Diagnosis and classification of Pneumonia

  • Antoni TorresEmail author
  • Catia Cillóniz


The diagnosis of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is complicated and clinically challenging in the case of ventilated patients [1]. HAP is clinically diagnosed in patients who have been hospitalized for at least 48 hours and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is clinically diagnosed in patients who are ventilated and pneumonia develops at least 48 hours after endotracheal intubation. The subsequent presentation of a new opacity on the chest radiograph and presence of two or more clinical features, including fever, leukopenia or leukocytosis, hypoxemia, and purulent respiratory secretions [2], are required for clinical diagnosis of pneumonia.


Nosocomial Pneumonia Bacterial Pneumonia Clin Microbiol Infect Pneumonia Severity Index Endotracheal Aspirate 
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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Applied Research in Respiratory DiseaseUniversity of BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.University of BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain

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