• Khaled Salah Mohamed
Part of the Analog Circuits and Signal Processing book series (ACSP)


Technological progress enables more and more functionality to be integrated on a single chip. Figure 1.1 shows the most important milestones in Very-large-scale integration (VLSI), it is all about integration. In 1937, Shannon introduces the world to binary digital electronics. The first bipolar transistor was fabricated at Bell Labs in 1947 [1]. In 1960, the first MOSFET which contains one transistor was fabricated followed by the first integrated circuit (IC) which contains two transistors in 1961. The first DRAM cell was fabricated in 1968. One of the most important VLSI milestones was the fabrication of the first microprocessor which contains 100 transistors per chip in 1971. VLSI era started in 1980 by fabricating more than 200 K transistor per chip. FPGA was invented in 1985. System-on-chip (SoC) and intellectual property (IP) era started in 1995 by integration of more than 100 M transistor per chip. Recently in 2004, 3D integration era started. Table 1.1 summarizes the most important terms in VLSI. A SoC design is a “product creation process” which starts at identifying the end-user need and ends at delivering a product with enough functional satisfaction from the end user. A typical SoC contains hardware and software as depicted in Fig. 1.2. An example for the SoC architecture is shown in Fig. 1.3. Benefits of using SoC are reducing overall system cost, increasing performance, lowering power consumption, and reducing size. The advantages and disadvantages of SoC are summarized in Table 1.2 [2].


IP IC SoC Milestone Three-dimensional VLSI FPGA RTL Gates Layout Board Modeling Verification Optimization Protection Cycle Synthesis PCB EDA CAD 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Khaled Salah Mohamed
    • 1
  1. 1.EmulationMentor GraphicsHeliopolisEgypt

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