The relationship between ‘job strain’, workplace diastolic blood pressure, and left ventricular mass index. Results of a case–control study. JAMA, 263(14), 1929–1935.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Schroder, A., & Fink, P. (2010). The proposed diagnosis of somatic symptom disorders in DSM-V: Two steps forward and one step backward? Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 68(1), 95–96. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2009.06.013. author reply 99–100. S0022-3999(09)00266-9 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Schroder, A., & Fink, P. (2011). Functional somatic syndromes and somatoform disorders in special psychosomatic units: Organizational aspects and evidence-based treatment. The Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 34(3), 673–687. doi: 10.1016/j.psc.2011.05.008. S0193-953X(11)00053-0 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Schroder, A., Rehfeld, E., & Ornbol, E. (2012). Cognitive-behavioural group treatment for a range of functional somatic syndromes: Randomized trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 26(4).Google Scholar
  138. Segerstrom, S., & Miller, G. (2004). Psychological stress and the human immune system: A meta-analytic study of 30 years of inquiry. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 601–630.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Sharpe, M., Mayou, R., & Seagroatt, V. (1994). Why do doctors find some patients difficult to help? QJM, 87, 187–193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Sheline, Y. I., Wang, P. W., Gado, M. H., Csernansky, J. G., & Vannier, M. W. (1996). Hippocampal atrophy in recurrent major depression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 93(9), 3908–3913.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Siegel, D. J. (2007). The mindful brain. Reflection and attunement in the cultivation of well-being. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  142. Sirois, F. M., Kitner, R., Hirsch, J. K., Behaviors, H.-P., Kitner, R., & Hirsch, J. K. (2014). Self-compassion, affect, and health-promoting behaviors. Health Psychology, 2015 June; 34(6):661–669. Google Scholar
  143. Starkman, M. N., Gebarski, S. S., Berent, S., & Schteingart, D. E. (1992). Hippocampal formation volume, memory dysfunction, and cortisol levels in patients with Cushing’s syndrome. Biological Psychiatry, 32(9), 756–765. doi: 0006-3223(92)90079-F [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Swartz, J. R., Knodt, A. R., Radtke, S. R., & Hariri, A. R. (2015). A neural biomarker of psychological vulnerability to future life stress. Neuron, 85(3), 505–511. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2014.12.055. S0896-6273(14)01164-7 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Tak, L. M., Cleare, A. J., Ormel, J., Manoharan, A., Kok, I. C., Wessely, S., et al. (2011). Meta-analysis and meta-regression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in functional somatic disorders. Biological Psychology, 87(2), 183–194. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2011.02.002. S0301-0511(11)00032-9 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Theorell, T., Blomkvist, V., Lindh, G., & Evengard, B. (1999). Critical life events, infections, and symptoms during the year preceding chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS): An examination of CFS patients and subjects with a nonspecific life crisis. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61(3), 304–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Tillisch, K., Mayer, E. A., & Labus, J. S. (2011). Quantitative meta-analysis identifies brain regions activated during rectal distension in irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology, 140(1), 91–100. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2010.07.053. S0016-5085(10)01151-0 [pii].PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Tomas, C., Newton, J., & Watson, S. (2013). A review of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in chronic fatigue syndrome. ISRN Neuroscience, 2013, 784520. doi: 10.1155/2013/784520.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Vaeroy, H., Helle, R., Forre, O., Kass, E., & Terenius, L. (1988). Elevated CSF levels of substance P and high incidence of Raynaud phenomenon in patients with fibromyalgia: New features for diagnosis. Pain, 32(1), 21–26. doi: 0304-3959(88)90019-X [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Vago, D. R., & Silbersweig, D. A. (2012). Self-awareness, self-regulation, and self-transcendence (S-ART): A framework for understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 296. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00296.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. van der Doelen, R. H., Calabrese, F., Guidotti, G., Geenen, B., Riva, M. A., Kozicz, T., et al. (2014). Early life stress and serotonin transporter gene variation interact to affect the transcription of the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors, and the co-chaperone FKBP5, in the adult rat brain. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 8, 355. doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00355.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Velden, A. M. V., Kuyken, D., Wattar, W., Crane, U., Pallesen, C., Dahlgaard, K. J., et al. (2015). A systematic review of mechanisms of change in mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in the treatment of recurrent major depressive disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 37, 26–39. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2015.02.001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Weaver, I. C., Cervoni, N., Champagne, F. A., D’Alessio, A. C., Sharma, S., Seckl, J. R., et al. (2004). Epigenetic programming by maternal behavior. Nature Neuroscience, 7(8), 847–854. doi: 10.1038/nn1276 nn1276 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Wileman, L., May, C., & Chew-Graham, C. A. (2002). Medically unexplained symptoms and the problem of power in the primary care consultation: A qualitative study. Family Practice, 19(2), 178–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Wilson, R. G., Stevens, B. W., Guo, A. Y., Russell, C. N., Thornton, A., Cohen, M. A., et al. (2015). High C-reactive protein is associated with poor sleep quality independent of nocturnal symptoms in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Digestive Diseases and Sciences. doi: 10.1007/s10620-015-3580-5.Google Scholar
  156. Wingenfeld, K., Nutzinger, D., Kauth, J., Hellhammer, D. H., & Lautenbacher, S. (2010). Salivary cortisol release and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis feedback sensitivity in fibromyalgia is associated with depression but not with pain. The Journal of Pain, 11(11), 1195–1202. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2010.02.011. S1526-5900(10)00350-0 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Wingenfeld, K., Whooley, M. A., Neylan, T. C., Otte, C., & Cohen, B. E. (2015). Effect of current and lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder on 24-h urinary catecholamines and cortisol: Results from the mind your heart study. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 52, 83–91. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.10.023. S0306-4530(14)00407-7 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Xu, L., Anwyl, R., & Rowan, M. J. (1997). Behavioural stress facilitates the induction of long-term depression in the hippocampus. Nature, 387(6632), 497–500. doi: 10.1038/387497a0.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Zachariae, R. (2009). Psychoneuroimmunology: A bio-psycho-social approach to health and disease. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 50, 645–651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Zieker, J., Zieker, D., Jatzko, A., Dietzsch, J., Nieselt, K., Schmitt, A., et al. (2007). Differential gene expression in peripheral blood of patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder. Molecular Psychiatry, 12(2), 116–118. doi: 10.1038/ 4001905 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Zolkipli, Z., Pedersen, C. B., Lamhonwah, A.-M., Gregersen, N., & Tein, I. (2011). Vulnerability to oxidative stress in vitro in pathophysiology of mitochondrial short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: Response to antioxidants. PLoS ONE, 6, e17534. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017534.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karen Johanne Pallesen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jesper Dahlgaard
    • 2
  • Lone Fjorback
    • 1
  1. 1.The Research Clinic for Functional Disorders and PsychosomaticsAarhus University HospitalAarhus CDenmark
  2. 2.Unit for Psychooncology and Health PsychologyAarhus UniversityAarhus CDenmark

Personalised recommendations