The Role of Epilepsy Surgery

  • Genevieve RaynerEmail author
  • Sarah J. Wilson
Part of the Neuropsychiatric Symptoms of Neurological Disease book series (NSND)


While seizure control is an obvious goal of epilepsy surgery, the postsurgical period can have the paradoxical effect of worsening an individual’s psychiatric function. This chapter systematically reviews the literature relating to neuropsychiatric outcomes of epilepsy surgery, revealing that there is a heightened risk for psychopathology both before and after surgery. This commonly takes the form of depression, anxiety, and psychosocial adjustment difficulties, and can emerge in patients with no prior psychiatric history.

From this review a compelling case arises for the routine provision of presurgical psychiatric and psychosocial evaluation, in addition to postsurgical follow-up and rehabilitation. Pre-surgery, this evaluation can shape the team’s understanding of surgical candidacy and the patient’s capacity for informed consent. Moreover, it provides a prime opportunity for managing the sometimes-unrealistic expectations that patients and their families harbor for postsurgery life. While preexisting psychopathology is a risk factor for poor seizure and psychosocial outcomes, it is not a contraindication to surgery when the treating team has the capacity to treat it proactively. Post surgery, efficacious treatment of psychiatric comorbidity increases the likelihood of seizure freedom, as well as optimizing psychosocial functioning and quality of life. By contrast, failure to treat can allow psychiatric comorbidity to persist or escalate, and psychological difficulties to develop as the patient adjusts to life after surgery.


Epilepsy Surgery Mood Depression Anxiety Psychosis Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures Adjustment Rehabilitation 

Supplementary material

328819_1_En_17_MOESM1_ESM.docx (66 kb)
Extra Supplementary Tables S17.1–S17.4 (DOCX 32 kb)


  1. 1.
    Brodie MJ, Schachter SC, Kwan P. Fast facts: epilepsy. 4th ed. Oxford: Health Press Limited; 2009.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Berg AT, Berkovic SF, Brodie MJ, Buchhalter J, Cross JH, van Emde Boas W, et al. Revised terminology and concepts for organization of seizures and epilepsies: report of the ILAE Commission on Classification and Terminology, 2005–2009. Epilepsia. 2010;51:676–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kwan P, Brodie MJ. Early identification of refractory epilepsy. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:314–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lehrner J, Kalchmayr R, Serles W, Olbrich A, Pataraia E, Aull S, Bacher J, Leutmezer F, Gröppel G, Deecke L, Baumgartner C. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL), activity of daily living (ADL) and depressive mood disorder in temporal lobe epilepsy patients. Seizure. 1999;8:88–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    de Boer HM, Mula M, Sander JW. The global burden and stigma of epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2008;12:540–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kwan P, Schachter SC, Brodie MJ. Drug-resistant epilepsy. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:919–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wiebe S, Blume WT, Girvin JP, Eliasziw M, Effectiveness and Efficiency of Surgery for Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Study Group. A randomized, controlled trial of surgery for temporal-lobe epilepsy. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:311–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Elger CE, Helmstaedter C, Kurthen M. Chronic epilepsy and cognition. Lancet Neurol. 2004;3:663–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Micallef S, Spooner CG, Harvey AS, Wrennall JA, Wilson SJ. Psychological outcome profiles in childhood-onset temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2010;51:2066–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kilpatrick C, O’Brien T, Matkovic Z, Cook M, Kaye A. Preoperative evaluation for temporal lobe surgery. J Clin Neurosci. 2003;10:535–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kwan P, Arzimanoglou A, Berg AT, Brodie MJ, Allen Hauser W, Mathern G, et al. Definition of drug resistant epilepsy: consensus proposal by the ad hoc Task Force of the ILAE Commission on Therapeutic Strategies. Epilepsia. 2010;51:1069–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wasade VS, Elisevich K, Tahir R, Smith B, Schultz L, et al. Long-term seizure and psychosocial outcomes after resective surgery for intractable epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2015;43:122–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Englot DJ, Chang EF. Rates and predictors of seizure freedom in resective epilepsy surgery: an update. Neurosurg Rev. 2014;37:389–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Baxendale S. The impact of epilepsy surgery on cognition and behaviour. Epilepsy Behav. 2008;12:592–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Baxendale SA, Thompson PJ. “If I didn‘t have epilepsy …”: patient expectations of epilepsy surgery. J Epilepsy. 1996;9:274–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wilson SJ, Saling MM, Kincade P, Bladin PF. Patient expectations of temporal lobe surgery. Epilepsia. 1998;39:167–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wrench J, Wilson SJ, Bladin PF. Mood disturbance before and after seizure surgery: a comparison of temporal and extratemporal resections. Epilepsia. 2004;45:534–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wilson SJ, Saling MM, Lawrence J, Bladin PF. Outcome of temporal lobectomy: expectations and the prediction of perceived success. Epilepsy Res. 1999;36:1–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wilson S, Bladin P, Saling M. The “burden of normality”: concepts of adjustment after surgery for seizures. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2001;70:649–56.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wrench JM, Matsumoto R, Inoue Y, Wilson SJ. Current challenges in the practice of epilepsy surgery. Epilepsy Behav. 2011;22:23–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bell B, Lin JJ, Seidenberg M, Hermann B. The neurobiology of cognitive disorders in temporal lobe epilepsy. Nat Rev Neurol. 2011;7:154–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Blumer D, Wakhlu S, Davies K, Hermann B. Psychiatric outcome of temporal lobectomy for epilepsy: incidence and treatment of psychiatric complications. Epilepsia. 1998;39:478–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Glosser G, Zwil AS, Glosser DS, O’Connor MJ, Sperling MR. Psychiatric aspects of temporal lobe epilepsy before and after anterior temporal lobectomy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2000;68:53–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Taft C, Sager Magnusson E, Ekstedt G, Malmgren K. Health‐related quality of life, mood, and patient satisfaction after epilepsy surgery in Sweden—A prospective controlled observational study. Epilepsia. 2014;55:878–85.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cankurtaran ES, Ulug B, Saygi S, Tiryaki A, Akalan N. Psychiatric morbidity, quality of life, and disability in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy patients before and after anterior temporal lobectomy. Epilepsy Behav. 2005;7:116–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cleary RA, Thompson PJ, Fox Z, Foong J. Predictors of psychiatric and seizure outcome following temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. Epilepsia. 2012;53:1705–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Desai S, Shukla G, Goyal V, Srivastava A, Srivastava MV, Tripathi M, et al. Changes in psychiatric comorbidity during early postsurgical period in patients operated for medically refractory epilepsy – a MINI-based follow-up study. Epilepsy Behav. 2014;32:29–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sokic DV, Bascarevic V, Ristic A, Parojcic A, Vojvodic N, et al. Influence of psychiatric comorbidity on temporal lobe epilepsy surgery outcome. Epilepsia. 2013;54:111.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    de Araújo Filho GM, Gomes FL, Mazetto L, Marinho MM, Tavares IM, Caboclo LO, et al. Major depressive disorder as a predictor of a worse seizure outcome one year after surgery in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and mesial temporal sclerosis. Seizure. 2012;21:619–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Macrodimitris S, Sherman EM, Forde S, Tellez-Zenteno JF, Metcalfe A, Hernandez-Ronquillo L, et al. Psychiatric outcomes of epilepsy surgery: a systematic review. Epilepsia. 2011;52:880–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Baird AD, Wilson SJ, Bladin PF, Saling MM, Reutens DC. Sexual outcome after epilepsy surgery. Epilepsy Behav. 2003;4:268–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Devinsky O, Barr WB, Vickrey BG, Berg AT, Bazil CW, Pacia SV, et al. Changes in depression and anxiety after resective surgery for epilepsy. Neurology. 2005;65:1744–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hellwig S, Mamalis P, Feige B, Schulze-Bonhage A, van Elst LT. Psychiatric comorbidity in patients with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy and psychiatric outcome after epilepsy surgery. Epilepsy Behav. 2012;23:272–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Velez AM, Gherman E, Szabo CA. Does hippocampal sclerosis correlates with depression in patients with medically refractory epilepsy? Epilepsy Curr. 2013;13:256–7.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hamid H, Blackmon K, Cong X, Dziura J, Atlas LY, Vickrey BG, et al. Mood, anxiety, and incomplete seizure control affect quality of life after epilepsy surgery. Neurology. 2014;82:887–94.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Spencer SS, Berg AT, Vickrey BG, Sperling MR, Bazil CW, Shinnar S, et al. Multicenter Study of Epilepsy Surgery. Initial outcomes in the Multicenter Study of Epilepsy Surgery. Neurology. 2003;61:1680–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Moss K, O’Driscoll K, Eldridge P, Varma T, Wieshmann UC. Risk factors for early post-operative psychiatric symptoms in patients undergoing epilepsy surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy. Acta Neurol Scand. 2009;120:176–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ring HA, Moriarty J, Trimble MR. A prospective study of the early postsurgical psychiatric associations of epilepsy surgery. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1998;64:601–4.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Meldolesi GN, Di Gennaro G, Quarato PP, Esposito V, Grammaldo LG, Morosini P, et al. Changes in depression, anxiety, anger, and personality after resective surgery for drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy: a 2-year follow-up study. Epilepsy Res. 2007;77:22–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Pauli E, Daeubler C, Schwarz M, Stefan H. Emotional-affective and personality aspects in temporal lobe epilepsy: postoperative changes. Epilepsia. 2009;50:6–7.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tellez-Zenteno JF, Patten SB, Jetté N, Williams J, Wiebe S. Psychiatric comorbidity in epilepsy: a population-based analysis. Epilepsia. 2007;48:2336–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Boylan LS, Flint LA, Labovitz DL, Jackson SC, Starner K, Devinsky O. Depression but not seizure frequency predicts quality of life in treatment-resistant epilepsy. Neurology. 2004;62:258–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Jones JE, Watson R, Sheth R, Caplan R, Koehn M, et al. Psychiatric comorbidity in children with new onset epilepsy. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2007;49:493–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Adams SJ, O’Brien TJ, Lloyd J, Kilpatrick CJ, Salzberg MR, Velakoulis D. Neuropsychiatric morbidity in focal epilepsy. Br J Psychiatry. 2008;192:464–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Canuet L, Ishii R, Pascual-Marqui RD, Iwase M, Kurimoto R, Aoki Y, et al. Resting-state EEG source localization and functional connectivity in schizophrenia-like psychosis of epilepsy. PLoS One. 2011;6, e27863.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ertekin BA, Kulaksizoğlu IB, Ertekin E, Gürses C, Bebek N, et al. A comparative study of obsessive-compulsive disorder and other psychiatric comorbidities in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2009;14:634–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fuller-Thomson E, Brennenstuhl S. The association between depression and epilepsy in a nationally representative sample. Epilepsia. 2009;50:1051–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Malmgren K, Starmark JE, Ekstedt G, Rosén H, Sjöberg-Larsson C. Nonorganic and organic psychiatric disorders in patients after epilepsy surgery. Epilepsy Behav. 2002;3:67–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Witt JA, Hollmann K, Helmstaedter C. The impact of lesions and epilepsy on personality and mood in patients with symptomatic epilepsy: a pre- to postoperative follow-up study. Epilepsy Res. 2008;82:139–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wrench JM, Rayner G, Wilson SJ. Profiling the evolution of depression after epilepsy surgery. Epilepsia. 2011;52:900–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lackmayer K, Lehner-Baumgartner E, Pirker S, Czech T, Baumgartner C. Preoperative depressive symptoms are not predictors of postoperative seizure control in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis. Epilepsy Behav. 2013;26:81–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hermann BP, Whitman S. Psychosocial predictors of interictal depression. J Epilepsy. 1989;2:231–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Carran MA, Kohler CG, O’Connor MJ, Bilker WB, Sperling MR. Mania following temporal lobectomy. Neurology. 2003;61:770–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Meador K. Psychiatry problems after epilepsy surgery. Epilepsy Curr. 2005;5:28–9.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hamid H, Devinsky O, Vickrey BG, Berg AT, Bazil CW, Langfitt JT, et al. Suicide outcomes after resective epilepsy surgery. Epilepsy Behav. 2011;20:462–4.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Naylor AS, Rogvi-Hansen Bá, Kessing L, Kruse-Larsen C. Psychiatric morbidity after surgery for epilepsy: short-term follow up of patients undergoing amygdalohippocampectomy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1994;57:1375–81.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Dulay MF, York MK, Soety EM, Hamilton WJ, Mizrahi EM, Goldsmith IL, et al. Memory, emotional and vocational impairments before and after anterior temporal lobectomy for complex partial seizures. Epilepsia. 2006;47:1922–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Wrench JM, Wilson SJ, O’Shea MF, Reutens DC. Characterising de novo depression after epilepsy surgery. Epilepsy Res. 2009;83:81–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Wilson SJ, Bladin PF, Saling MM, Pattison PE. Characterizing psychosocial outcome trajectories following seizure surgery. Epilepsy Behav. 2005;6:570–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Pompili M, Girardi P, Tatarelli R. Death from suicide versus mortality from epilepsy in the epilepsies: a meta-analysis. Epilepsy Behav. 2006;9:641–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Marchetti I, Koster EH, Sonuga-Barke EJ, De Raedt R. The default mode network and recurrent depression: a neurobiological model of cognitive risk factors. Neuropsychol Rev. 2012;22:229–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Anhoury S, Brown RJ, Krishnamoorthy ES, Trimble MR. Psychiatric outcome after temporal lobectomy: a predictive study. Epilepsia. 2000;41:1608–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Cleary RA, Thompson PJ, Thom M, Foong J. Postictal psychosis in temporal lobe epilepsy: risk factors and postsurgical outcome? Epilepsy Res. 2013;106:264–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Paparrigopoulos T, Ferentinos P, Brierley B, Shaw P, David AS. Relationship between post-operative depression/anxiety and hippocampal/amygdala volumes in temporal lobectomy for epilepsy. Epilepsy Res. 2008;81:30–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Wilson SJ, Wrench JM, McIntosh AM, Bladin PF, Berkovic SF. Personality development in the context of intractable epilepsy. Arch Neurol. 2009;66:68–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Koch-Stoecker S. Personality disorders as predictors of severe postsurgical psychiatric complications in epilepsy patients undergoing temporal lobe resections. Epilepsy Behav. 2002;3:526–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Quigg M, Broshek DK, Heidal-Schiltz S, Maedgen JW, Bertram 3rd EH. Depression in intractable partial epilepsy varies by laterality of focus and surgery. Epilepsia. 2003;44:419–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Pintor L, Bailles E, Fernández-Egea E, Sánchez-Gistau V, Torres X, Carreño M, et al. Psychiatric disorders in temporal lobe epilepsy patients over the first year after surgical treatment. Seizure. 2007;16:218–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Siegel AM, Cascino GD, Fessler AJ, So EL, Meyer FB. Psychiatric co-morbidity in 75 patients undergoing epilepsy surgery: lack of correlation with pathological findings. Epilepsy Res. 2008;80:158–62.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Metternich B, Wagner K, Brandt A, Kraemer R, Buschmann F, et al. Preoperative depressive symptoms predict postoperative seizure outcome in temporal and frontal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2009;16:622–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kanner AM, Barry JJ, Gilliam F, Hermann B, Meador KJ. Anxiety disorders, subsyndromic depressive episodes, and major depressive episodes: do they differ on their impact on the quality of life of patients with epilepsy? Epilepsia. 2010;51:1152–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Brandt C, Schoendienst M, Trentowska M, May TW, Pohlmann-Eden B, Tuschen-Caffier B, et al. Prevalence of anxiety disorders in patients with refractory focal epilepsy – a prospective clinic based survey. Epilepsy Behav. 2010;17:259–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Halley SA, Wrench JM, Reutens DC, Wilson SJ. The amygdala and anxiety after epilepsy surgery. Epilepsy Behav. 2010;18:431–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Mattsson P, Tibblin B, Kihlgren M, Kumlien E. A prospective study of anxiety with respect to seizure outcome after epilepsy surgery. Seizure. 2005;14:40–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Mintzer S, Lopez F. Comorbidity of ictal fear and panic disorder. Epilepsy Behav. 2002;3:330–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Foong J, Flugel D. Psychiatric outcome of surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy and presurgical considerations. Epilepsy Res. 2007;75:84–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Bonelli SB, Powell R, Yogarajah M, Thompson PJ, Symms MR, et al. Preoperative amygdala fMRI in temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2009;50:217–27.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Etkin A, Wager TD. Brain systems underlying anxiety disorders: a view from neuroimaging. In: Simpson HB, Schneier F, Neria Y, Lewis-Fernandez R, editors. Anxiety disorders: theory, research and clinical perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge Medicine; 2010.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kanner AM, Stagno S, Kotagal P, Morris HH. Postictal psychiatric events during prolonged video-electroencephalographic monitoring studies. Arch Neurol. 1996;53:258–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Alper K, Devinsky O, Westbrook L, Luciano D, Pacia S, et al. Premorbid psychiatric risk factors for postictal psychosis. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2001;13:492–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Devinsky O, Abramson H, Alper K, FitzGerald LS, Perrine K, et al. Postictal psychosis: a case control series of 20 patients and 150 controls. Epilepsy Res. 1995;20:247–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Leutmezer F, Podreka I, Asenbaum S, Pietrzyk U, Lucht H, Back C, et al. Postictal psychosis in temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2003;44:582–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Sachdev P. Schizophrenia-like psychosis and epilepsy: the status of the association. Am J Psychiatry. 1998;155:325–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Reutens DC, Savard G, Andermann F, Dubeau F, Olivier A. Results of surgical treatment in temporal lobe epilepsy with chronic psychosis. Brain. 1997;120:1929–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Marchetti RL, Fiore LA, Valente KD, Gronich G, Nogueira AB, Tzu WH. Surgical treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy with interictal psychosis: results of six cases. Epilepsy Behav. 2003;4:146–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Barbieri V, Gozzo F, Schiariti MP, Lo Russo G, Sartori I, Castana L, et al. One-year postsurgical follow-up of 12 subjects with epilepsy and interictal psychosis. Epilepsy Behav. 2011;22:385–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    da Conceição PO, de Araujo Filho GM, Mazetto L, Alonso NB, Yacubian EM. Safety of video-EEG monitoring and surgical outcome in patients with mesial temporal sclerosis and psychosis of epilepsy. Seizure. 2012;21:583–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kanner AM. Does a history of postictal psychosis predict a poor postsurgical seizure outcome? Epilepsy Curr. 2009;9:96–7.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Bladin PF. Psychosocial difficulties and outcome after temporal lobectomy. Epilepsia. 1992;33:898–907.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Mayanagi Y, Watanabe E, Nagahori Y, Nankai M. Psychiatric and neuropsychological problems in epilepsy surgery: analysis of 100 cases that underwent surgery. Epilepsia. 2001;42:19–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Shaw P, Mellers J, Henderson M, Polkey C, David AS, Toone BK. Schizophrenia-like psychosis arising de novo following a temporal lobectomy: timing and risk factors. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75:1003–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Calvet E, Caravotta PG, Scévola L, Teitelbaum J, Seoane E, et al. Psychosis after epilepsy surgery: report of three cases. Epilepsy Behav. 2011;22:804–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Inoue Y, Mihara T. Psychiatric disorders before and after surgery for epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2001;42:13–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Taylor DC. Factors influencing the occurrence of schizophrenia-like psychosis in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Psychol Med. 1975;5:249–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Krishnamoorthy ES, Trimble MR. Forced normalization: clinical and therapeutic relevance. Epilepsia. 1999;40:57–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Krishnamoorthy ES, Trimble MR, Sander JW, Kanner AM. Forced normalization at the interface between epilepsy and psychiatry. Epilepsy Behav. 2002;3:303–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Bodde NM, Brooks JL, Baker GA, Boon PA, Hendriksen JG, et al. Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures – definition, etiology, treatment and prognostic issues: a critical review. Seizure. 2009;18:543–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Reuber M, Qurishi A, Bauer J, Helmstaedter C, Fernandez G, et al. Are there physical risk factors for psychogenic non-epileptic seizures in patients with epilepsy? Seizure. 2003;12:561–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Reuber M, Kurthen M, Fernández G, Schramm J, Elger CE. Epilepsy surgery in patients with additional psychogenic seizures. Arch Neurol. 2002;59:82–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Ney GC, Barr WB, Napolitano C, Decker R, Schaul N. New-onset psychogenic seizures after surgery for epilepsy. Arch Neurol. 1998;55:726–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Davies KG, Blumer DP, Lobo S, Hermann BP, Phillips BL, Montouris GD. De novo nonepileptic seizures after cranial surgery for epilepsy: incidence and risk factors. Epilepsy Behav. 2000;1:436–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Naga AA, Devinsky O, Barr WB. Somatoform disorders after temporal lobectomy. Cogn Behav Neurol. 2004;17:57–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Markoula S, de Tisi J, Foong J, Duncan JS. De novo psychogenic nonepileptic attacks after adult epilepsy surgery: an underestimated entity. Epilepsia. 2013;54:e159–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Devinsky O, Mesad S, Alper K. Nondominant hemisphere lesions and conversion nonepileptic seizures. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2001;13:367–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Perez DL, Dworetzky BA, Dickerson BC, Leung L, Cohn R, et al. An integrative neurocircuit perspective on psychogenic nonepileptic seizures and functional movement disorders: neural functional unawareness. Clin EEG Neurosci. 2015;46:4–15.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Sachdev P, Smith JS, Matheson J, Last P, Blumbergs P. Amygdalo-hippocampectomy for pathological aggression. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 1992;26:671–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Ng YT, Hastriter EV, Wethe J, Chapman KE, Prenger EC, Prigatano GP, et al. Surgical resection of hypothalamic hamartomas for severe behavioral symptoms. Epilepsy Behav. 2011;20:75–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Kulaksizoglu IB, Bebek N, Baykan B, Imer M, Gürses C, Sencer S, et al. Obsessive-compulsive disorder after epilepsy surgery. Epilepsy Behav. 2004;5:113–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Guarnieri R, Walz R, Hallak JE, Coimbra E, de Almeida E, Cescato MP, et al. Do psychiatric comorbidities predict postoperative seizure outcome in temporal lobe epilepsy surgery? Epilepsy Behav. 2009;14:529–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Chemali Z, Bromfield E. Tourette‘s syndrome following temporal lobectomy for seizure control. Epilepsy Behav. 2003;4:564–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Baird AD, Wilson SJ, Bladin PF, Saling MM, Reutens DC. Hypersexuality after temporal lobe resection. Epilepsy Behav. 2002;3:173–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Devinsky J, Sacks O, Devinsky O. Kluver-Bucy syndrome, hypersexuality, and the law. Neurocase. 2010;16:140–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Koch-Stoecker S, Schmitz B, Kanner AM. Treatment of postsurgical psychiatric complications. Epilepsia. 2013;54:46–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Bladin PF, Wilson SJ, Saling MM, McIntosh PK, O’Shea MF. Outcome assessment in seizure surgery: the role of postoperative adjustment. J Clin Neurosci. 1999;6:313–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Fernando DK, McIntosh AM, Bladin PF, Wilson SJ. Common experiences of patients following suboptimal treatment outcomes: implications for epilepsy surgery. Epilepsy Behav. 2014;33:144–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Shirbin CA, McIntosh AM, Wilson SJ. The experience of seizures after epilepsy surgery. Epilepsy Behav. 2009;16:82–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Kerr MP, Mensah S, Besag F, de Toffol B, Ettinger A, Kanemoto K, et al. International consensus clinical practice statements for the treatment of neuropsychiatric conditions associated with epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2011;52:2133–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Reid K, Herbert A, Baker GA. Epilepsy surgery: patient-perceived long-term costs and benefits. Epilepsy Behav. 2004;5:81–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    McIntosh AM, Wilson SJ, Berkovic SF. Seizure outcome after temporal lobectomy: current research practice and findings. Epilepsia. 2001;42:1288–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Kanner AM. The treatment of depressive disorders in epilepsy: what all neurologists should know. Epilepsia. 2013;54:3–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Johnson EK, Jones JE, Seidenberg M, Hermann BP. The relative impact of anxiety, depression, and clinical seizure features on health-related quality of life in epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2004;45:544–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Derry PA, Rose KJ, McLachlan RS. Moderators of the effect of preoperative emotional adjustment on postoperative depression after surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2000;41:177–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Maixner D, Sagher O, Bess J, Edwards J. Catatonia following surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy successfully treated with electroconvulsive therapy. Epilepsy Behav. 2010;19:528–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Quigg M, Broshek DK, Barbaro NM, et al. Neuropsychological outcomes after Gamma Knife radiosurgery for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: a prospective multicenter study. Epilepsia. 2011;52:909–16.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Salzberg M, Taher T, Davie M, Carne R, Hicks RJ, Cook M, et al. Depression in temporal lobe epilepsy surgery patients: an FDG-PET study. Epilepsia. 2006;47:2125–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Suchy Y, Chelune G. Postsurgical changes in self-reported mood and Composite IQ in a matched sample of patients with frontal and temporal lobe epilepsy. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2001;23:413–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    da Conceição PO, Nascimento PP, Mazetto L, Alonso NB, Yacubian EM, de Araujo Filho GM. Are psychiatric disorders exclusion criteria for video-EEG monitoring and epilepsy surgery in patients with mesial temporal sclerosis? Epilepsy Behav. 2013;27:310–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    D’Alessio L, Scévola L, Fernandez Lima M, Oddo S, Solís P, Seoane E, et al. Psychiatric outcome of epilepsy surgery in patients with psychosis and temporal lobe drug-resistant epilepsy: a prospective case series. Epilepsy Behav. 2014;37:165–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Louis S, Basha M, Mittal S, Lobe J, Shah A. Are patients with postictal psychiatric episodes at increased risk for developing psychiatric co-morbidities after epilepsy surgery? Epilepsy Curr. 2012;13:397.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Melbourne School of Psychological SciencesThe University of MelbourneParkvilleAustralia
  2. 2.The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental HealthMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.Comprehensive Epilepsy ProgrammeAustin HealthHeidelbergAustralia

Personalised recommendations