Mindfulness and Couple Relationships

  • Christopher A. PeppingEmail author
  • W. Kim Halford
Part of the Advances in Mental Health and Addiction book series (AMHA)


Being in a satisfying romantic relationship is one of the strongest predictors of overall life satisfaction and well-being. In the present chapter, we examine the possibility that mindfulness may be beneficial to romantic relationships. To date, most of the scientific literature has examined whether mindfulness enhances individual well-being and functioning or reduces individual distress. However, more recently, there has been increasing focus on the potential benefits of mindfulness for interpersonal outcomes. We begin with a review of the available theoretical and empirical evidence pertaining to the influence of dispositional mindfulness on couple relationship processes and discuss a range of potential mechanisms that might explain why mindfulness may facilitate healthy relationships, including enhanced emotion regulation, increased acceptance, and greater capacity to engage in self-change to enhance the relationship. We then discuss the use of mindfulness-based interventions to enhance couple relationships and alleviate couple relationship distress. We conclude with a discussion of the clinical utility of mindfulness for use with distressed couples and outline directions for future research.


Mindfulness Couple relationships Couple therapy Romantic relationships Relationship education 


  1. Anderson, N. D., Lau, M. A., Segal, Z. V., & Bishop, S. R. (2007). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and attentional control. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 14(6), 449–463. doi: 10.1002/cpp.544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arch, J. J., & Craske, M. G. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness: Emotion regulation following a focused breathing induction. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44(12), 1849–1858. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2005.12.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Baer, R. A. (2003). Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: A conceptual and empirical review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10(2), 125–143. doi: 10.1093/clipsy.bpg015.Google Scholar
  4. Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., & Allen, K. B. (2004). Assessment of mindfulness by self-report: The Kentucky inventory of mindfulness skills. Assessment, 11(3), 191–206. doi: 10.1177/1073191104268029.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Barbato, A., & D’Avanzo, B. (2008). Efficacy of couple therapy as a treatment for depression: A meta-analysis. Psychiatric Quarterly, 79(2), 121–132. doi: 10.1007/s11126-008-9068-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Barnes, S., Brown, K. W., Krusemark, E., Campbell, W. K., & Rogee, R. D. (2007). The role of mindfulness in romantic relationship satisfaction and responses to relationship stress. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33(4), 482–500. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-0606.2007.00033.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Baucom, D. H., Hahlweg, K., & Kuschel, A. (2003). Are waiting-list control groups needed in future marital therapy outcome research? Behavior Therapy, 34(2), 179–188. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7894(03)80012-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baucom, K. J., Sevier, M., Eldridge, K. A., Doss, B. D., & Christensen, A. (2011). Observed communication in couples two years after integrative and traditional behavioral couple therapy: outcome and link with five-year follow-up. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79(5), 565. doi: 10.1037/a0025121.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Baucom, D. H., Whisman, M. A., & Paprocki, C. (2012). Couple-based interventions for psychopathology. Journal of Family Therapy, 34(3), 250–270. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6427.2012.00600.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J., et al. (2004). Mindfulness: A proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11(3), 230–241. doi: 10.1093/clipsy.bph077.Google Scholar
  11. Block‐Lerner, J., Adair, C., Plumb, J. C., Rhatigan, D. L., & Orsillo, S. M. (2007). The case for mindfulness‐based approaches in the cultivation of empathy: Does nonjudgmental, present‐moment awareness increase capacity for perspective‐taking and empathic concern? Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33(4), 501–516. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-0606.2007.00034.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bodenmann, G. (2005). Dyadic coping and its significance for marital functioning. In T. A. Revenson, K. Kayser, & G. Bodenmann (Eds.), Couples coping with stress: Emerging perspectives on dyadic coping (pp. 33–50). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bodenmann, G., & Shantinath, S. D. (2004). The Couples Coping Enhancement Training (CCET): A new approach to prevention of marital distress based upon stress and coping. Family Relations, 53(5), 477–484. doi: 10.1111/j.0197-6664.2004.00056.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bowen, S., & Enkema, M. C. (2014). Relationship between dispositional mindfulness and substance use: Findings from a clinical sample. Addictive Behaviors, 39(3), 532–537. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.10.026.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bradbury, T. N., & Fincham, F. D. (1990). Attributions in marriage: Review and critique. Psychological Bulletin, 107(1), 3–33. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.107.1.3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bradbury, T. N., & Lavner, J. A. (2012). How can we improve preventive and educational interventions for intimate relationships? Behavior Therapy, 43(1), 113–122. doi: 10.1016/j.beth.2011.02.008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bradley, B., & Furrow, J. L. (2004). Toward a mini-theory of the blamer softening event: Tracking the moment-by-moment process. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 30(2), 233–246. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-0606.2004.tb01236.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Broderick, P. C. (2005). Mindfulness and coping with dysphoric mood: Contrasts with rumination and distraction. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 29(5), 501–510. doi: 10.1007/s10608-005-3888-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822–848. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.84.4.822.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Brown, K. W., Ryan, R. M., & Creswell, J. D. (2007a). Mindfulness: Theoretical foundations and evidence for its salutary effects. Psychological Inquiry, 18(4), 211–237. doi: 10.1080/10478400701598298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brown, K. W., Ryan, R. M., & Creswell, J. D. (2007b). Addressing fundamental questions about mindfulness. Psychological Inquiry, 18(4), 272–281. doi: 10.1080/10478400701703344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Campbell-Sills, L., Barlow, D. H., Brown, T. A., & Hofmann, S. G. (2006). Effects of suppression and acceptance on emotional responses of individuals with anxiety and mood disorders. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44(9), 1251–1263. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2005.10.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Carson, J. W., Carson, K. M., Gil, K. M., & Baucom, D. H. (2004). Mindfulness-based relationship enhancement. Behavior Therapy, 35(3), 471–494. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7894(04)80028-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Carson, J. W., Carson, K. M., Gil, K. M., & Baucom, D. H. (2006). Mindfulness-based relationship enhancement (MBRE) in couples. In R. A. Baer (Ed.), Mindfulness-based treatment approaches: Clinician’s guide to evidence base and applications (pp. 309–331). Amsterdam: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Carson, J. W., Carson, K. M., Gil, K. M., & Baucom, D. H. (2007). Self‐expansion as a mediator of relationship improvements in a mindfulness intervention. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33(4), 517–528. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-0606.2007.00035.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Christensen, A., Atkins, D. C., Baucom, B., & Yi, J. (2010). Marital status and satisfaction five years following a randomized clinical trial comparing traditional versus integrative behavioral couple therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(2), 225. doi: 10.1037/a0018132.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Christensen, A., & Heavey, C. L. (1990). Gender and social structure in the demand/withdraw pattern of marital conflict. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59(1), 73. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.59.1.73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Christensen, A., & Heavey, C. L. (1993). Gender differences in marital conflict: The demand/withdraw interaction pattern. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  29. Christensen, A., Sevier, M., Simpson, L. E., & Gattis, K. S. (2004). Acceptance, mindfulness, and change in couple therapy. In S. Hayes, V. Follette, & M. Linehan (Eds.), Mindfulness and acceptance: Expanding the cognitive-behavioral tradition (pp. 288–309). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  30. Cordova, J. V., Gee, C. B., & Warren, L. Z. (2005). Emotional skillfulness in marriage: Intimacy as a mediator of the relationship between emotional skillfulness and marital satisfaction. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24(2), 218–235. doi: 10.1521/jscp. Scholar
  31. Dehle, C., Larsen, D., & Landers, J. E. (2001). Social support in marriage. American Journal of Family Therapy, 29(4), 307–324. doi: 10.1080/01926180126500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dekeyser, M., Raes, F., Leijssen, M., Leysen, S., & Dewulf, D. (2008). Mindfulness skills and interpersonal behaviour. Personality and Individual Differences, 44(5), 1235–1245. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2007.11.018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Denton, W. H., Carmody, T. J., Rush, A. J., Thase, M. E., Trivedi, M. H., Arnow, B. A., et al. (2010). Dyadic discord at baseline is associated with lack of remission in the acute treatment of chronic depression. Psychological Medicine, 40(3), 415–424. doi: 10.1017/S0033291709990535.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Dewey, D., & Hunsley, J. (1990). The effects of marital adjustment and spouse involvement on the behavioral treatment of agoraphobia: A meta-analytic review. Anxiety Research, 2(2), 69–83. doi: 10.1080/08917779008249327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Diener, E., Eunkook, M. S., Lucas, R. E., & Smith, H. L. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 276–302. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.125.2.276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dupre, M. E., & Meadows, S. O. (2007). Disaggregating the effects of marital trajectories on health. Journal of Family Issues, 28(5), 623–652. doi: 10.1177/0192513X06296296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Durham, R. C., Allan, T., & Hackett, C. A. (1997). On predicting improvement and relapse in generalized anxiety disorder following psychotherapy. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36(1), 101–119. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8260.1997.tb01234.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Durtschi, J. A., Fincham, F. D., Cui, M., Lorenz, F. O., & Conger, R. D. (2011). Dyadic processes in early marriage: Attributions, behavior, and marital quality. Family Relations, 60(4), 421–434. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3729.2011.00655.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fals-Stewart, W., O’Farrell, T. J., & Lam, W. K. K. (2009). Behavioral couple therapy for gay and lesbian couples with alcohol use disorders. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 37(4), 379–387. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2009.05.001.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gambrel, L. E., & Keeling, M. L. (2010). Relational aspects of mindfulness: Implications for the practice of marriage and family therapy. Contemporary Family Therapy, 32(4), 412–426. doi: 10.1007/s10591-010-9129-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gottman, J. M. (2014). What predicts divorce?: The relationship between marital processes and marital outcomes. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  42. Gottman, J. M., Coan, J., Carrere, S., & Swanson, C. (1998). Predicting marital happiness and stability from newlywed interactions. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 5–22.Google Scholar
  43. Greenberg, L. S., Ford, C. L., Alden, L. S., & Johnson, S. M. (1993). In-session change in emotionally focused therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61(1), 78. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.61.1.78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Greenberg, L. S., & Goldman, R. N. (2008). Emotion-focused couples therapy: The dynamics of emotion, love, and power. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Greenberg, L. S., & Johnson, S. M. (1988). Emotionally focused therapy for couples. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  46. Grossman, P., Kappos, L., Gensicke, H., D'Souza, M., Mohr, D. C., Penner, I. K., et al. (2010). MS quality of life, depression, and fatigue improve after mindfulness training: A randomized trial. Neurology, 75(13), 1141–1149. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181f4d80d.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Halford, W. K., & Bodenmann, G. (2013). Effects of relationship education on maintenance of couple relationship satisfaction. Clinical Psychology Review, 33, 512–525. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2013.02.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Halford, W. K., Markman, H. J., Kling, G. H., & Stanley, S. M. (2003). Best practice in couple relationship education. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 29(3), 385–406. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-0606.2003.tb01214.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Halford, W. K., Markman, H. J., & Stanley, S. (2008). Strengthening couples’ relationships with education: Social policy and public health perspectives. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(4), 497. doi: 10.1037/a0012789.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Halford, W. K., & Snyder, D. K. (2012). Universal processes and common factors in couple therapy and relationship education. Behavior Therapy, 43(1), 1–12. doi: 10.1016/j.beth.2011.01.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Halford, W. K., & Wilson, K. L. (2009). Predictors of relationship satisfaction four years after completing flexible delivery couple relationship education. Journal of Couple & Relationship Therapy, 8(2), 143–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Harrington, R., Loffredo, D. A., & Perz, C. A. (2014). Dispositional mindfulness as a positive predictor of psychological well-being and the role of the private self-consciousness insight factor. Personality and Individual Differences, 71, 15–18. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2014.06.050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hawkins, A. J., Blanchard, V. L., Baldwin, S. A., & Fawcett, E. B. (2008). Does marriage and relationship education work? A meta-analytic study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(5), 723. doi: 10.1037/a0012584.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K. D., & Wilson, K. G. (2012). Acceptance and commitment therapy: The process and practice of mindful change. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  55. Hsueh, J., Alderson, D. P., Lundquist, E., Michalopoulos, C., Gubits, D., Fein, D., et al. (2012). The supporting healthy marriage evaluation: Early impacts on low-income families. Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation Report 2012–11. Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, United States Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  56. Jacobson, N. S., Christensen, A., Prince, S. E., Cordova, J., & Eldridge, K. (2000). Integrative behavioral couple therapy: An acceptance-based, promising new treatment for couple discord. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(2), 351. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.68.2.351.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Johnson, S. M. (1999). Emotionally focused couple therapy. In J. M. Donovan (Ed.), Short-term couple therapy (pp. 13–41). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  58. Johnson, S. M. (2007). The contribution of emotionally focused couples therapy. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 37(1), 47–52. doi: 10.1007/s10879-006-9034-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Johnson, S. M., & Greenberg, L. S. (1987). Emotionally focused marital therapy: An overview. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 24, 552–560. doi: 10.1037/h0085753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jones, K. C., Welton, S. R., Oliver, T. C., & Thoburn, J. W. (2011). Mindfulness, spousal attachment, and marital satisfaction: A mediated model. The Family Journal, 19(4), 357–361. doi: 10.1177/1066480711417234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living: Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain and illness. New York: Delacorte.Google Scholar
  62. Kabat-Zinn, J. (1994). Wherever you go, there you are: Mindfulness meditation in everyday life. New York: Hyperion.Google Scholar
  63. Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: Past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice Summer, 10(2), 144–156. doi: 10.1093/clipsy.bpg016.Google Scholar
  64. Keng, S.-L., Smoski, M. J., & Robins, C. J. (2011). Effects of mindfulness on psychological health: A review of empirical studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 31(6), 1041–1056. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2011.04.006.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Kliem, S., Kroger, C., & Kosfelder, J. (2010). Dialectical behavior therapy for borderline personality disorder: A meta-analysis using mixed-effects modeling. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(6), 936–951. doi: 10.1037/a0021015.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Kozlowski, A. (2013). Mindful mating: exploring the connection between mindfulness and relationship satisfaction. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 28(1–2), 92–104. doi: 10.1080/14681994.2012.748889.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kuijer, R. G., Ybema, J. F., Buunk, B. P., De Jong, G. M., Thijs-Boer, F., & Sanderman, R. (2000). Active engagement, protective buffering, and overprotection: Three ways of giving support by intimate partners of patients with cancer. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19(2), 256–275. doi: 10.1521/jscp.2000.19.2.256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Liu, X., Wang, S., Chang, S., Chen, W., & Si, M. (2013). Effect of a brief mindfulness intervention on tolerance and distress of pain induced by cold-pressor task. Stress and Health, 29(3), 199–204. doi: 10.1002/smi.2446.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Makinen, J. A., & Johnson, S. M. (2006). Resolving attachment injuries in couples using emotionally focused therapy: Steps toward forgiveness and reconciliation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(6), 1055–1064. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.74.6.1055.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R. (2007). Attachment in adulthood: Structure, dynamics, and change. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  71. Monson, C. M., Fredman, S. J., Macdonald, A., Pukay-Martin, N. D., Resick, P. A., & Schnurr, P. P. (2012). Effect of cognitive-behavioral couple therapy for PTSD: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 308(7), 700–709. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.9307.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Ostafin, B. D., & Kassman, K. T. (2012). Stepping out of history: Mindfulness improves insight problem solving. Consciousness and Cognition, 21(2), 1031–1036. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2012.02.014.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Overbeek, G., Vollebergh, W., de Graaf, R., Scholte, R., de Kemp, R., & Engels, R. (2006). Longitudinal associations of marital quality and marital dissolution with the incidence of DSM-III-R disorders. Journal of Family Psychology, 20(2), 284–291. doi: 10.1037/0893-3200.20.2.284.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Pepping, C. A., Davis, P. J., & O’Donovan, A. (2015). The association between state attachment security and state mindfulness. PLoS ONE, 10(3), e0116779. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0116779.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Pepping, C. A., O’Donovan, A., Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J., & Hanisch, M. (2015). Individual differences in attachment and eating pathology: The mediating role of mindfulness. Personality and Individual Differences, 75, 24–29. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2014.10.040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Pepping, C. A., O’Donovan, A., Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J., & Hanish, M. (2014). Is emotion regulation the process underlying the relationship between low mindfulness and psychosocial distress? Australian Journal of Psychology, 66, 130–138. doi: 10.1111/ajpy.12050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Pepping, C. A., O’Donovan, A., & Davis, P. J. (2014). The differential relationship between mindfulness and attachment in experienced and inexperienced meditators. Mindfulness, 5, 392–399. doi: 10.1007/s12671-012-0193-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Peterson, B. D., Eifert, G. H., Feingold, T., & Davidson, S. (2009). Using acceptance and commitment therapy to treat distressed couples: A case study with two couples. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 16(4), 430–442. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2008.12.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Powers, M. B., Vedel, E., & Emmelkamp, P. M. (2008). Behavioral couples therapy (BCT) for alcohol and drug use disorders: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 28(6), 952–962. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2008.02.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Saavedra, M. C., Chapman, K. E., & Rogge, R. D. (2010). Clarifying links between attachment and relationship quality: Hostile conflict and mindfulness as moderators. Journal of Family Psychology, 24(4), 380–390. doi: 10.1037/a0019872.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Schmaling, K. B., & Sher, T. G. E. (2000). The psychology of couples and illness: Theory, research, & practice. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Shadish, W. R., & Baldwin, S. A. (2003). Meta-analysis of marriage and family therapy interventions. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 29(4), 547–570. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-0606.2003.tb01694.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Shapiro, S. L., Carlson, L. E., Astin, J. A., & Freedman, B. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(3), 373–386. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20237.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Shapiro, S. L., Schwartz, G. E., & Bonner, G. (1998). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on medical and premedical students. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 21(6), 581–599. doi: 10.1023/A:1018700829825.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Snyder, D. K., Castellani, A. M., & Whisman, M. A. (2006). Current status and future directions in couple therapy. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 317–344. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.56.091103.070154.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Snyder, D. K., & Halford, W. K. (2012). Evidence‐based couple therapy: Current status and future directions. Journal of Family Therapy, 34(3), 229–249. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6427.2012.00599.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Vollestad, J., Sivertsen, B., & Nielsen, G. H. (2011). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for patients with anxiety disorders: Evaluation in a randomized controlled trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49(4), 281–288. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2011.01.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Wachs, K., & Cordova, J. V. (2007). Mindful relating: Exploring mindfulness and emotion repertoires in intimate relationships. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33(4), 464–481. doi:10.1111/j.1752[--]0606.2007.00032.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Wade, T. J., & Pevalin, D. J. (2004). Marital transitions and mental health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 45, 155–170. doi: 10.1177/002214650404500203.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Wadsworth, M. E., & Markman, H. J. (2012). Where's the Action? Understanding what works and why in relationship education. Behavior Therapy, 43(1), 99–112. doi: 10.1016/j.beth.2011.01.006.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Waite, L., & Gallagher, M. (2002). The case for marriage: Why married people are happier, healthier and better off financially. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  92. Whisman, M. A. (2001). Marital adjustment and outcome following treatments for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69(1), 125–129. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.69.1.125.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Whisman, M. A., & Baucom, D. H. (2012). Intimate relationships and psychopathology. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 15(1), 4–13. doi: 10.1007/s10567-011-0107-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Whisman, M. A., & Bruce, M. L. (1999). Marital dissatisfaction and incidence of major depressive episode in a community sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108(4), 674–678. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.108.4.674.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Whisman, M. A., Uebelacker, L. A., & Bruce, M. L. (2006). Longitudinal association between marital dissatisfaction and alcohol use disorders in a community sample. Journal of Family Psychology, 20(1), 164–167. doi: 10.1037/0893-3200.20.1.164.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Whisman, M. A., Uebelacker, L. A., & Weinstock, L. M. (2004). Psychopathology and marital satisfaction: The importance of evaluating both partners. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(5), 830. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.72.5.830.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Williams, A. M., & Cano, A. (2014). Spousal mindfulness and social support in couples with chronic pain. The Clinical Journal of Pain, 30(6), 528–535. doi: 10.1097/AJP.0000000000000009.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Wilson, K. L., Charker, J., Lizzio, A., Halford, K., & Kimlin, S. (2005). Assessing how much couples work at their relationship: The behavioral self-regulation for effective relationships scale. Journal of Family Psychology, 19(3), 385. doi: 10.1037/0893-3200.19.3.385.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Wood, R. G., McConnell, S., Moore, Q., Clarkwest, A., & Hsueh, J. (2012). The effects of building strong families: A healthy marriage and relationship skills education program for unmarried parents. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 31(2), 228–252. doi: 10.1002/pam.21608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.La Trobe UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia

Personalised recommendations