Fate of the Mongooses and the Genet (Carnivora) in Mediterranean Europe: None Native, All Invasive?

  • Philippe GaubertEmail author


The Mediterranean Basin (MB), connected by cultural exchanges since prehistoric times, provides an outstanding framework to study species introductions, notably in mammals. Carnivores are among the most successful mammalian invaders. As such, a number of middle-sized representatives (“mesocarnivores”) such as the domestic cat and mongooses have been pinpointed for their deleterious impact on the native fauna. In the MB, three species of mongooses (Herpestidae) and one genet (Viverridae) are or have recently been recorded and none of them has been considered native: the Indian grey mongoose Herpestes edwardsii, the small Indian mongoose H. auropunctatus, the Egyptian mongoose H. ichneumon, and the common genet Genetta genetta. In order to clarify the history of introduction and status of the mongooses and genet in Europe, I review various bodies of evidence including (1) their natural history and relationships with humans in their native ranges, (2) their history of introduction in Europe, (3) the enlightenments—and sometimes contradictions—brought by recent genetic analyses on their dispersal histories, and (4) their range dynamics and ecological interactions with the European fauna. The species of herpestids and viverrids present in Europe fall into three categories: (1) introduced and spreading (G. genetta, H. auropunctatus), (2) introduced and extinct (H. edwardsii), and (3) natural disperser and spreading (H. ichneumon). In view of the reviewed evidence, there is weak support for a deleterious impact of the mongooses and genet on the European fauna (except possibly on the herpetofauna of small Adriatic islands in the case of H. auropunctatus), notably in comparison with genuine invasive species such as the black rat and the domestic cat. Rather than inefficient control programs such as those targeting H. ichneumon in Portugal and H. auropunctatus in Croatia, we suggest that a greater attention is focused on the restoration of large Carnivores (the natural regulators of mesocarnivore populations), mesocarnivore communities and natural habitats, to contribute to a more sustainable way of “managing” the mongooses and genet in Europe.


Mesocarnivores Herpestidae Viverridae Mediterranean Basin Europe History of introductions Ecological interactions Management Invasiveness 


  1. Abe S, Yamada F, Handa Y, Takatsuki Y, Abe Y, Yamashita R, Fukuda M (2006) Reproductive responses of the mongoose (Herpestes javanicus), to control operations on Amami-oshima Island, Japan. In: Koike F, Clout MN, Kawamichi M, De Poorter M, Iwatsuki K (eds) Assessment and control of biological invasion risks. Shoukadoh Book Sellers, Kyoto, pp 157–164Google Scholar
  2. Amigues S (1999) Les belettes de Tartessos. Anthropozool 29:55–64Google Scholar
  3. Angelici FM (2003) Herpestes edwardsii. In: Boitani L, Lovari S, Vigna Taglianti A (eds) Fauna d’Italia. Mammalia III. Carnivora—Artiodactyla. Calderini, Bologna, Italy, pp 201–205Google Scholar
  4. Balmori A, Carbonell R (2012) Expansion and distribution of the Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon) in the Iberian Peninsula. Galemys 24:83–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barros T (2009) Estatuto e distribuição do Sacarrabos (Herpestes ichneumon) em Portugal. Universidade de Aveiro, PortugalGoogle Scholar
  6. Barun A, Simberloff D, Budinski I (2010) Impact of the small Indian mongoose on native amphibians and reptiles of the Adriatic islands, Croatia. Anim Conserv 13(6):549–555. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-1795.2010.00374.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barun A, Hanson CC, Campbell KJ, Simberloff D (2011) A review of small Indian mongoose management and eradications on islands. In: Veitch CR, Clout MN, Towns DR (eds) Island invasives: eradication and management. IUCN, Gland, pp 17–25Google Scholar
  8. Beja P, Gordinho L, Reino L, Loureiro F, Santos-Reis M, Borralho R (2009) Predator abundance in relation to small game management in southern Portugal: conservation implications. Eur J Wildl Res 55(3):227–238. doi: 10.1007/s10344-008-0236-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Biondi M (1985) Aspetti faunistici del parco Nazionale del Circeo. Quaderni del Parco, 6. Ministero Agricoltura e Foreste, Parco Nazionale del Circeo, Sabaudia, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  10. Blondel J, Aronson J, Bodiou JY, Boeuf G (2010) The Mediterranean region: biological diversity in space and time, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  11. Bonesi L, Palazon S (2007) The American mink in Europe: status, impacts, and control. Biol Conserv 134(4):470–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Borralho R, Rego F, Palomares F, Hora A (1996) The distribution of the Egyptian Mongoose Herpestes ichneumon (L.) in Portugal. Mammal Rev 26(1):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Campanella L, Wilkens B (2004) Una mangusta egiziana (Herpestes ichneumon) dall’abitato fenicio di Sant’Antioco. Riv St Fen 32(1):25–48Google Scholar
  14. Carpaneto GM (1990) The Indian Grey Mongoose (Herpestes edwardsii) in the Circeo National Park: a case of incidental introduction. Mustelid Viverrid Conserv 2:10Google Scholar
  15. Carvalho JC, Gomes P (2004) Feeding resource partitioning among four sympatric carnivores in the Peneda-Gerês National Park (Portugal). J Zool 263(3):275–283. doi: 10.1017/S0952836904005266 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cavallini P, Serafini P (1995) Winter diet of the small Indian mongoose, Herpestes auropunctatus, on an Adriatic island. J Mammal 76(2):569–574Google Scholar
  17. Choudhury A, Wozencraft C, Muddapa D, Yonzon P, Jennings A, Veron G (2013) Herpestes edwardsii. In: The IUCN red list of threatened species, v. 2014.3. Downloaded on 18 Feb 2015. In: Veitch CR, Clout MN, Towns DR (eds) (2011) Island invasives: eradication and management. IUCN, Gland, pp 17–25
  18. Ciolek TM (ed) (2011) Georeferenced historical transport/travel/communication routes and nodes.—Asia Pacific Research Online. Accessed 6 Apr 2011
  19. Ćirović D, Raković M, Milenković M, Paunović M (2011) Small Indian mongoose Herpestes auropunctatus (Herpestidae, Carnivora): an invasive species in Montenegro. Biol Invasions 13(2):393–399. doi: 10.1007/s10530-010-9831-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clevenger AP (1995) Seasonality and relationships of food resource use of Martes martes, Genetta genetta and Felis catus in the Balearic Islands. Rev Ecol Terre Vie 50:109–131Google Scholar
  21. Clout MN, Russell JC (2007) The invasion ecology of mammals: a global perspective. Wild Res 35(3):180–184. doi: 10.1071/WR07091 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Collina-Girard J (2001) L’Atlantide devant le détroit de Gibraltar ? Mythe et géologie. CR Acad Sci Ser IIA Earth Planet Sci 333(4):233–240Google Scholar
  23. Columeau P (1979) Sondage au sommet de la colline d’Ambrussum. Documents d’Archéologie Méridionale 2:51–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cuttelod A, García N, Abdul Malak D, Temple H, Katariya V (2008) The Mediterranean: a biodiversity hotspot under threat. In: Vié J-C, Hilton-Taylor C, Stuart SN (eds) The 2008 review of the IUCN red list of threatened species. IUCN, GlandGoogle Scholar
  25. Dannenfeldt KH (1985) Europe discovers civet cats and civet. J Hist Biol 18(3):403–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Delibes M (1977) Sobre las ginetas de la isla de Ibiza (Genetta genetta isabelae n. ssp.). Doñana Acta Vertebrata 4:139–160Google Scholar
  27. Delibes M, Gaubert P (2013) Genetta genetta Common Genet (Small-spotted Genet). In: Kingdon JS, Hoffmann M (eds) The mammals of Africa, vol 5, Carnivores, Pangolins, Equids and Rhinoceroses. Bloomsburry, London, pp 224–229Google Scholar
  28. Detry C, Bicho N, Fernandes H, Fernandes C (2011) The Emirate of Córdoba (756–929 AD) and the introduction of the Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon) in Iberia: the remains from Muge, Portugal. J Archeol Sci 38(12):3518–3523. doi: 10.1016/j.jas.2011.08.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dobney KM, Jaques D (1994) Preliminary report on the animal bones from Saar. Arab Archaeol Epigr 5(2):106–120. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0471.1994.tb00060.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dobson M (1998) Mammal distributions in the western Mediterranean: the role of human intervention. Mammal Rev 28(2):77–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Duarte MD, Henriques AM, Barros SC, Fagulha T, Mendonça P, Carvalho P, Monteiro M, Fevereiro M, Basto MP, Rosalino LM, Barros T, Bandeira V, Fonseca C, Cunha MV (2013) Snapshot of viral Infections in wild carnivores reveals ubiquity of parvovirus and susceptibility of Egyptian mongoose to feline panleukopenia virus. PLoS One 8(3), e59399. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059399 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Duncan RP, Forsyth DM (2006) Modelling population persistence on islands: mammal introductions in the New Zealand archipelago. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 273(1604):2969–2975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Emeneau MB (1940) A classical Indian folk-tale as a reported modern event: the brahman and the mongoose. Proc Am Philos Soc 83(3):503–513. doi: 10.2307/985117 Google Scholar
  34. Everard COR, Everard JD (1992) Mongoose rabies in the Caribbean. Ann N Y Acad Sci 653(1):356–366. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1992.tb19662.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Favyn A (1620) Le Théâtre d’honneur et de chevalerie, ou l’Histoire des ordres militaires des roys et princes… de l’institution des armes et blasons… duels, joustes et tournois et de tout ce qui concerne le faict du chevalier de l’ordre. Robert Fouet, ParisGoogle Scholar
  36. Fukasawa K, Hashimoto T, Tatara M, Abe S (2013) Reconstruction and prediction of invasive mongoose population dynamics from history of introduction and management: a Bayesian state-space modelling approach. J Appl Ecol 50(2):469–478. doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.12058 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gaubert P, Zenatello M (2009) Ancient DNA perspective on the failed introduction of mongooses in Italy during the XXth century. J Zool 279:262–269. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7998.2009.00614.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gaubert P, Jiguet F, Bayle P, Angelici FM (2008) Has the common genet (Genetta genetta) spread into south-eastern France and Italy? Ital J Zool 75(1):43–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gaubert P, Godoy JA, del Cerro I, Palomares F (2009) Early phases of a successful invasion: mitochondrial phylogeography of the common genet (Genetta genetta) within the Mediterranean Basin. Biol Invasions 11:523–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gaubert P, Machordom A, Morales A, López-Bao JV, Veron G, Amin M, Barros T, Basuony M, Djagoun CAMS, Do Linh San E, Fonseca C, Geffen E, Ozkurt SO, Cruaud C, Couloux A, Palomares F (2011) Comparative phylogeography of two African carnivorans presumably introduced into Europe: disentangling natural versus human-mediated dispersal across the Strait of Gibraltar. J Biogeogr 38:341–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gaubert P, Del Cerro I, Centeno-Cuadros A, Palomares F, Fournier P, Fonseca C, Paillat J-P, Godoy JA (2015) Tracing historical introductions in the Mediterranean Basin: the success story of the common genet (Genetta genetta) in Europe. Biol Invasions 17:1897–1913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Genovesi P, Carnevali L, Alonzi A, Scalera R (2012) Alien mammals in Europe: updated numbers and trends, and assessment of the effects on biodiversity. Integr Zool 7(3):247–253. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-4877.2012.00309.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire E (1813) Description des mammifères qui se trouvent en Egypte. Imprimerie Impériale, ParisGoogle Scholar
  44. Geraads D (2010) Biogeographic relationships of Pliocene and Pleistocene North-western African mammals. Quatern Int 212(2):159–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gilchrist JS, Jennings AP, Veron G, Cavallini P (2009) Herpestidae (Mongooses). In: Wilson DE, Ruff S (eds) Handbook of mammals of the world, vol 1, Carnivores. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, pp 262–329Google Scholar
  46. Gippoliti S, Amori G (2006) Ancient introductions of mammals in the Mediterranean Basin and their implications for conservation. Mammal Rev 36(1):37–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hatcher MJ, Dick JTA, Dunn AM (2012) Disease emergence and invasions. Funct Ecol 26(6):1275–1287. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2435.2012.02031.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hays WST, Conant S (2007) Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species. 1. A worldwide review of effects of the small Indian mongoose, Herpestes javanicus (Carnivora: Herpestidae). Pac Sci 61(1):3–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hewitt GM (1996) Some genetic consequences of ice ages, and their role in divergence and speciation. Biol J Linn Soc 58:247–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hinton HE, Dunn AMS (1967) Mongooses: their natural history and behaviour. Oliver & Boyd, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  51. Hughes JD (2003) Europe as consumer of exotic biodiversity: Greek and Roman times. Landsc Res 28(1):21–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Krystufek B, Tvrtkovic N (1992) New information on the introduction into Europe of the Small Indian mongoose, Herpestes auropunctatus. Small Carniv Conserv 7:16Google Scholar
  53. Lebarbenchon C, Poitevin F, Arnal V, Montgelard C (2010) Phylogeography of the weasel (Mustela nivalis) in the western-Palaearctic region: combined effects of glacial events and human movements. Heredity 105:449–462CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Léger F, Ruette S (2010) La répartition de la genette en France. Faune Sauvage 287:16–22Google Scholar
  55. Letnic M, Koch F, Gordon C, Crowther MS, Dickman CR (2009) Keystone effects of an alien top-predator stem extinctions of native mammals. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 276:3249–3256. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2009.0574 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lewis D, van Veen R, Wilson B (2011) Conservation implications of small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) predation in a hotspot within a hotspot: the Hellshire Hills, Jamaica. Biol Invasions 13(1):25–33. doi: 10.1007/s10530-010-9781-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lodrick DO (1982) Man and mongoose in Indian culture. Anthropos 77(1/2):191–214Google Scholar
  58. Long JL (2003) Introduced mammals of the world: their history, distribution and influence. CSIRO, CollingwoodGoogle Scholar
  59. Lopez-Martin JM (2006) Comparison of feeding behaviour between stone marten and common genet: living in coexistence. In: Santos-Reis M, Birks JDS, O’Doherty EC, Proulx G (eds) Martes in carnivore communities. Alpha Wildlife, Sherwood Park, pp 137–155Google Scholar
  60. Lowe S, Browne M, Boudjelas S, De Poorter M (2000) 100 of the world’s worst invasive alien species. A selection from the Global Invasive Species Database. The Invasive Species Specialist Group/IUCN, GlandGoogle Scholar
  61. Masseti M (1995) Quaternary biogeography of the Mustelidae family on the Mediterranean islands. Hystrix 7(1–2):17–34Google Scholar
  62. Masseti M (2009) Mammals of the Mediterranean islands: homogenisation and the loss of biodiversity. Mammalia 73(3):169–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. McDonald RA, O’Hara K, Morrish DJ (2007) Decline of invasive alien mink (Mustela vison) is concurrent with recovery of native otters (Lutra lutra). Divers Distrib 13(1):92–98. doi: 10.1111/j.1366-9516.2006.00303.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Medina FM, Bonnaud E, Vidal E, Tershy BR, Zavaleta ES, Josh Donlan C, Keitt BS, Le Corre M, Horwath SV, Nogales M (2011) A global review of the impacts of invasive cats on island endangered vertebrates. Glob Change Biol 17(11): 3503–3510. doi:  10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02464.x Google Scholar
  65. Melero Y, Palazón S, Bonesi L, Gosàlbez J (2008) Feeding habits of three sympatric mammals in NE Spain: the American mink, the spotted genet, and the Eurasian otter. Acta Theriol 53(3):263–273. doi: 10.1007/BF03193123 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Melero Y, Plaza M, Santulli G, Saavedra D, Gosàlbez J, Ruiz-Olmo J, Palazón S (2012) Evaluating the effect of American mink, an alien invasive species, on the abundance of a native community: is coexistence possible? Biodivers Conserv 21(7):1795–1809. doi: 10.1007/s10531-012-0277-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Monterroso P, Alves P, Ferreras P (2014) Plasticity in circadian activity patterns of mesocarnivores in Southwestern Europe: implications for species coexistence. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 68(9):1403–1417. doi: 10.1007/s00265-014-1748-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Morales A (1994) Earliest genets in Europe. Nature 370(6490):512–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Morales Muñiz DC (2000) La fauna exótica en la Península Ibérica: apuntes para el estudio del coleccionismo animal en el Medievo hispánico. Espacio Tiempo Forma Ser III Ha Medieval 13:233–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Morales A, Riquelme JA, Liesau C (1995) Dromedaries in antiquity: Iberia and beyond. Anglais 69(263):368–375Google Scholar
  71. Müller T, Freuling CM, Wysocki P, Roumiantzeff M, Freney J, Mettenleiter TC, Vos A (2015) Terrestrial rabies control in the European Union: historical achievements and challenges ahead. Vet J 203:10–17CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Osborn DJ, Osbornova J (1998) The mammals of ancient Egypt, vol IV, The natural history of Egypt. Aris & Phillips Ltd, WarminsterGoogle Scholar
  73. Ouchaou B, Amani F (2002) Les carnivores des gisements néolithiques et protohistoriques du nord du Maroc. Quaternaire 13(1):79–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Palomares F (2013) Herpestes ichneumon Egyptian Mongoose (Ichneumon). In: Kingdon JS, Hoffmann M (eds) The mammals of Africa, vol 5, Carnivores, Pangolins, Equids and Rhinoceroses. Bloomsburry, London, pp 306–310Google Scholar
  75. Palomares F, Caro TM (1999) Interspecific killing among mammalian Carnivores. Am Nat 153(5):492–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Papeş M, Cuzin F, Gaubert P (2015) Niche dynamics in the European ranges of two African carnivores reflect their dispersal and demographic histories. Biol J Linn Soc 114:737–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Pinho C, Harris DJ, Ferrand N (2007) Contrasting patterns of population subdivision and historical demography in three western Mediterranean lizard species inferred from mitochondrial DNA variation. Mol Ecol 16(6):1191–1205CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Recio MR, Virgos E (2010) Predictive niche modelling to identify potential areas of conflicts between human activities and expanding predator populations: a case study of game management and the grey mongoose, Herpestes ichneumon, in Spain. Wild Res 37(4):343–354. doi: 10.1071/WR09096 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Riquelme-Cantal JA, Simón-Vallejo MD, Palmqvist P, Cortés-Sánchez M (2008) The oldest mongoose of Europe. J Archeol Sci 35(9):2471–2473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Rosalino LM, Santos-Reis M (2009) Fruit consumption by carnivores in Mediterranean Europe. Mammal Rev 39(1):67–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rosalino LM, Santos MJ, Pereira I, Santos-Reis M (2009) Sex-driven differences in Egyptian mongoose’s (Herpestes ichneumon) diet in its northwestern European range. Eur J Wildl Res 55(3):293–299. doi: 10.1007/s10344-008-0248-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Santiapillai C, De Silva M, Dissanayake S (2000) The status of mongooses (family: Herpestidae) in Ruhuna National Park, Sri Lanka. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 97:208–214Google Scholar
  83. Santos MJ, Pinto BM, Santos-Reis M (2007) Trophic niche partitioning between two native and two exotic carnivores in SW Portugal. Web Ecol 7(1):53–62. doi: 10.5194/we-7-53-2007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Santos N, Almendra C, Tavares L (2009) Serologic survey for canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus in free-ranging wild carnivores from Portugal. J Wildl Dis 45(1):221–226. doi: 10.7589/0090-3558-45.1.221 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Santos-Reis M, Santos M, Lourenço S, Marques J, Pereira I, Pinto B (2005) Relationships between stone martens, genets and cork oak woodlands in Portugal. In: Harrison D, Fuller A, Proulx G (eds) Martens and fishers (Martes) in human-altered environments. Springer, New York, pp 147–172. doi: 10.1007/0-387-22691-5_7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Shi Z, Hu Z (2008) A review of studies on animal reservoirs of the SARS coronavirus. Virus Res 133(1):74–87CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Stuart CT (1988) Mongoose of the Gods: the ichneumon. Afr Wildl 42(5):254Google Scholar
  88. Thulin C-G, Simberloff D, Barun A, McCracken G, Pascal M, Islam MA (2006) Genetic divergence in the small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus), a widely distributed invasive species. Mol Ecol 15(13):3947–3956. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2006.03084.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Tresic Pavicic A (1936) Mungos na otoku Bracu. Priroda Zagreb 26:60–61Google Scholar
  90. Tvrtkovic N, Krystufek B (1990) Small Indian mongoose Herpestes auropunctatus (Hodgson, 1836) on the Adriatic Islands of Yugoslavia. Bonn Zool Beitr 41(1):3–8Google Scholar
  91. Uerpmann M (1995) Early mongooses from Bahrain. In: Buitenhuis H, Uerpmann H-P (eds) Archaeozoology of the Near East II. Backhuys, Leiden, pp 64–71Google Scholar
  92. Veron G, Patou M-L, Pothet G, Simberloff D, Jennings AP (2007) Systematic status and biogeography of the Javan and small Indian mongooses (Herpestidae, Carnivora). Zool Scr 36(1):1–10. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-6409.2006.00261.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Vigne J-D, Zazzo A, Saliège J-F, Poplin F, Guilaine J, Simmons A (2009) Pre-Neolithic wild boar management and introduction to Cyprus more than 11,400 years ago. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(38):16135–16138. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0905015106 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Viota M, Rodríguez A, López-Bao J, Palomares F (2012) Shift in microhabitat use as a mechanism allowing the coexistence of victim and killer carnivore predators. Open J Ecol 2:115–120. doi: 10.4236/oje.2012.23014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Virgós E, Llorente M, Cortes Y (1999) Geographical variation in genet (Genetta genetta L.) diet: a literature review. Mammal Rev 29(2):119–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Watari Y, Nagata J, Funakoshi K (2011) New detection of a 30-year-old population of introduced mongoose Herpestes auropunctatus on Kyushu Island, Japan. Biol Invasions 13(2):269–276. doi: 10.1007/s10530-010-9809-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Wilson DE, Mittermeier RA (2009) Handbook of the mammals of the world, vol 1, Carnivores. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.Google Scholar
  98. Wozencraft C, Duckworth JW, Choudury A, Muddapa D, Yonzon P, Kanchanasaka B, Jennings A, Veron G (2008) Herpestes javanicus. In: The IUCN red list of threatened species, v. 2014.3. Downloaded on 18 Feb 2015
  99. Zabala J, Zuberogoitia I, Martinez-Climent JA (2009) Testing for niche segregation between two abundant carnivores using presence-only data. Folia Zool 58(4):385–395Google Scholar
  100. Zapata S, Travaini A, Ferreras P, Delibes M (2007) Analysis of trophic structure of two carnivore assemblages by means of guild identification. Eur J Wildl Res 53(4):276–286. doi: 10.1007/s10344-007-0095-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Zeder MA (2008) Domestication and early agriculture in the Mediterranean Basin: origins, diffusion, and impact. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105(33):11597–11604. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0801317105 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut des Sciences de l’Evolution de Montpellier (ISEM)—UM2-CNRS-IRD-EPHE-CIRADUniversité de MontpellierMontpellier Cedex 05France

Personalised recommendations